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BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 22, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413172


BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem compromising the effective treatment of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging and promoting awareness creation among health workers as one of its strategies to reduce the rate of emergence and transmission of AMR. Available data on the prescribing behavior of healthcare workers (HCWs) in Nigeria remains incomplete. This study was designed to provide an up-to-date estimate of the knowledge, attitude and antibiotic prescribing behavior of HCWs in Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to healthcare workers selected from six states, one each from the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to reflect the three tiers of healthcare: primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Quantitative data was summarized using descriptive statistics. All data analysis was done using the Statistical package for social sciences version 26.0. RESULTS: Of the 420 questionnaires distributed, 358 (85.2%) responded. The mean year of practice of the respondents was 9.32 ± 7.8 years. About a half (50.3%) agreed that their prescribing behavior could promote antimicrobial resistance. 49.2% had a good knowledge of AMR and physicians had significantly better knowledge than other HCWs (X2 = 69.59, P < 0.001). Several participants prescribed antibiotics for common viral infections such as sore throats (75.7%), measles (37.7%), common cold and flu (21.2%). Over 60.3% admitted prescribing antibiotics just to be on the safe side. In general, 70.9% of the respondents frequently or moderately use practice guidelines while 25.7% often apply the delayed antibiotic prescription (DAP) strategy to reduce antimicrobial prescription. CONCLUSION: This study reveals an overall moderate level of knowledge of AMR and attitude towards minimizing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance though this did not translate significantly to practice. Further efforts must be made in order to improve rational prescription of antimicrobials among HCWs in Nigeria.

Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491866


Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health challenge in Nigeria with a minimum yield of various TB control efforts due to sociocultural determinants of health including TB-associated stigma. Therefore, to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal targets for TB control, an understanding and reduction in TB-associated stigma is necessary. The study aims to explore the perspective of community members and investigate the possible ways of mitigating TB-associated stigma in rural and urban areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. Eight focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted among eight homogenous groups of participants living in the community in rural and urban areas of Lagos state who were stratified by gender, between July and November 2017. Analysis of data was done using the modified grounded theory. A total of 86 participants took part in the FGDs. There were various stigmatising behaviours towards people infected with TB in rural and urban communities studied. This includes: Not willing to eat with people suffering from TB, withdrawal from TB patients in social gatherings, verbal abuse of TB patients and refusing to visit their houses because of their illness. There were also misconceptions about the cause of TB in our study which includes spiritual attack, ingestion of cat hair and inhalation of dust. However, participants in the study believed that mitigating the effect of TB-associated stigma will require adequate community education on TB, provision of financial and emotional support to the patients, as well as the involvement of community leaders in TB control activities and stigma reduction interventions. TB-associated stigma exists in rural and urban communities, with a lack of appropriate knowledge of TB and fear of infection as a major determinant in rural and urban areas respectively. Health education and sensitisation about TB, with community leaders as champions could help to mitigate the effect of TB-associated stigma.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 72, 2020 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434552


BACKGROUND: One of the objectives of the Global Action Plan by the World Health Organization (WHO) to contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR), is to improve global awareness through effective communication and education. Comprehensive information on the level of awareness of AMR among Nigerian public is deficient. This study was therefore designed to assess the current level of awareness and knowledge of the Nigerian public of AMR. METHODS: Pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to obtain information from the general public across the six geopolitical zones (North Central, North East, North West, South East, South South and South West) in Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling was used to select one state from each zone and respondents were selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Responses to eight questions were used to grade the level of knowledge categorized as poor, fair and good. Collation and analysis of data were performed at the Microbiology Department of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Lagos, Nigeria, using SPSS version 24.0. RESULTS: Questionnaires from 482 respondents comprising 242 (50.2%) females and 240 (49.8%) males from six states (Lagos, Ebonyi, Delta, Plateau, Borno and Jigawa) were analyzed. Of the 482 respondents, 322 (66.8%) had taken antibiotics in the last six months out of which 31.3% were without prescription. 26.1% of respondents believe they don't need to complete the dosage as long as they feel better. Although 272(56.5%) of the respondents were familiar with the term "antibiotic resistance", only 40(8.3%) had good knowledge of AMR. A majority (76.6%) believed that they were powerless to stop the spread of AMR. There was no association between the gender of respondents and knowledge of AMR (p = 0.13). However, respondents from Ebonyi and Delta states in southern Nigeria were more likely to have good knowledge of AMR (X2 = 53.22, P < 0.0001). The respondents in the urban area had a higher score for knowledge level compared to the rural dwellers, though this was not statistically significant within and across states. CONCLUSION: This survey provides an insight into the level of AMR awareness and antibiotic use in the wider Nigeria public. Our findings show that about a third of the general public consume antibiotics obtained without prescription. There is an overall poor understanding of antimicrobial resistance and/or proper use of antibiotics among respondents. It is critical that more holistic public enlightenment programs are carried out to increase awareness of AMR and promote responsible use of antibiotics.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 26(4): 402-6, 2013 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23186370


OBJECTIVE: There are conflicting report on the association of HIV infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Most of these studies were from areas with low HIV burden. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of ASB in HIV positive pregnant women. METHODS: A cross sectional study among HIV positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were evaluated for ASB at first clinic attendance. Blood samples were also collected for viral load, CD4 count and hemoglobin levels assessment. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version 19. RESULTS: 102 (18.1%) women out of 563 studied were found positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Ninety-seven (95.1%) of the positive samples yielded single bacterial isolates. Escherichia coli (44.3%) and Proteus mirabilis (21.6%) were the most common bacterial isolates. Previous urinary tract infection (OR: 4.3), HIV-1 RNA greater than 10,000 copies/ml (OR: 3.9), CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (OR: 1.4) and maternal hemoglobin <11 g/dl (OR: 1.4) were factors significantly associated with ASB after controlling for possible confounders. CONCLUSION: ASB is common in HIV positive pregnant women in our environment and is associated with previous UTI, high viral load, low CD4 count and maternal hemoglobin <11 g/dl.

Bacteriuria/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Bacteriuria/complicaciones , Bacteriuria/microbiología , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios Transversales , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/genética , Hemoglobinas/análisis , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Proteus mirabilis/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/sangre , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones Urinarias/complicaciones , Carga Viral
J Infect Public Health ; 5(5): 346-53, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23164563


BACKGROUND: The 2010 cholera outbreak in northern Nigeria affected over 40,000 people, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of ≥3.75%. We assessed the emergency response of health care workers (HCWs) involved in case management. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using Epi info software. RESULTS: A total of 56 HCWs were interviewed. The mean age was 31 years (SD±8.16 years). The majority of the HCWs (80%; n=45) were aged 18-39 years. Most were community health extension workers (60%), and 3.6% (n=2) were medical doctors. Many of the HCWs had less than 2 years of work experience (42%). Additionally, 82% of the respondents had <1 week of cholera emergency response training, and 50% of the HCWs managed >20 suspected cases of cholera per day. Although 78% of HCWs reported the practice of universal safety precautions, 32% (n=18) knew HCWs who developed symptoms of cholera during the epidemic, most of which was believed to be hospital acquired (78%). We also found that 77% (n=43) of HCWs had no access to the required emergency response supplies. CONCLUSION: Inadequate training, a lack of qualified HCWs and a limited supply of emergency response kits were reported. Therefore, the government and stakeholders should address the gaps noted to adequately control and prevent future epidemics.

Actitud del Personal de Salud , Cólera/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/métodos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Competencia Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 12: 93, 2012 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22958756


BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified HIV as a leading contributor to preterm delivery and its associated morbidity and mortality. However little or no information exists in our sub-region on this subject. Identifying the factors associated with preterm delivery in HIV positive women in our country and sub-region will not only prevent mother to child transmission of HIV virus but will also reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity and low birth weight. This study was designed to determine the incidence and risk factors for preterm delivery in HIV positive Nigerians. METHOD: The required data for this retrospective study was extracted from the data base of a cohort study of the outcome of prevention of mother to child transmission at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos. Only data of women that met the eligibility of spontaneous delivery after 20 weeks of gestation were included. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institution's Ethical Review Board. RESULTS: 181 women out of the 1626 eligible for inclusion into the study had spontaneous preterm delivery (11.1%). The mean birth weight was 3.1 ± 0.4 kg, with 10.3% having LBW. Spontaneous preterm delivery was found to be significantly associated with unmarried status (cOR: 1.7;1.52-2.57), baseline CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) (cOR: 1.8; 1.16-2.99), presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (cOR: 2.2;1.23-3.57), multiple pregnancy (cOR 10.4; 4.24 - 26.17), use of PI based triple ARV therapy (eOR 10.2; 5.52 - 18.8) in the first trimester (cOR 2.5; 1.77 - 3.52) on univariate analysis. However after multivariate analysis controlling for potential confounding variables including low birth weight, only multiple pregnancy (aOR: 8.6; CI: 6.73 - 12.9), presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (aOR: 1.9; CI: 1.1 - 5.7), and 1st trimester exposure to PI based triple therapy (aOR: 5.4; CI: 3.4 - 7.8) retained their significant association with preterm delivery. CONCLUSION: The spontaneous preterm delivery rate among our cohort was 11.1%. HIV positive women with multiple pregnancies, symptomatic HIV infection at delivery and first trimester fetal exposure to PI based triple therapy were found to be at risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Early booking and non-use of PI based triple therapy in the first trimester will significantly reduce the risk of preterm delivery.

Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Seropositividad para VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidencia , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven