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1.
Diabetes Ther ; 10(5): 1823-1834, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286432

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: EMOTION was a multinational, noninterventional study surveying current insulin-using adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) who were initially reluctant to begin insulin treatment. In this Japanese population subanalysis of EMOTION, we identify the frequency and level of helpfulness of healthcare provider (HCP) actions, and we analyze life events ('actions/events') that assist T2D patients with psychological insulin resistance in the decision to initiate insulin. METHODS: Participants were selected from Survey Sampling International and their local partners' market research panels in Japan. Quantitative surveys were administered between December 2016 and August 2017 to patients who met the study criteria. Participants were asked whether 45 actions/events occurred, and to rate the level of helpfulness of the actions/events in contributing to their decision to initiate insulin. RESULTS: Among the 594 eligible participating adults in the EMOTION study, 99 were from Japan. Despite initial reluctance to begin insulin treatment, 80.8% of the Japanese participants immediately commenced insulin. Practical demonstrations by HCPs on how to use insulin were rated by participants as most helpful. Examples of such practical demonstrations, reported as helping moderately or a lot, were 'HCP walked patient through the process of exactly how to take insulin' (82.8%), 'HCP showed an insulin pen' (79.7%), and 'HCP helped patient to see how simple it was to inject insulin' (79.1%). CONCLUSION: This study identifies actions that HCPs can use to assist Japanese patients in deciding whether to initiate insulin. These findings may aid the development of clinical interventions addressing reluctance to begin insulin treatment among Japanese patients with T2D. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company and Boehringer Ingelheim. Plain language summary available for this article.

2.
J Diabetes Complications ; 33(4): 307-314, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709604

RESUMEN

AIMS: To identify actions of healthcare professionals (HCPs) that facilitate the transition to insulin therapy (IT) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) adults. METHODS: Included were T2Ds in seven countries (n = 594) who reported initial IT reluctance but eventually began IT. An online survey included 38 possible HCP actions: T2Ds indicated which may have occurred and their helpfulness. Also reported were delays in IT start after initial recommendation and any period of IT discontinuation. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis of HCP actions yielded five factors: "Explained Insulin Benefits" (EIB), "Dispelled Insulin Myths" (DIM), "Demonstrated the Injection Process" (DIP), "Collaborative Style" (CS) and "Authoritarian Style" (AS). Highest levels of helpfulness occurred for DIP, EIB and CS; lowest for AS. Participants who rated DIP as helpful were less likely to delay IT than those who rated DIP as less helpful (OR = 0.75, p = 0.01); participants who rated CS and EIB as helpful were less likely to interrupt IT than those who rated these as less helpful (OR = 0.55, p < 0.01; OR = 0.51, p = 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Three key HCP actions to facilitate IT initiation were identified as helpful and were associated with more successful initiation and persistence. These findings may aid the development of interventions to address reluctance to initiating IT.

3.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 7(1): e000723, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908792

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand participant perceptions about insulin and identify key behaviors of healthcare professionals (HCPs) that motivated initially reluctant adults from seven countries (n=40) who had type 2 diabetes (T2D) to start insulin treatment. Research design and methods: Telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of participants from an international investigation of adults with T2D who were reluctant to start insulin (EMOTION). Questions related to: (a) participants' thoughts about insulin before and after initiation; (b) reasons behind responses on the survey that were either 'not helpful at all' or 'helped a lot'; (c) actions their HCP may have taken to help start insulin treatment; and (d) advice they would give to others in a similar situation of starting insulin. Responses were coded by two independent reviewers (kappa 0.992). Results: Starting insulin treatment was perceived as a negative experience that would be painful and would lead down a 'slippery slope' to complications. HCPs engaged in four primary behaviors that helped with insulin acceptance: (1) showed the insulin pen/needle and demonstrated the injection process; (2) explained how insulin could help with diabetes control and reduce risk of complications; (3) used collaborative communication style; and (4) offered support and willingness to answer questions so that participants would not be 'on their own'. Following initiation, most participants noted that insulin was not 'as bad as they thought' and recommended insulin to other adults with T2D. Conclusions: Based on these themes, two actionable strategies are suggested for HCPs to help people with psychological insulin resistance: (1) demonstrate the injection process and discuss negative perceptions of insulin as well as potential benefits; (2) offer autonomy in a person-centred collaborative approach, but provide support and accessibility to address concerns. These findings help HCPs to better understand ways in which they can engage reluctant people with T2D with specific strategies.

4.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 80(4): 465-473, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587861

RESUMEN

To minimise the global burden of diabetes, the awareness of appropriate intervention methods for diabetes education and practice is essential. This project is the first international interprofessional education (IIPE) for the awareness of diabetes, with a focus on patient-centred care wherein three medical and four pharmacy students from Japan and one medical, two pharmacy, two nutrition and one occupational therapy (OT) student from Scotland participated. We described IIPE effects using interdisciplinary education perception scale (IEPS) before and after the programme among Scottish and Japanese students. University of Aberdeen/ Robert Gordon University and Nagoya University developed and established a shared online platform that provided knowledge to students on diabetes in both languages. We developed a case-based scenario that reflected diabetes care in each country using a standardised patient (SP). Lastly, a student-led live webinar was conducted on 14 November 2014 (the World Diabetes Day) to discuss and exchange care methods for SP. Each participating national team presented their care plan and all students discussed the diabetic care plan online. Both Japanese and Scottish teams were able to accurately assess the patient's condition and empathise with the SP. In conclusion, all participants learned that interprofessional collaboration was clearly required for diabetes management focused on patient-centred care. All participants appreciated the differences in the approach of the two countries involved because of the cultural- and health related differences. This programme was significant in raising awareness regarding the need for international interprofessional intervention on diabetes towards developing a model for live webinar IIPE.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Estudios Interdisciplinarios , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Humanos , Japón , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Escocia , Difusión por la Web como Asunto
5.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 80(1): 99-107, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581619

RESUMEN

The number of patients with diabetes is increasing in Japan. Recently, Social capital (SC) has received increasing attention as a factor influencing health conditions. In the US, the relation between SC and diabetes control has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this connection in Japan. Three SC questionnaires, entitled "trust in people in a community," "social support," and "social relationships," were constructed. The subjects were adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Information on diabetic conditions, such as HbA1c, self-attainment of diet (SAD) and exercise (SAE), and complications were collected. The reliability coefficients for the SC questionnaire and factor analysis of SC were conducted. Multiple and logistic regressions were used to identify the influence of SC on diabetes control. Sixty-five patients participated in this study. The questionnaires "social support" and "social relationships" were adopted to measure Cronbach alpha coefficient. Factor analysis extracted the factors "hope to be helped (HH)," "participation in favorite events (PFE)," "sense of belonging (SB)," and "social movement (SM)." HbA1c was positively correlated with HH (P < 0.05). SAD and SAE were negatively correlated with HH (P < 0.05). SAE was positively correlated with PFE (P < 0.05). PFE reduced complication risks (P < 0.05). HH includes amae, which negatively affected self-efficacy that correlates with diabetes control. Therefore, higher HH might cause higher levels of HbA1c. PFE reduces distress and contributes to glucose control. Reduced distress through PFE might prevent complications. HH and PFE were identified as SC that influences diabetes control.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Capital Social , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Diabetes Investig ; 6(5): 567-70, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26417415

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of fear of hypoglycemia, in association with severe hypoglycemia and social factors, in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A questionnaire survey on hypoglycemia and patient-physician communication was carried out in 355 patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at 16 hospitals and clinics. A fear of hypoglycemia was reported by 27.7% of patients. A stepwise logistic regression analysis found that severe hypoglycemia during the past 1 year was a significant determinant of fear of hypoglycemia (odds ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06-4.41; P = 0.034), and age (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.05, P = 0.038) and living alone (odds ratio 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.00-3.73, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in patients with fear of hypoglycemia than in those without it.

7.
BMJ Open ; 5(8): e007316, 2015 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26289448

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of telephone-delivered lifestyle coaching on preventing the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). DESIGN: Cluster randomised trial. SETTING: 40 groups from 17 healthcare divisions in Japan: companies (31), communities (6) and mixed settings (3). PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L were invited from the 17 healthcare divisions. RANDOMISATION: The groups were then randomly assigned to an intervention or a control arm by independent statisticians according to a computer-generated list. INTERVENTION: The intervention arm received a 1-year telephone-delivered intervention provided by three private lifestyle support centres (at different frequencies: low-frequency (3 times), middle-frequency (6 times) and high-frequency (10 times) support calls). The intervention and control arms both received self-help devices such as a weight scale and pedometer. OUTCOMES: Participants were followed up using data from annual health check-ups and a questionnaire regarding lifestyle. The primary outcome was the development of T2DM defined as FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, the diagnosis of diabetes, or use of an antidiabetic drug, confirmed by referring to medical cards. RESULTS: Of 14,473 screened individuals, participants were enrolled in either the intervention (n = 1240) arm or control (n = 1367) arm. Overall, the HR for the development of T2DM in the intervention arm during 5.5 years was 1.00 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.34). In the subanalysis, the HR was 0.59 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.83) in the subgroup that received phone calls the most frequently, compared with the control arm. A limitation of the study includes a lack of blinding. CONCLUSIONS: High-frequency telephone-delivered lifestyle support could effectively prevent T2DM in participants with IFG in a primary healthcare setting, although low-frequency and middle-frequency phone calls did not. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial has been registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000000662).


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios de Salud , Estilo de Vida , Estado Prediabético , Teléfono , Adulto , Glucemia/metabolismo , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Consejo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Prediabético/sangre , Atención Primaria de Salud , Riesgo
8.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 135(3): 351-5, 2015.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25759041

RESUMEN

The empowerment approach to patients with diabetes is a philosophy that was introduced by Robert M. Anderson and Martha M. Funnell of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center in the 1990s. This approach is based on the observation that more than 98% of diabetes care is performed by patients themselves. Dr. Anderson, Ms. Funnell, and their colleagues found that every patient has a right and an ability to solve his/her own problem in his/her own diabetes. Therefore healthcare providers should provide support for patients own endeavors. Empowerment has three essential elements: 1) the patient is centered, they make a final decision of their daily self-management, and are responsible for those decisions and the results; 2) patient support is the main role of healthcare providers; and 3) patient and healthcare providers should collaborate. In this author's opinion, it is important for healthcare providers to improve their communication skills to use the empowerment approach to help patients change their behaviors in the real world. To encourage empowerment, we created a unique learning program for healthcare providers, named "Diabetes Theater". This program is an interactive workshop comprising two parts: drama and discussion.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Participación del Paciente , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Rol Profesional
9.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 15(9): 748-50, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23758283

RESUMEN

AIM: Glucagon is recommended to treat severe hypoglycemia in nonhospital environments, when a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is unconscious and unable to eat or drink. However, the actual possession rate of glucagon in Japan has not been investigated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 208 T1DM patients older than 15 years of age. The patients were treated at 16 hospitals and clinics in different regions of Japan. Answers were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire about the possession, the experience of usage, and the preference to possess glucagon after reading what is glucagon and when it is used. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of various factors on the possession of glucagon. RESULTS: The possession rate of glucagon was 15.9%, and the rate of those who had experience of using glucagon to treat severe hypoglycemia was 6.0%. The rate of preference to possess glucagon at home after reading the description of glucagon was 39.0%. The possession of glucagon was significantly associated with results of the Glucagon Knowledge Test (odds ratio=24.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-183.3; P=0.002) and the history of severe hypoglycemia within 1 year (odds ratio=4.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-12.0; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Glucagon as a measure to treat severe hypoglycemia was underutilized among T1DM patients in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinales/uso terapéutico , Glucagón/uso terapéutico , Hipoglucemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Intervalos de Confianza , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Utilización de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Hipoglucemia/epidemiología , Japón/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
BMC Public Health ; 13: 81, 2013 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23356246

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle modifications are considered the most effective means of delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To contain the growing population of T2DM, it is critical to clarify effective and efficient settings for intervention and modalities for intervention delivery with a wide population reach.The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1) is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching delivered by telephone can prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals in a real-world setting. This paper describes the study design and recruitment of the study subjects. METHODS: For the recruitment of study subjects and their follow-up annually over 3 years, we employed health checkups conducted annually at communities and worksites. Health care divisions recruited from communities and companies across Japan formed groups as a cluster randomization unit. Candidates for the study, aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, were recruited from each group using health checkups results in 2006. Goal-focused lifestyle support is delivered by healthcare providers via telephone over a one-year period. Study subjects will be followed-up for three years by annual health checkups. Primary outcome is the development of diabetes defined as FPG≥7.0 mmol/l on annual health checkup or based on self-report, which is confirmed by referring to medical cards. RESULTS: Forty-three groups (clusters), formed from 17 health care divisions, were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (22 groups) or control arm (21 clusters) between March 2007 and February 2008. A total of 2840 participants, 1336 from the intervention and 1504 from the control arm, were recruited. Consent rate was about 20%, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. There were no differences in cluster size and characteristics of cluster between the groups. There were no differences in individual characteristics between the study arms. CONCLUSION: We have launched J-DOIT1, a nation-wide trial to prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals using telephone-delivered intervention. This trial is expected to contribute to evidence-based real-world preventive practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000000662.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Estilo de Vida , Apoyo Social , Teléfono , Adulto , Anciano , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Selección de Paciente , Proyectos de Investigación , Medición de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
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