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1.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; : AAC0150921, 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633851

RESUMEN

Mycobacterium abscessus is an opportunistic pathogen notorious for its resistance to most classes of antibiotics and low cure rates. M. abscessus carries an array of mostly unexplored defence mechanisms. A deeper understanding of antibiotic resistance and tolerance mechanisms is pivotal in development of targeted therapeutic regimens. We provide the first description of all major transcriptional mechanisms of tolerance to all antibiotics recommended in current guidelines, using RNA sequencing-guided experiments. M. abscessus ATCC 19977 bacteria were subjected to sub-inhibitory concentrations of clarithromycin, amikacin, tigecycline, cefoxitin and clofazimine for 4- and 24-hours, followed by RNA sequencing. To confirm key mechanisms of tolerance suggested by transcriptomic responses, we performed time-kill kinetic analysis using bacteria after pre-exposure to clarithromycin, amikacin or tigecycline for 24-hours and we constructed isogenic knockout and knockdown strains. To assess strain specificity, pan-genome analysis of 35 strains from all three subspecies was performed. Mycobacterium abscessus shows both drug-specific and common transcriptomic responses to antibiotic exposure. Ribosome-targeting antibiotics clarithromycin, amikacin and tigecycline elicit a common response characterized by upregulation of ribosome structural genes, the WhiB7 regulon and transferases, accompanied by downregulation of respiration through NuoA-N. Exposure to any of these drugs decreases susceptibility to ribosome-targeting drugs from multiple classes. The cytochrome bd-type quinol oxidase contributes to clofazimine tolerance in M. abscessus and the sigma factor sigH but not anti-sigma factor MAB_3542c is involved in tigecycline resistance. The observed transcriptomic responses are not strain-specific, as all genes involved in tolerance, except erm(41), are found in all included strains.

2.
mBio ; 12(5): e0170821, 2021 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544276

RESUMEN

The methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8 thrives in acidic geothermal ecosystems that are characterized by high degassing of methane (CH4), H2, H2S, and by relatively high lanthanide concentrations. Lanthanides (atomic numbers 57 to 71) are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, including mobile phones. Remarkably, the same elements are actively taken up by methanotrophs/methylotrophs in a range of environments, since their XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenases require lanthanides as a metal cofactor. Lanthanide-dependent enzymes seem to prefer the lighter lanthanides (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium), as slower methanotrophic/methylotrophic growth is observed in medium supplemented with only heavier lanthanides. Here, we purified XoxF1 from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8, which was grown in medium supplemented with neodymium as the sole lanthanide. The neodymium occupancy of the enzyme is 94.5% ± 2.0%, and through X-ray crystallography, we reveal that the structure of the active site shows interesting differences from the active sites of other methanol dehydrogenases, such as an additional aspartate residue in close proximity to the lanthanide. Nd-XoxF1 oxidizes methanol at a maximum rate of metabolism (Vmax) of 0.15 ± 0.01 µmol · min-1 · mg protein-1 and an affinity constant (Km) of 1.4 ± 0.6 µM. The structural analysis of this neodymium-containing XoxF1-type methanol dehydrogenase will expand our knowledge in the exciting new field of lanthanide biochemistry. IMPORTANCE Lanthanides comprise a group of 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71 that are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, such as mobile phones, but were considered biologically inert for a long time. The biological relevance of lanthanides became evident when the acidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, isolated from a volcanic mud pot, could only grow when lanthanides were supplied to the growth medium. We expanded knowledge in the exciting and rapidly developing field of lanthanide biochemistry by the purification and characterization of a neodymium-containing methanol dehydrogenase from a thermoacidophilic methanotroph.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 666929, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093485

RESUMEN

Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs are a group of aerobic bacteria isolated from volcanic environments. They are acidophiles, characterized by the presence of a particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and a XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). Metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from the soil of Favara Grande, a geothermal area on Pantelleria Island, Italy, revealed the presence of two verrucomicrobial Metagenome Assembled Genomes (MAGs). One of these MAGs did not phylogenetically classify within any existing genus. After extensive analysis of the MAG, we propose the name of "Candidatus Methylacidithermus pantelleriae" PQ17 gen. nov. sp. nov. The MAG consisted of 2,466,655 bp, 71 contigs and 3,127 predicted coding sequences. Completeness was found at 98.6% and contamination at 1.3%. Genes encoding the pMMO and XoxF-MDH were identified. Inorganic carbon fixation might use the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle since all genes were identified. The serine and ribulose monophosphate pathways were incomplete. The detoxification of formaldehyde could follow the tetrahydrofolate pathway. Furthermore, "Ca. Methylacidithermus pantelleriae" might be capable of nitric oxide reduction but genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction and nitrogen fixation were not identified. Unlike other verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, genes encoding for enzymes involved in hydrogen oxidation could not be found. In conclusion, the discovery of this new MAG expands the diversity and metabolism of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs.

4.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(14): e0022721, 2021 06 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962978

RESUMEN

The families of copper-containing membrane-bound monooxygenases (CuMMOs) and soluble di-iron monooxygenases (SDIMOs) are involved not only in methane oxidation but also in short-chain alkane oxidation. Here, we describe Rhodococcus sp. strain ZPP, a bacterium able to grow with ethane or propane as the sole carbon and energy source, and report on the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of actinobacterial hydrocarbon monooxygenases (HMOs) of the CuMMO family and the sMMO (soluble methane monooxygenase)-like SDIMO in the genus Rhodococcus. The key function of HMO in strain ZPP for propane oxidation was verified by allylthiourea inhibition. The HMO genes (designated hmoCAB) and those encoding sMMO-like SDIMO (designated smoXYB1C1Z) are located on a linear megaplasmid (pRZP1) of strain ZPP. Comparative genomic analysis of similar plasmids indicated the mobility of these plasmids within the genus Rhodococcus. The plasmid pRZP1 in strain ZPP could be conjugatively transferred to a recipient Rhodococcus erythropolis strain in a mating experiment and showed similar ethane- and propane-consuming activities. Finally, our findings demonstrate that the horizontal transfer of plasmid-based CuMMO and SDIMO genes confers the ability to use ethane and propane on the recipient. IMPORTANCE CuMMOs and SDIMOs initiate the aerobic oxidation of alkanes in bacteria. Here, the supposition that horizontally transferred plasmid-based CuMMO and SDIMO genes confer on the recipient similar abilities to use ethane and propane was proposed and confirmed in Rhodococcus. This study is a living example of HGT of CuMMOs and SDIMOs and outlines the plasmid-borne properties responsible for gaseous alkane degradation. Our results indicate that plasmids can support the rapid evolution of enzyme-mediated biogeochemical processes.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Oxigenasas de Función Mixta/genética , Rhodococcus/genética , Etano/metabolismo , Transferencia de Gen Horizontal , Genes Bacterianos , Oxidación-Reducción , Plásmidos , Propano/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/metabolismo
5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 652486, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981290

RESUMEN

Degraded peatlands are often rewetted to prevent oxidation of the peat, which reduces CO2 emission. However, the created anoxic conditions will boost methane (CH4) production and thus emission. Here, we show that submerged Sphagnum peat mosses in rewetted-submerged peatlands can reduce CH4 emission from peatlands with 93%. We were able to mimic the field situation in the laboratory by using a novel mesocosm set-up. By combining these with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and qPCR analysis of the pmoA and mmoX genes, we showed that submerged Sphagnum mosses act as a niche for CH4 oxidizing bacteria. The tight association between Sphagnum peat mosses and methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) significantly reduces CH4 emissions by peatlands and can be studied in more detail in the mesocosm setup developed in this study.

6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(13): e0004321, 2021 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893122

RESUMEN

Methane and ammonia have to be removed from wastewater treatment effluent in order to discharge it to receiving water bodies. A potential solution for this is a combination of simultaneous ammonia and methane oxidation by anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) bacteria and nitrite/nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-damo) microorganisms. When applied, these microorganisms will be exposed to oxygen, but little is known about the effect of a low concentration of oxygen on a culture containing these microorganisms. In this study, a stable coculture containing anammox and N-damo microorganisms in a laboratory scale bioreactor was established under oxygen limitation. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) was used to directly measure the in situ simultaneous activity of N-damo, anammox, and aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. In addition, batch tests revealed that the bioreactor also harbored aerobic methanotrophs and anaerobic methanogens. Together with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and metagenomics, these results indicate that the combination of N-damo and anammox activity under the continuous supply of limiting oxygen concentrations is feasible and can be implemented for the removal of methane and ammonia from anaerobic digester effluents. IMPORTANCE Nitrogen in wastewater leads to eutrophication of the receiving water bodies, and methane is a potent greenhouse gas; it is therefore important that these are removed from wastewater. A potential solution for the simultaneous removal of nitrogenous compounds and methane is the application of a combination of nitrite/nitrate-dependent methane oxidation (N-damo) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (annamox). In order to do so, it is important to investigate the effect of oxygen on these two anaerobic processes. In this study, we investigate the effect of a continuous oxygen supply on the activity of an anaerobic methane- and ammonia-oxidizing coculture. The findings presented in this study are important for the potential application of these two microbial processes in wastewater treatment.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Oxígeno , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Aerobiosis , Anaerobiosis , Archaea/metabolismo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Reactores Biológicos , Oxidación-Reducción
7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 637762, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643272

RESUMEN

The Favara Grande is a geothermal area located on Pantelleria Island, Italy. The area is characterized high temperatures in the top layer of the soil (60°C), low pH (3-5) and hydrothermal gas emissions mainly composed of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and hydrogen (H2). These geothermal features may provide a suitable niche for the growth of chemolithotrophic thermoacidophiles, including the lanthanide-dependent methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. In this study, we started enrichment cultures inoculated with soil of the Favara Grande at 50 and 60°C with CH4 as energy source and medium containing sufficient lanthanides at pH 3 and 5. From these cultures, a verrucomicrobial methanotroph could be isolated via serial dilution and floating filters techniques. The genome of strain AP8 was sequenced and based on phylogenetic analysis we propose to name this new species Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8. The transcriptome data at µmax (0.051 ± 0.001 h-1, doubling time ~14 h) of the new strain showed a high expression of the pmoCAB2 operon encoding the membrane-bound methane monooxygenase and of the gene xoxF1, encoding the lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenase. A second pmoCAB operon and xoxF2 gene were not expressed. The physiology of strain AP8 was further investigated and revealed an optimal growth in a pH range of 3-5 at 50°C, representing the first thermophilic strain of the genus Methylacidimicrobium. Moreover, strain AP8 had a KS(app) for methane of 8 ± 1 µM. Beside methane, a type 1b [NiFe] hydrogenase enabled hydrogen oxidation at oxygen concentrations up to 1%. Taken together, our results expand the knowledge on the characteristics and adaptations of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in hydrothermal environments and add a new thermophilic strain to the genus Methylacidimicrobium.

8.
FEMS Microbiol Rev ; 45(5)2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524112

RESUMEN

Methanotrophs are an important group of microorganisms that counteract methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane-oxidising bacteria of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria have been studied for over a century, while methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are a more recent discovery. Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs are extremophiles that live in very acidic geothermal ecosystems. Currently, more than a dozen strains have been isolated, belonging to the genera Methylacidiphilum and Methylacidimicrobium. Initially, these methanotrophs were thought to be metabolically confined. However, genomic analyses and physiological and biochemical experiments over the past years revealed that verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, as well as proteobacterial methanotrophs, are much more metabolically versatile than previously assumed. Several inorganic gases and other molecules present in acidic geothermal ecosystems can be utilised, such as methane, hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, ammonium, nitrogen gas and perhaps also hydrogen sulfide. Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs could therefore represent key players in multiple volcanic nutrient cycles and in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal ecosystems. Here, we summarise the current knowledge on verrucomicrobial methanotrophs with respect to their metabolic versatility and discuss the factors that determine their diversity in their natural environment. In addition, key metabolic, morphological and ecological characteristics of verrucomicrobial and proteobacterial methanotrophs are reviewed.

9.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(3): 313-324, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566237

RESUMEN

The genus Methylobacter is considered an important and often dominant group of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria in many oxic ecosystems, where members of this genus contribute to the reduction of CH4 emissions. Metagenomic studies of the upper oxic layers of geothermal soils of the Favara Grande, Pantelleria, Italy, revealed the presence of various methane-oxidizing bacteria, and resulted in a near complete metagenome assembled genome (MAG) of an aerobic methanotroph, which was classified as a Methylobacter species. In this study, the Methylobacter sp. B2 MAG was used to investigate its metabolic potential and phylogenetic affiliation. The MAG has a size of 4,086,539 bp, consists of 134 contigs and 3955 genes were found, of which 3902 were protein coding genes. All genes for CH4 oxidation to CO2 were detected, including pmoCAB encoding particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and xoxF encoding a methanol dehydrogenase. No gene encoding a formaldehyde dehydrogenase was present and the formaldehyde to formate conversion follows the tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) pathway. "Ca. Methylobacter favarea" B2 uses the Ribulose-Mono-Phosphate (RuMP) pathway for carbon fixation. Analysis of the MAG indicates that Na+/H+ antiporters and the urease system might be important in the maintenance of pH homeostasis of this strain to cope with acidic conditions. So far, thermoacidophilic Methylobacter species have not been isolated, however this study indicates that members of the genus Methylobacter can be found in distinct ecosystems and their presence is not restricted to freshwater or marine sediments.


Asunto(s)
Methylococcaceae , Suelo , ADN Bacteriano , Ecosistema , Metano , Methylococcaceae/genética , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
10.
ISME J ; 15(4): 1150-1164, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303933

RESUMEN

Ammonia oxidation was considered impossible under highly acidic conditions, as the protonation of ammonia leads to decreased substrate availability and formation of toxic nitrogenous compounds. Recently, some studies described archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers growing at pH as low as 4, while environmental studies observed nitrification at even lower pH values. In this work, we report on the discovery, cultivation, and physiological, genomic, and transcriptomic characterization of a novel gammaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacterium enriched via continuous bioreactor cultivation from an acidic air biofilter that was able to grow and oxidize ammonia at pH 2.5. This microorganism has a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, using ammonia as energy source. The observed growth rate on ammonia was 0.196 day-1, with a doubling time of 3.5 days. The strain also displayed ureolytic activity and cultivation with urea as ammonia source resulted in a growth rate of 0.104 day-1 and a doubling time of 6.7 days. A high ammonia affinity (Km(app) = 147 ± 14 nM) and high tolerance to toxic nitric oxide could represent an adaptation to acidic environments. Electron microscopic analysis showed coccoid cell morphology with a large amount of intracytoplasmic membrane stacks, typical of gammaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers. Furthermore, genome and transcriptome analysis showed the presence and expression of diagnostic genes for nitrifiers (amoCAB, hao, nor, ure, cbbLS), but no nirK was identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this strain belonged to a novel bacterial genus, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Nitrosacidococcus tergens" sp. RJ19.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Microbiología del Suelo , Archaea , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Nitrificación , Oxidación-Reducción , Filogenia
11.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(50)2020 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303660

RESUMEN

Methylobacterium brachiatum MBRA is an aerobic alphaproteobacterium isolated from the human skin on methanol-containing minimal medium. The genome was sequenced using Illumina and Nanopore technology, and the genome was assembled using Unicycler. M. brachiatum MBRA possesses two xoxF genes, one gene pair, mxaF and mxaI, and a complete serine pathway.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 604485, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381099

RESUMEN

Volcanic areas emit a number of gases including methane and other short chain alkanes, that may serve as energy source for the prevailing microorganisms. The verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV was isolated from a volcanic mud pot, and is able to grow under thermoacidophilic conditions on different gaseous substrates. Its genome contains three operons encoding a particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), the enzyme that converts methane to methanol. The expression of two of these pmo operons is subjected to oxygen-dependent regulation, whereas the expression of the third copy (pmoCAB3) has, so far, never been reported. In this study we investigated the ability of strain SolV to utilize short-chain alkanes and monitored the expression of the pmo operons under different conditions. In batch cultures and in carbon-limited continuous cultures, strain SolV was able to oxidize and grow on C1-C3 compounds. Oxidation of ethane did occur simultaneously with methane, while propane consumption only started once methane and ethane became limited. Butane oxidation was not observed. Transcriptome data showed that pmoCAB1 and pmoCAB3 were induced in the absence of methane and the expression of pmoCAB3 increased upon propane addition. Together the results of our study unprecedently show that a pMMO-containing methanotroph is able to co-metabolize other gaseous hydrocarbons, beside methane. Moreover, it expands the substrate spectrum of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, supporting their high metabolic flexibility and adaptation to the harsh and dynamic conditions in volcanic ecosystems.

13.
mSystems ; 5(6)2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144309

RESUMEN

Volcanic and geothermal environments are characterized by low pH, high temperatures, and gas emissions consisting of mainly CO2 and varied CH4, H2S, and H2 contents which allow the formation of chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities. To determine the link between the emitted gases and the microbial community composition, geochemical and metagenomic analysis were performed. Soil samples of the geothermic region Favara Grande (Pantelleria, Italy) were taken at various depths (1 to 50 cm). Analysis of the gas composition revealed that CH4 and H2 have the potential to serve as the driving forces for the microbial community. Our metagenomic analysis revealed a high relative abundance of Bacteria in the top layer (1 to 10 cm), but the relative abundance of Archaea increased with depth from 32% to 70%. In particular, a putative hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaeon, related to Methanocella conradii, appeared to have a high relative abundance (63%) in deeper layers. A variety of [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes were detected, showing that H2 was an important electron donor for microaerobic microorganisms in the upper layers. Furthermore, the bacterial population included verrucomicrobial and proteobacterial methanotrophs, the former showing an up to 7.8 times higher relative abundance. Analysis of the metabolic potential of this microbial community showed a clear capacity to oxidize CH4 aerobically, as several genes for distinct particulate methane monooxygenases and lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases (XoxF-type) were retrieved. Analysis of the CO2 fixation pathways showed the presence of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, and the (reverse) tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the latter being the most represented carbon fixation pathway. This study indicates that the methane emissions in the Favara Grande might be a combination of geothermal activity and biological processes and further provides insights into the diversity of the microbial population thriving on CH4 and H2 IMPORTANCE The Favara Grande nature reserve on the volcanic island of Pantelleria (Italy) is known for its geothermal gas emissions and high soil temperatures. These volcanic soil ecosystems represent "hot spots" of greenhouse gas emissions. The unique community might be shaped by the hostile conditions in the ecosystem, and it is involved in the cycling of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Our metagenome study revealed that most of the microorganisms in this extreme environment are only distantly related to cultivated bacteria. The results obtained profoundly increased the understanding of these natural hot spots of greenhouse gas production/degradation and will help to enrich and isolate the microbial key players. After isolation, it will become possible to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which they adapt to extreme (thermo/acidophilic) conditions, and this may lead to new green enzymatic catalysts and technologies for industry.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24459-24463, 2020 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913059

RESUMEN

Aerobic and nitrite-dependent methanotrophs make a living from oxidizing methane via methanol to carbon dioxide. In addition, these microorganisms cometabolize ammonia due to its structural similarities to methane. The first step in both of these processes is catalyzed by methane monooxygenase, which converts methane or ammonia into methanol or hydroxylamine, respectively. Methanotrophs use methanol for energy conservation, whereas toxic hydroxylamine is a potent inhibitor that needs to be rapidly removed. It is suggested that many methanotrophs encode a hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (mHAO) in their genome to remove hydroxylamine, although biochemical evidence for this is lacking. HAOs also play a crucial role in the metabolism of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizers by converting hydroxylamine to nitric oxide (NO). Here, we purified an HAO from the thermophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV and characterized its kinetic properties. This mHAO possesses the characteristic P460 chromophore and is active up to at least 80 °C. It catalyzes the rapid oxidation of hydroxylamine to NO. In methanotrophs, mHAO efficiently removes hydroxylamine, which severely inhibits calcium-dependent, and as we show here, lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases, which are more prevalent in the environment. Our results indicate that mHAO allows methanotrophs to thrive under high ammonia concentrations in natural and engineered ecosystems, such as those observed in rice paddy fields, landfills, or volcanic mud pots, by preventing the accumulation of inhibitory hydroxylamine. Under oxic conditions, methanotrophs mainly oxidize ammonia to nitrite, whereas in hypoxic and anoxic environments reduction of both ammonia-derived nitrite and NO could lead to nitrous oxide (N2O) production.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/enzimología , Proteínas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Oxidación-Reducción , Oxidorreductasas/química , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Verrucomicrobia/genética , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
15.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1959, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903544

RESUMEN

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, members of the "Candidatus Brocadiaceae" family, play an important role in the nitrogen cycle and are estimated to be responsible for about half of the oceanic nitrogen loss to the atmosphere. Anammox bacteria combine ammonium with nitrite and produce dinitrogen gas via the intermediates nitric oxide and hydrazine (anammox reaction) while nitrate is formed as a by-product. These reactions take place in a specialized, membrane-enclosed compartment called the anammoxosome. Therefore, the substrates ammonium, nitrite and product nitrate have to cross the outer-, cytoplasmic-, and anammoxosome membranes to enter or exit the anammoxosome. The genomes of all anammox species harbor multiple copies of ammonium-, nitrite-, and nitrate transporter genes. Here we investigated how the distinct genes for ammonium-, nitrite-, and nitrate- transport were expressed during substrate limitation in membrane bioreactors. Transcriptome analysis of Kuenenia stuttgartiensis planktonic cells showed that four of the seven ammonium transporter homologs and two of the nine nitrite transporter homologs were significantly upregulated during ammonium-limited growth, while another ammonium transporter- and four nitrite transporter homologs were upregulated in nitrite limited growth conditions. The two nitrate transporters were expressed to similar levels in both conditions. In addition, genes encoding enzymes involved in the anammox reaction were differentially expressed, with those using nitrite as a substrate being upregulated under nitrite limited growth and those using ammonium as a substrate being upregulated during ammonium limitation. Taken together, these results give a first insight in the potential role of the multiple nutrient transporters in regulating transport of substrates and products in and out of the compartmentalized anammox cell.

16.
Water Res ; 185: 116288, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810745

RESUMEN

Elevated concentrations of ammonium and methane in groundwater are often associated with microbiological, chemical and sanitary problems during drinking water production and distribution. To avoid their accumulation, raw water in the Netherlands and many other countries is purified by sand filtration. These drinking water filtration systems select for microbial communities that mediate the biodegradation of organic and inorganic compounds. In this study, the top layers and wall biofilm of a Dutch drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) were sampled from the filtration units of the plant over three years. We used high-throughput sequencing in combination with differential coverage and sequence composition-based binning to recover 56 near-complete metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) with an estimated completion of ≥70% and with ≤10% redundancy. These MAGs were used to characterize the microbial communities involved in the conversion of ammonia and methane. The methanotrophic microbial communities colonizing the wall biofilm (WB) and the granular material of the primary rapid sand filter (P-RSF) were dominated by members of the Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae. The abundance of these bacteria drastically decreased in the secondary rapid sand filter (S-RSF) samples. In all samples, complete ammonia-oxidizing (comammox) Nitrospira were the most abundant nitrifying guild. Clade A comammox Nitrospira dominated the P-RSF, while clade B was most abundant in WB and S-RSF, where ammonium concentrations were much lower. In conclusion, the knowledge obtained in this study contributes to understanding the role of microorganisms in the removal of carbon and nitrogen compounds during drinking water production. We furthermore found that drinking water treatment plants represent valuable model systems to study microbial community function and interaction.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Purificación del Agua , Filtración , Metagenoma , Metano , Países Bajos , Nitrificación , Oxidación-Reducción , Arena
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(16): 7201-7212, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607646

RESUMEN

Anaerobic wastewater treatment offers several advantages; however, the effluent of anaerobic digesters still contains high levels of ammonium and dissolved methane that need to be removed before these effluents can be discharged to surface waters. The simultaneous anaerobic removal of methane and ammonium by denitrifying (N-damo) methanotrophs in combination with anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria could be a potential solution to this challenge. After a molecular survey of a wastewater plant treating brewery effluent, indicating the presence of both N-damo and anammox bacteria, we started an anaerobic bioreactor with a continuous supply of methane, ammonium, and nitrite to enrich these anaerobic microorganisms. After 14 months of operation, a stable enrichment culture containing two types of 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' bacteria and two strains of 'Ca. Brocadia'-like anammox bacteria was achieved. In this community, anammox bacteria converted 80% of the nitrite with ammonium, while 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' contributed to 20% of the nitrite consumption. The analysis of metagenomic 16S rRNA reads and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) correlated well and showed that, after 14 months, 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' and anammox bacteria constituted approximately 30 and 20% of the total microbial community. In addition, a substantial part (10%) of the community consisted of Phycisphaera-related planctomycetes. Assembly and binning of the metagenomic sequences resulted in high-quality draft genome of two 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' species containing the marker genes pmoCAB, xoxF, and nirS and putative NO dismutase genes. The anammox draft genomes most closely related to 'Ca. Brocadia fulgida' included the marker genes hzsABC, hao, and hdh. Whole-reactor and batch anaerobic activity measurements with methane, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate revealed an average anaerobic methane oxidation rate of 0.12 mmol h-1 L-1 and ammonium oxidation rate of 0.5 mmol h-1 L-1. Together, this study describes the enrichment and draft genomes of anaerobic methanotrophs from a brewery wastewater treatment plant, where these organisms together with anammox bacteria can contribute significantly to the removal of methane and ammonium in a more sustainable way. KEY POINTS: • An enrichment culture containing both N-damo and anammox bacteria was obtained. • Simultaneous consumption of ammonia, nitrite, and methane under anoxic conditions. • In-depth metagenomic biodiversity analysis of inoculum and enrichment culture.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , Biodiversidad , Reactores Biológicos/microbiología , Metano/metabolismo , Anaerobiosis , Bacterias/metabolismo , Metagenómica , Oxidación-Reducción , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Purificación del Agua
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(18)2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631865

RESUMEN

Industrial methanol production converts methane from natural gas into methanol through a multistep chemical process. Biological methane-to-methanol conversion under moderate conditions and using biogas would be more environmentally friendly. Methanotrophs, bacteria that use methane as an energy source, convert methane into methanol in a single step catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase, but inhibition of methanol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the subsequent conversion of methanol into formaldehyde, is a major challenge. In this study, we used the thermoacidophilic methanotroph "Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum" SolV for biological methanol production. This bacterium possesses a XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase that is dependent on rare earth elements for activity. By using a cultivation medium nearly devoid of lanthanides, we reduced methanol dehydrogenase activity and obtained a continuous methanol-producing microbial culture. The methanol production rate and conversion efficiency were growth-rate dependent. A maximal conversion efficiency of 63% mol methanol produced per mol methane consumed was obtained at a relatively high growth rate, with a methanol production rate of 0.88 mmol/g (dry weight)/h. This study demonstrates that methanotrophs can be used for continuous methanol production. Full-scale application will require additional increases in the titer, production rate, and efficiency, which can be achieved by further decreasing the lanthanide concentration through the use of increased biomass concentrations and novel reactor designs to supply sufficient gases, including methane, oxygen, and hydrogen.IMPORTANCE The production of methanol, an important chemical, is completely dependent on natural gas. The current multistep chemical process uses high temperature and pressure to convert methane in natural gas to methanol. In this study, we used the methanotroph "Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum" SolV to achieve continuous methanol production from methane as the substrate. The production rate was highly dependent on the growth rate of this microorganism, and high conversion efficiencies were obtained. Using microorganisms for the production of methanol might enable the use of more sustainable sources of methane, such as biogas, rather than natural gas.


Asunto(s)
Metano/metabolismo , Metanol/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/crecimiento & desarrollo
19.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 81, 2020 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493439

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Isoprene is the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, with annual global emissions almost equal to those of methane. Despite its importance in atmospheric chemistry and climate, little is known about the biological degradation of isoprene in the environment. The largest source of isoprene is terrestrial plants, and oil palms, the cultivation of which is expanding rapidly, are among the highest isoprene-producing trees. RESULTS: DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) to study the microbial isoprene-degrading community associated with oil palm trees revealed novel genera of isoprene-utilising bacteria including Novosphingobium, Pelomonas, Rhodoblastus, Sphingomonas and Zoogloea in both oil palm soils and on leaves. Amplicon sequencing of isoA genes, which encode the α-subunit of the isoprene monooxygenase (IsoMO), a key enzyme in isoprene metabolism, confirmed that oil palm trees harbour a novel diversity of isoA sequences. In addition, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed from oil palm soil and leaf metagenomes and putative isoprene degradation genes were identified. Analysis of unenriched metagenomes showed that isoA-containing bacteria are more abundant in soils than in the oil palm phyllosphere. CONCLUSION: This study greatly expands the known diversity of bacteria that can metabolise isoprene and contributes to a better understanding of the biological degradation of this important but neglected climate-active gas. Video abstract.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Hemiterpenos , Hojas de la Planta , Microbiología del Suelo , Suelo , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Butadienos/metabolismo , Hemiterpenos/metabolismo , Malasia , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(16): 6839-6854, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542472

RESUMEN

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas on earth. It is produced by methanogenic archaea, which play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Three main methanogenesis pathways are known: in the hydrogenotrophic pathway H2 and carbon dioxide are used for methane production, whereas in the methylotrophic pathway small methylated carbon compounds like methanol and methylated amines are used. In the aceticlastic pathway, acetate is disproportionated to methane and carbon dioxide. However, next to these conventional substrates, further methanogenic substrates and pathways have been discovered. Several phylogenetically distinct methanogenic lineages (Methanosphaera, Methanimicrococcus, Methanomassiliicoccus, Methanonatronarchaeum) have evolved hydrogen-dependent methylotrophic methanogenesis without the ability to perform either hydrogenotrophic or methylotrophic methanogenesis. Genome analysis of the deep branching Methanonatronarchaeum revealed an interesting membrane-bound hydrogenase complex affiliated with the hardly described class 4 g of multisubunit hydrogenases possibly providing reducing equivalents for anabolism. Furthermore, methylated sulfur compounds such as methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and methylmercaptopropionate were described to be converted into adapted methylotrophic methanogenesis pathways of Methanosarcinales strains. Moreover, recently it has been shown that the methanogen Methermicoccus shengliensis can use methoxylated aromatic compounds in methanogenesis. Also, tertiary amines like choline (N,N,N-trimethylethanolamine) or betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) have been described as substrates for methane production in Methanococcoides and Methanolobus strains. This review article will provide in-depth information on genome-guided metabolic reconstructions, physiology, and biochemistry of these unusual methanogenesis pathways. KEY POINTS: • Newly discovered methanogenic substrates and pathways are reviewed for the first time. • The review provides an in-depth analysis of unusual methanogenesis pathways. • The hydrogenase complex of the deep branching Methanonatronarchaeum is analyzed.


Asunto(s)
Euryarchaeota/metabolismo , Hidrogenasas/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Vías Biosintéticas , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Euryarchaeota/clasificación , Euryarchaeota/genética , Genoma Arqueal , Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Hidrogenasas/genética , Filogenia , Especificidad por Sustrato
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