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Saf Health Work ; 9(4): 416-420, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559989


Background: Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been widely used as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in occupationally exposed workers. The objective of this study is to investigate the concentration of urinary 1-OHP among charcoal workers as subjects and non-charcoal workers as controls. Methods: Early morning urine samples were collected from 68 persons (25 charcoal workers in Igbo-Ora, 20 charcoal workers in Alabata, and 23 non-charcoal workers) who volunteered to participate in this study. 1-OHP determination in urine samples was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography after hydrolysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis at p < 0.05. Results: The mean urinary 1-OHP concentration (µmol/mol creatinine) among charcoal workers at Igbo-Ora and Alabata and non-charcoal workers were 2.22 ± 1.27, 1.32 ± 0.65, and 0.32 ± 0.26 (p < 0.01). There existed a relationship between respondent type and 1-OHP concentration. Charcoal workers were 3.14 times more at risk of having 1-OHP concentrations that exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guideline of 0.49 µmol/mol creatinine than non-charcoal workers (relative risk = 3.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.8, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Charcoal workers are exposed to PAHs during charcoal production and are at risk of experiencing deleterious effects of PAH exposure. Routine air quality assessment should be carried out in communities where charcoal production takes place. Assessment of urinary 1-OHP concentration and use of personal protective equipment should also be encouraged among charcoal workers.

Environ Monit Assess ; 189(7): 345, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634868


Phthalate esters (PEs) are one of the environmentally active organic pollutants capable of causing endocrine disruption. The levels of PE congeners were determined in the influent and effluent from Covenant Oxidation Pond (COP) and Ikeja Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWWTP). Standard methods were adopted for determining the physical and chemical parameters of the water samples. The water samples for PE congener's determination were collected, acidified and stored at 4 °C prior to liquid-liquid extraction and analysis by gas chromatograph. The possible health risk associated with the usage of effluent-polluted river water was also investigated. The pH and temperature ranges were within the Federal Ministry of Environment (FME) 2001 guideline limits while the dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were above the limits. The IWWTP performed better at removing PEs at 54% compared to 43.3% on average at COP. The health risk of individual PE congener showed no non-cancer effects (HQ) as the values varied from 5.01E-05 (DAP) to 1.52E-02 (DEHP) for adults and 1.17E-04 (DAP) to 3.76E-03 (DBP) for children at COP, while at IWWTP, it ranged from 8.06E-05 (DIBP) to 1.09E-02 (DEHP) for adults and 5.68E-04 (MMP) to 2.54E-02 (DEHP) for children. Notwithstanding, the usage of effluent-polluted river water by local communities downstream may result in carcinogenic effects due to the cumulative effects of the PE congeners as the values obtained for adults and children for the ingestion and dermal routes for the two waste process streams ranged from 4.67E-06 (IWWTP) to 6.22E-05 (IWWTP) and 2.18E-05 (IWWTP) to 7.18E-05 (COP), respectively.

Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ésteres/análisis , Humanos , Extracción Líquido-Líquido , Nigeria , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos , Aguas Residuales/análisis
Springerplus ; 5(1): 1546, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27652119


Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria. Four communities in Igbo-Ora and six communities in Alabata were purposively selected and levels of pollutant gases were assessed using appropriate gas meters, PM2.5 was assessed with Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500, FEV1 and PEFR were measured with Piko-1 spirometer while COHb was assessed using non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad 57). Data were statistically analyzed and results were compared with recommended guidelines. The mean FEV1, PEFR, COHb and BMI for subjects and controls were 2.35 ± 0.73 and 2.69 ± 0.56, 253.72 ± 103.45 and 330.02 ± 94.61 (p < 0.01), 13.28 ± 3.91 and 8.50 ± 3.68 (p < 0.01) and 21.97 ± 2.19 and 23.36 ± 3.74 (p < 0.05) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between actual and expected values of FEV1 (p < 0.01) and PEFR (p < 0.01) among charcoal workers. There existed a positive correlation between CO and COHb while FEV1 and PEFR correlated negatively with PM2.5. The study showed that charcoal workers are exposed to high levels of CO and PM2.5, contributing to lowered respiratory functions for FEV1 and PEFR and high levels of COHb compared to the control group. Routine respiratory and carboxyheamoglobin assessment of persons involved in charcoal production is also recommended.