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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 137(1): 44-50, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674093

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delivering sufficient otology education for undergraduates is known to be difficult, with limited teaching time being a contributing factor. Increasing student access to dissections of the ear could serve to increase satisfaction with teaching at St George's, University of London, UK. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate student satisfaction with clinical ear anatomy teaching and investigate whether it can be improved using dissected specimens. METHOD: Participants completed an online survey and knowledge examinations, both before and after attending a new tutorial, with answers from before and after the session being compared. RESULTS: Pre-teaching satisfaction scores concerning teaching were low, at an average of 2.45 (out of 7), with a mean examination result of 6.53 (out of 10). Post-teaching average satisfaction increased by 3.20 points to 5.65 (out of 7) (p < 0.01) and examination scores increased by 1.53 points to 8.07 (out of 10) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Students are supportive of increased access to cadaver dissections of the ear, and facilitating this can improve satisfaction with otology teaching.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Disección , Evaluación Educacional , Curriculum , Cadáver , Satisfacción Personal , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Anatomía/educación , Enseñanza
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e176, 2022 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196874

RESUMEN

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic, infectious and zoonotic disease of domestic and wild animals caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis. This study investigated farm management factors associated with recurrent bTB herd breakdowns (n = 2935) disclosed in the period 23 May 2016 to 21 May 2018 and is a follow-up to our 2020 paper which looked at long duration bTB herd breakdowns. A case control study design was used to construct an explanatory set of farm-level management factors associated with recurrent bTB herd breakdowns. In Northern Ireland, a Department of Agriculture Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) Veterinarian investigates bTB herd breakdowns using standardised guidelines to allocate a disease source. In this study, source was strongly linked to carryover of infection, suggesting that the diagnostic tests had failed to clear herd infection during the breakdown period. Other results from this study associated with recurrent bTB herd breakdowns were herd size and type (dairy herds 43% of cases), with both these variables intrinsically linked. Other associated risk factors were time of application of slurry, badger access to silage clamps, badger setts in the locality, cattle grazing silage fields immediately post-harvest, number of parcels of land the farmer associated with bTB, number of land parcels used for grazing and region of the country.


Asunto(s)
Mustelidae , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculosis Bovina , Animales , Bovinos , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/microbiología , Granjas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Mustelidae/microbiología , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Anim Biotelemetry ; 10(1): 10, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37521810

RESUMEN

Background: Recent developments in both hardware and software of animal-borne data loggers now enable large amounts of data to be collected on both animal movement and behaviour. In particular, the combined use of tri-axial accelerometers, tri-axial magnetometers and GPS loggers enables animal tracks to be elucidated using a procedure of 'dead-reckoning'. Although this approach was first suggested 30 years ago by Wilson et al. (1991), surprisingly few measurements have been made in free-ranging terrestrial animals. The current study examines movements, interactions with habitat features, and home-ranges calculated from just GPS data and also from dead-reckoned data in a model terrestrial mammal, the European badger (Meles meles). Methods: Research was undertaken in farmland in Northern Ireland. Two badgers (one male, one female) were live-trapped and fitted with a GPS logger, a tri-axial accelerometer, and a tri-axial magnetometer. Thereafter, the badgers' movement paths over 2 weeks were elucidated using just GPS data and GPS-enabled dead-reckoned data, respectively. Results: Badgers travelled further using data from dead-reckoned calculations than using the data from only GPS data. Whilst once-hourly GPS data could only be represented by straight-line movements between sequential points, the sub-second resolution dead-reckoned tracks were more tortuous. Although there were no differences in Minimum Convex Polygon determinations between GPS- and dead-reckoned data, Kernel Utilisation Distribution determinations of home-range size were larger using the former method. This was because dead-reckoned data more accurately described the particular parts of landscape constituting most-visited core areas, effectively narrowing the calculation of habitat use. Finally, the dead-reckoned data showed badgers spent more time near to field margins and hedges than simple GPS data would suggest. Conclusion: Significant differences emerge when analyses of habitat use and movements are compared between calculations made using just GPS data or GPS-enabled dead-reckoned data. In particular, use of dead-reckoned data showed that animals moved 2.2 times farther, had better-defined use of the habitat (revealing clear core areas), and made more use of certain habitats (field margins, hedges). Use of dead-reckoning to provide detailed accounts of animal movement and highlight the minutiae of interactions with the environment should be considered an important technique in the ecologist's toolkit.

4.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 49-52, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098415

RESUMEN

As part of a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control related Test and Vaccinate or Remove (TVR) badger research study in Northern Ireland, a project was launched evaluating whether badgers cross major roads (in this case the A1 dual carriageway linking Belfast/Newry/Dublin). This road formed the western boundary of the TVR study area and it was chosen to discourage badger movements in and out of the area. This was important in order to ensure that the badger study population was as stable as possible and also to get a better understanding of the risk of any spill over of bTB infection from the study area to the buffer area. Five badgers trapped close to the A1 were fitted with a Global Positioning System (GPS) collar in October 2017, which were set to record the badger location every 20 min between 19.20 and 03.00 h during a maximum of 84 days. Based on 4313 location points recorded, only 2 (0.05%) location points were located on the western side of the A1. Although this was a small sample, it can be concluded that generally badgers avoid crossing dual carriageways which is supported by evidence from other studies. This finding is important for informing on development of future badger intervention areas where major roads could be considered as strong borders. Furthermore, it adds to the body of knowledge in trying to understand drivers and barriers for badger dispersal behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Mustelidae/fisiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Masculino , Movimiento , Irlanda del Norte
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e125, 2021 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958017

RESUMEN

The role of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) as a wildlife host has complicated the management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle. Badger ranging behaviour has previously been found to be altered by culling of badgers and has been suggested to increase the transmission of bTB either among badgers or between badgers and cattle. In 2014, a five-year bTB intervention research project in a 100 km2 area in Northern Ireland was initiated involving selective removal of dual path platform (DPP) VetTB (immunoassay) test positive badgers and vaccination followed by release of DPP test negative badgers ('Test and Vaccinate or Remove'). Home range sizes, based on position data obtained from global positioning system collared badgers, were compared between the first year of the project, where no DPP test positive badgers were removed, and follow-up years 2-4 when DPP test positive badgers were removed. A total of 105 individual badgers were followed over 21 200 collar tracking nights. Using multivariable analyses, neither annual nor monthly home ranges differed significantly in size between years, suggesting they were not significantly altered by the bTB intervention that was applied in the study area.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos de Retorno al Lugar Habitual , Mustelidae/fisiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Sacrificio de Animales , Animales , Bovinos , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , Mustelidae/microbiología , Mycobacterium bovis/inmunología , Mycobacterium bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/transmisión , Vacunación/veterinaria
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e234, 2020 09 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981557

RESUMEN

This study determined farm management factors associated with long-duration bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns disclosed in the period 23 May 2016 to 21 May 2018; a study area not previously subject to investigation in Northern Ireland. A farm-level epidemiological investigation (n = 2935) was completed when one or more Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Test (SICCT) reactors or when one or more confirmed (positive histological and/or bacteriological result) lesion at routine slaughter were disclosed. A case-control study design was used to construct an explanatory set of management factors associated with long-duration bTB herd breakdowns; with a case (n = 191) defined as an investigation into a breakdown of 365 days or longer. Purchase of infected animal(s) had the strongest association as the most likely source of infection for long-duration bTB herd breakdowns followed by badgers and then cattle-to-cattle contiguous herd spread. However, 73.5% (95% CI 61.1-85.9%) of the herd type contributing to the purchase of infection source were defined as beef fattening herds. This result demonstrates two subpopulations of prolonged bTB breakdowns, the first being beef fattening herds with main source continuous purchase of infected animals and a second group of primary production herds (dairy, beef cows and mixed) with risk from multiple sources.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Granjas , Mustelidae , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 170-178, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197169

RESUMEN

European badgers (Meles meles) are accepted as a wildlife reservoir host for Mycobacterium bovis, which causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the British Isles. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Dual Path Platform (DPP) VetTB test (Chembio Diagnostic Systems Inc., Medford, NY, USA) within a Test and Vaccinate or Remove (TVR) wildlife research intervention project. Blood samples were collected from 456 individual badgers, trapped in 2015 and 2016, and tested in the field with DPP VetTB test using whole blood. Additionally, whole blood and serum samples were taken to the laboratory for further DPP VetTB testing and for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) testing. Swabs were taken from the oropharynx and trachea and submitted for bacteriological culture as were swabs from wounds, if present. Field DPP VetTB test positive badgers were euthanised and underwent post-mortem examination and bTB confirmatory testing. The results demonstrated that the test performed as well in the field using whole blood as DPP Vet TB tests in the laboratory using sera or whole blood, and as well as other established tests for M. bovis. Visual assessment of the DPP VetTB test using serum under laboratory conditions showed a high degree of consistency between raters. Using a relative gold standard (parallel interpretation of IFN-γ assay and oropharyngeal/tracheal sample/culture), sensitivity estimates for the DPP VetTB test using sera and whole blood were 0.5 (95%CI 0.34-0.66) and 0.42 (95%CI 0.24-0.66), respectively. Specificity estimates were 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.97) for sera and 0.89 (95%CI 0.86-0.92) for whole blood. Parallel interpretation of Band 1 (MPB83) and Band 2 (CFP-10/ESAT-6) of the DPP VetTB test was not superior to interpretation of Band 1 only. The results give confidence in the reliability and reproducibility of the DPP VetTB test for badgers under field conditions and therefore it is considered appropriate for use in a badger bTB control campaign.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/veterinaria , Mustelidae , Mycobacterium bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Bovinos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/instrumentación , Femenino , Masculino , Irlanda del Norte , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e209, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364540

RESUMEN

The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test and post-mortem examination are the main diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in the British Isles. Latent class modelling is often used to estimate the bTB test characteristics due to the absence of a gold standard. However, the reported sensitivity of especially the SICCT test has shown a lot of variation. We applied both the Hui-Walter latent class model under the Bayesian framework and the Bayesian model specified at the animal level, including various risk factors as predictors, to estimate the SICCT test and post-mortem test characteristics. Data were collected from all cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in Northern Ireland in 2015. Both models showed comparable posterior median estimation for the sensitivity of the SICCT test (88.61% and 90.56%, respectively) using standard interpretation and for post-mortem examination (53.65% and 53.79%, respectively). Both models showed almost identical posterior median estimates for the specificity (99.99% vs. 99.80% for SICCT test at standard interpretation and 99.66% vs. 99.86% for post-mortem examination). The animal-level model showed slightly narrower posterior 95% credible intervals. Notably, this study was carried out in slaughtered cattle which may not be representative for the general cattle population.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Prueba de Tuberculina/métodos , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Bovina/patología , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Irlanda del Norte , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 146(12): 1495-1502, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970198

RESUMEN

Currently policies enabling cattle herds to regain Official Tuberculosis Free (OTF) status after a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) herd incident vary between individual parts of the British Isles from requiring only one negative single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT) herd test when bTB infection is not confirmed to needing two consecutively negative SCITT herd tests after disclosure of two or more reactors, irrespective of bTB confirmation. This study used Kaplan-Meier curves and univariable and multivariable Cox Proportional Hazard models to evaluate the effect of the number of SCITT reactors and bTB confirmation on the risk of future bTB herd incident utilising data extracted from the national animal health database in Northern Ireland. Based on multivariable analyses the risk of a future bTB herd incident was positively associated with the number of SCITT reactors identified during the incident period (hazard ratio = 1.861 in incidents >5 SCITT reactors compared to incidents with only one SCITT reactor; P < 0.001), but not with bTB confirmation. These findings suggest that the probability of residual bTB infection in a herd increases with an increasing number of SCITT reactors disclosed during a bTB herd incident. It was concluded that bTB herd incidents with multiple SCITT reactors should be subjected to stricter control measures irrespective of bTB infection confirmation status.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Prueba de Tuberculina/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/diagnóstico , Animales , Bovinos , Mycobacterium bovis , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Vigilancia de Guardia/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología
10.
Ir Vet J ; 71: 14, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29946419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Agriculture and farming are valued contributors to local economy in Northern Ireland (NI). There is limited knowledge about farmers' behaviours and attitudes towards disease biosecurity measures. As part of a larger project, a scenario-based workshop with key stakeholders was organised by the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI)-NI in December 2015. RESULTS: A total of 22 participants belonging to 12 different institutions took part in the workshop. Participants were presented with an overview of previously conducted biosecurity research in NI and England. In small groups, participants were subsequently asked to discuss and give their opinions about a series of questions across four key areas in a semi-structured approach with an external facilitator. The key areas were 1- disease risk perception at the farm level; 2-perceived barriers to implementing on farm biosecurity measures; 3- avenues to successful behaviour change and 4-key industry responsibilities and roles. The discussion showed that training in biosecurity for farmers is important and necessary. Training was recommended to be provided by veterinary surgeons, preferably via a face-to-face format. The discussion addressing disease disclosure proved particularly challenging between those who were prospective buyers of cattle, and those who sold cattle. CONCLUSIONS: This workshop provided a unique and invaluable insight into key issues regarding farm level biosecurity activities. From a policy perspective, delivering improved on-farm biosecurity must be addressed via a multidisciplinary approach. This can only be achieved with active involvement, commitment and support of a number of key industry and government stakeholders.

11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(16): 3505-3515, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103398

RESUMEN

Determination of the proportion of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns attributed to a herd purchasing infected animals has not been previously quantified using data from the Animal and Public Health Information System (APHIS) database in Northern Ireland. We used a case-control study design to account for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herds. Cases (N = 6926) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they would disclose as a confirmed bTB reactor or a Lesion at Routine Slaughter (LRS). Controls (N = 303 499) were cattle moving to a future confirmed bTB breakdown where they did not become a bTB reactor or LRS. Our study showed that the cattle leaving herds which disclosed bTB within 450 days had an increased odds of becoming a confirmed bTB reactor or LRS compared with the cattle which left herds that remained free for 450 days (odds ratio (OR) = 2·09: 95% CI 1·96-2·22). Of the 12 060 confirmed bTB breakdowns included in our study (2007-2015 inclusive), 31% (95% CI 29·8-31·5) contained a confirmed bTB reactor(s) or LRS(s) at the disclosing test which entered the herd within the previous 450 days. After controlling for the infection process occurring in the disclosing bTB breakdown herd, our study showed that 6·4% (95% CI 5·9-6·8) of bTB breakdowns in Northern Ireland were directly attributable to the movement of infected animals.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/transmisión , Agricultura , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Incidencia , Movimiento , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 131: 1-7, 2016 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27544245

RESUMEN

This study investigated 8058 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) confirmed breakdowns occurring in Northern Ireland during the period 2005-2010 inclusive. The methodology used two case-control studies; one determined the risk factors associated with long duration bTB breakdowns and the other with recurrent bTB breakdowns. The analyses were implemented using a generalized linear mixed model analysis with variables relating to repeated measures on herds, locality and year of breakdown included as random effects. The case definition for long duration breakdowns (n=679) was any confirmed bTB disclosure with duration greater than one year. The case definition for recurrent breakdowns (n=657) was any confirmed bTB disclosure with duration less than one year, followed by two or more bTB breakdowns within 2 years from the end of the initial bTB breakdown. In the multivariable model based on duration of bTB breakdowns, significant factors were local area bTB prevalence, number of associated cattle herds, total years restricted in the previous five years, total number of bTB reactors during the breakdown and the presence of a bTB lesion at routine slaughter (LRS). The number of bTB reactors at the disclosing test was also significant; with increased numbers associated to reduced odds of a long duration breakdown. In the second analysis based on recurrence of bTB breakdowns, high local area prevalence, movement intensity into the herd, total years restricted in the previous five years, herd size, total number of TB reactors during the restricted breakdown and presence of a LRS were all statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Eur Psychiatry ; 37: 43-8, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27447102

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clinical trial outcomes are heavily influenced by the non-naturalistic clinical trial process. Observations of outcomes in clinical practice are a valuable adjunct to clinical trial results. HYPOTHESIS: Our null hypothesis was that clinically indicated switching to paliperidone palmitate had no effect on hospital admissions or hospital bed days. METHOD: This was a part-prospective mirror image study examining outcomes 2years before starting paliperidone palmitate and 2years after. Sensitivity analyses examined the effect of different placings of the mirror in the mirror image design. RESULTS: We prospectively followed-up 225 patients prescribed paliperidone palmitate in clinical practice. At 2years, 41.8% of patients were still receiving paliperidone palmitate. In the primary analysis, the mean number of admissions fell from 1.80 in the two years before starting paliperidone palmitate to 0.81 in two years following the drug's initiation (outpatients) or two years following hospital discharge (inpatients) (P<0.001). More than half of patients were not admitted to hospital during two years follow-up. Mean total bed days was reduced from 79.6 in the two years before to 46.2 in the two years after paliperidone palmitate initiation or discharge (P<0.001). Sensitivity analyses gave broadly similar outcomes. Continuers demonstrated better outcomes than discontinuers in sensitivity analyses but not in the primary analysis. CONCLUSION: Paliperidone palmitate initiation is associated with a substantial reduction in hospital admissions and days spent in hospital. The reduction in costs associated with reduced use of health care facilities is likely to exceed the purchase and administration costs of the drug.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Palmitato de Paliperidona/uso terapéutico , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Estudios Prospectivos , Reino Unido
14.
Vet J ; 212: 22-6, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27256021

RESUMEN

Beliefs can play an important role in farmer behaviour and willingness to adopt new policies. In Northern Ireland, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is one of the most important endemic diseases facing the cattle industry. An observational study was conducted on 192 farms in a high bTB incidence area during 2010-2011 in order to obtain a better understanding of farmers' beliefs in relation to bTB control. The views of farmers who had experienced a recent confirmed or multiple reactor bTB breakdowns (cases) were compared to those of farmers who had no recent reactors or restricted herd tests (controls). Data were obtained from a face-to-face questionnaire assessing farmers' agreement to 22 statements. All participating farmers found bTB control important and most were keen to learn more about bTB biosecurity measures and were in favour of the cattle-related bTB control measures as presented in the questionnaire (isolation of skin test inconclusive animals, use of the gamma-interferon test and pre-movement testing). The majority of farmers would allow badger vaccination and culling on their own land with an overall preference for vaccination. Highest disagreement was shown for the statements querying a willingness to pay for bTB control measures. There was agreement on most issues between case and control farmers and between different age groups of farmers although case farmers showed more support for additional advice on bTB biosecurity measures (P = 0.042). Case farmers were also more in favour of allowing badger vaccination (P = 0.008) and culling (P = 0.043) on their land and showed less concern for public opposition (P = 0.048).


Asunto(s)
Agricultores/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Tuberculosis Bovina/psicología , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Irlanda del Norte , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tuberculosis Bovina/microbiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control
15.
Vet J ; 213: 26-32, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27240911

RESUMEN

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Modelos Logísticos , Mustelidae/microbiología , Irlanda del Norte , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Tuberculosis Bovina/microbiología
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 120(3-4): 283-90, 2015 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25957973

RESUMEN

An observational case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for confirmed bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection in cattle reacting positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical test (SICCT) in Northern Ireland in the years 1998, 2002 and 2006. Macroscopic lesions were detected at slaughter (positive visible lesion (VL) status) in 43.0% of reactor cattle, whilst 45.3% of those sampled were confirmed as bTB positive due to the presence of lesions or positive histopathology/mycobacterial culture (positive bTB status). In 97.5% of the reactors, the VL status and bTB status were either both negative or both positive. Generalized linear mixed model analyses were conducted on data of 24,923 reactor cattle with the variables herd identifier, local veterinary office (DVO) and abattoir being used as random effects within all the models generated at univariable and multivariable level. The other variables within the dataset were used as fixed effects. Significant risk factors associated with VL status and bTB status at multivariable level (p<0.05) included age at death, breed, sex, test year, net increase in skin thickness at bovine tuberculin injection site, epidemiological status of skin test, total number of reactors at the disclosure test, mean herd size and prior response to the skin test. These risk factors are likely related to the time since infection, the strength of the challenge of infection and the susceptibility of the animal. These findings are important as the detection of visible lesions and the confirmation of bTB are an integral part of the overall bTB control programme in Northern Ireland and the veterinary meat inspection and hygiene programme. The visible lesion status and bTB status of an animal can affect the way in which bTB breakdowns are managed, since failure to detect visible lesions and recovery of Mycobacterium bovis can lead to a less stringent follow-up after other risk factors have been taken into account.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Intradérmicas/veterinaria , Mycobacterium bovis/aislamiento & purificación , Prueba de Tuberculina/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bovinos , Femenino , Masculino , Irlanda del Norte/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Factores Sexuales , Tuberculosis Bovina/microbiología , Tuberculosis Bovina/patología
17.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 16(6): 561-4, 1999.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10599098

RESUMEN

Purpura fulminans usually consists of large, often symmetrical, spreading ecchymosis, which may later develop into extensive areas of skin necrosis and peripheral gangrene. Postinfectious purpura fulminans associated with an autoantibody directed against protein S has been described. The interaction and the contribution of recently described mutations such as factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A to the development and progression of postinfectious purpura fulminans and venous thrombosis is not known. The authors describe a patient heterozygous for prothrombin G20210A who developed purpura fulminans and extensive venous thrombosis secondary to acquired protein S deficiency.


Asunto(s)
Vasculitis por IgA/etiología , Deficiencia de Proteína S/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Proteína S/inmunología , Protrombina/efectos adversos , Protrombina/genética , Autoanticuerpos/efectos adversos , Autoanticuerpos/sangre , Preescolar , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Vasculitis por IgA/genética , Vasculitis por IgA/inmunología , Masculino , Mutación Missense , Deficiencia de Proteína S/diagnóstico , Trombosis de la Vena/etiología , Trombosis de la Vena/terapia
18.
J Clin Nurs ; 8(1): 103-11, 1999 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10214176

RESUMEN

An ageing population has implications for community-based health promotion and disease prevention. There is concern about older people who do not fit into existing programmes and services yet need minimal support to maintain independence. A study was designed to develop approaches to gain access to this hard to reach population, assess needs and design and test interventions to integrate them into the community. The study, informed by theories of health promotion and social support, used action research methods. Participant observation documented in field notes, together with case notes and clinical assessments, provided a rich source of qualitative and quantitative data. This article discusses the needs assessment. Over a 3-year period, public health nurses linked with community groups in a predominantly francophone, urban community to identify the target group. Key characteristics of the target group included limitations with instrumental activities of daily living and low levels of social support combined with stressful life situations that challenged adaptation. Three patterns of inadequate support were identified.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Geriátrica , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/métodos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Evaluación en Enfermería/métodos , Investigación Metodológica en Enfermería/métodos , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Enfermería en Salud Pública , Apoyo Social
19.
J Wound Care ; 8(10): 495-7, 1999 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10827653

RESUMEN

A combination of physical measurement and clinical testing was used to evaluate a range of pressure-reducing replacement mattresses, which had met tender specifications, in order to reduce the number available for selection in the purchasing process. Factors considered included mattress price and expected life-span. The results presented have supported a purchasing decision to replace mattresses but care should be taken in adopting these findings in a different context from that of a district general hospital. Optimum performance was found in one mattress replacement (Pentaflex).


Asunto(s)
Lechos/normas , Úlcera por Presión/prevención & control , Lechos/economía , Lechos/provisión & distribución , Conducta de Elección , Diseño de Equipo , Falla de Equipo , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Humanos , Presión , Departamento de Compras en Hospital
20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 39(2): 215-24, 1998 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9669234

RESUMEN

This study reports on the development of a structured interview, My Exposure to Violence (My ETV), that was designed to assess child and youth exposure to violence. Eighty participants between the ages of 9 and 24 were assessed. Data from My ETV were fit to a Rasch model for rating scales, a technique that generates interval level measures and allows the characterization of both chronic and acute exposure. Results indicated that the fit statistics for six scales, covering both lifetime and past year victimization, witnessing of violence, and total exposure, were all good. These scales were found to have high internal consistency (r = .68 to .93) and test-retest reliability (r = .75 to .94). Evidence of construct validity was provided by the item analysis, which revealed a theoretically sensible ordering of item extremity, and also by analysis of bivariate associations. As expected, younger subjects generally reported less exposure to violence than did older subjects, males reported more exposure than did females, African-American subjects reported higher levels of exposure than did White subjects, violent offenders reported more exposure than did non-offenders, and those living in high crime areas reported more exposure than did those residing in low crime areas. Future areas of investigation and the potential contribution to studies of antisocial behavior and post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Chicago , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Estrés Psicológico , Población Urbana , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
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