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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/efectos de los fármacos , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Acacia/química , Superóxido Dismutasa , Hemoglobina Glucada/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Expresión Génica , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Control Glucémico , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Malondialdehído
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 808-816, jun. 2022. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385645

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Several studies have been done in a trial to protect against this problem at the ultrastructure level. This study investigates the protective effect of oral administration of Acacia senegal (AS) against the development of DN. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Acacia senegal control, Diabetic untreated, diabetic insulin-treated, Diabetic AS treated, and Diabetic insulin and AS combined treated groups. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum Albumin, creatinine, urine creatinine was measured using specific kits. Determinations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure were done. The renal tissues of both kidneys were prepared to investigate under both light (LM) and electron microscope (EM). Ultrastructure examination of renal rats tissue of diabetic untreated rats showed the destruction of the glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells together with hemorrhage in glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules). On the other side, both LM and EM revealed improving the endothelial cells and the other glomerular capsules structures, especially with the combined treated group, which confirmed the improvement of the biochemical investigation in the study. In conclusion, from the present study, using the oral AS together with SC insulin could be protected against the development of DN.


RESUMEN: La nefropatía diabética (ND) es la complicación más común de la diabetes. Se han realizado varios estudios de ensayo para abordar esta dificultad a nivel de ultraestructura. Este estudio investiga el efecto protector de la administración oral de Acacia senegal (AS) contra el desarrollo de la ND. Se dividieron sesenta ratas albinas machos aleatoriamente en seis grupos: control, control de Acacia senegal, diabéticos no tratados, diabéticos tratados con insulina, diabéticos tratados con AS y grupos tratados con compuesto de insulina diabética + AS. Se midieron utilizando kits específicos, glucosa plasmática, HbA1c, albúmina sérica, creatinina en sangre y en orina. Se registraron la creatinina y la presión arterial. Los tejidos renales de ambos riñones se prepararon para investigar tanto con microscopio óptico (MO) como electrónico (ME). El examen de la ultraestructura del tejido renal de ratas diabéticas no tratadas mostró la destrucción de la membrana basal glomerular y las células endoteliales junto con hemorragia en las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman). Por otro lado, tanto MO como ME revelaron una mejora de las células endoteliales y las estructuras capsulares glomerulares, en el grupo tratado con el compuesto, lo que confirmó la mejora de la investigación bioquímica. En conclusión, el uso de AS oral en combinación con insulina podría proteger contra el desarrollo de ND.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Nefropatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Acacia , Goma Arábiga/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Microscopía Electrónica , Biomarcadores , Administración Oral , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Riñón/ultraestructura
3.
J Ophthalmol ; 2022: 3044202, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265366

RESUMEN

This study tested the protective effect of maslinic acid (MA) against diabetic retinopathy (DR) in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and investigated possible mechanisms of action. DM was introduced by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg, i.p.). Control and STZ (T1DM) were divided into 2 subgroups, which received either the vehicle or MA (80 mg/kg). Serum, pancreases, and retinas were collected for further use. MA significantly reduced fasting glucose levels in the control and T1DM rats but enhanced fasting insulin levels and partially increased the size of the islets of Langerhans and the number of ß-cells in T1DM rats. In addition, MA significantly improved the retina structure by preventing the reduction in the area between the inner and outer limiting membranes (ILM and OLM, respectively) and increasing the number of cells forming the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner nuclear layer (INL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL). Associated with these effects, MA significantly reduced the total levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as the nuclear levels of NF-κB p65, mRNA levels of Bax, and protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 in the retinas of T1DM rats. However, MA significantly lowered levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but significantly increased the nuclear levels of Nrf2, protein levels of Bcl2, and total levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the retinas of the control and T1DM rats. In conclusion, MA prevents DR by antioxidant potential mediated by the activation of Nrf2.

4.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 128(6): 1548-1558, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574082

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), endothelin-1 and angiotensin II are responsible for extracellular matrix accumulation within the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of adding Gum Arabic (GA) and insulin on serum glucose, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II in rats with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into; normal, normal plus GA, diabetic rats (DM), DM plus insulin, DM plus GA, and DM plus insulin plus GA groups. Levels of glucose and creatinine in serum, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 in renal homogenate and HbA1c were measured. RESULTS: Serum creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 were increased in diabetic rats. GA decreased serum glucose, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. GA and insulin decreased serum glucose, creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of GA with insulin to rats with diabetic nephropathy improved the glycemic state, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatías Diabéticas , Insulinas , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Creatinina , Angiotensina II/farmacología , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Endotelina-1 , Goma Arábiga/farmacología , Hemoglobina Glucada , Senegal , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Riñón , Glucosa/farmacología , Insulinas/farmacología
5.
J Family Community Med ; 23(2): 82-7, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27186153

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between overweight and obesity and physical activity in Saudi children born and permanently domiciled at high and low altitudes in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 145 healthy Saudi children aged 10-15 years who were born and lived permanently at high altitude (3000-3100 m) and 154 healthy Saudi children of comparable age who were born and lived permanently at a relatively low altitude (500 m) was conducted. For each subject selected, body weight and body height were measured using an Avery beam weighing scale and a stadiometer, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the equation BMI = (weight [kg]/height [m(2)]). Physical activity scores were determined using International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form-A. Resting radial pulse rate (beat/minutes) was determined clinically. RESULTS: Physical activity was significantly and inversely associated with overweight and obesity in boys at both high (χ(2) = 15.8, P< 0.001) and low (χ(2) = 14.7, P< 0.001) altitudes, but there was no clear trend for girls at either altitude. The lack of association between physical activity and overweight and obesity in girls was attributed to the low and homogeneous level of physical activity. CONCLUSION: Physical activity should be encouraged as a strategy for weight reduction in the overweight and the obese and the prevention of overweight and obesity in Saudi children at high and low altitudes.

6.
J. physiol. biochem ; 67(1): 61-69, mar. 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-122635

RESUMEN

No disponible


Several researches attempt to protect diabetic patients from the development of nephropathy. Involvement of leptin and renal Na+,K+-ATPase enzyme in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development is a recent field for researches. Vanadium, as a trace element with insulin mimetic effect, may act synergistically with insulin to protect against the development of DN. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control group (C), vanadium control group (CV), streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (D), insulin-treated diabetic group (DI), vanadium-treated diabetic group (DV), and combined insulin and vanadium-treated diabetic group. Six weeks later, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured and retro-orbital blood samples were collected to estimate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum sodium (Na+) and creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma leptin levels. Preparation of microsomal fraction of renal tissue homogenate for estimation of (..) (AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratas , Vanadio/farmacocinética , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/prevención & control , Leptina/farmacocinética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacocinética , Insulina/farmacocinética
7.
J Physiol Biochem ; 67(1): 61-9, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20927665

RESUMEN

Several researches attempt to protect diabetic patients from the development of nephropathy. Involvement of leptin and renal Na+,K+-ATPase enzyme in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development is a recent field for researches. Vanadium, as a trace element with insulin mimetic effect, may act synergistically with insulin to protect against the development of DN. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control group (C), vanadium control group (CV), streptozotocin-induced diabetic group (D), insulin-treated diabetic group (DI), vanadium-treated diabetic group (DV), and combined insulin and vanadium-treated diabetic group. Six weeks later, systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured and retro-orbital blood samples were collected to estimate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), serum sodium (Na+) and creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma leptin levels. Preparation of microsomal fraction of renal tissue homogenate for estimation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity was done. The D group showed a significant increase in SBP, HbA(1c), serum Na+, creatinine, and BUN levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in microsomal fraction of renal tissue homogenate while plasma leptin level decreased significantly compared with C and CV groups. Both DI and DV groups showed a significant improvement in all the above measured parameters compared with D group while there were no significant changes between the DI and DV groups. Concomitant treatment with insulin and vanadium resulted in a significant improvement in all the measured parameters compared to each alone. Vanadium in combination with insulin ameliorates DN markers and reduces renal Na+,K+-ATPase overactivity in diabetic rats. An effect that may be partially mediated through correction of hypoleptinemia observed in these animals.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Insulina/farmacología , Riñón/enzimología , Leptina/metabolismo , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/metabolismo , Vanadio/farmacología , Animales , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangre , Creatinina/metabolismo , Nefropatías Diabéticas/patología , Hemoglobina Glucada/efectos de los fármacos , Hemoglobina Glucada/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Cloruro de Sodio/sangre , Cloruro de Sodio/metabolismo , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/efectos de los fármacos
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