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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101730, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957484

RESUMEN

Hunters are at a higher risk for exposure to zoonotic pathogens due to their close interactions with wildlife and arthropod vectors. In this study, high throughput sequencing was used to explore the viromes of two tick species, Amblyomma dissimile and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, removed from hunted wildlife in Trinidad and Tobago. We identified sequences from 3 new viral species, from the viral families Orthomyxoviridae, Chuviridae and Tetraviridae in A. dissimile.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos , Iguanas , Ixodidae/virología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Orthomyxoviridae/clasificación , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Filogenia , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/parasitología , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria , Trinidad y Tobago , Proteínas Virales/análisis
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2775-2788, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438523

RESUMEN

Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and to characterize the strains. Swab samples were collected from birds showing severe respiratory signs in five farms on the island of Trinidad. Samples were tested for the presence of IBV, as well as avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All samples from the five farms tested negative for AIV, NDV and aMPV; however, samples from clinically affected birds in all five of the farms tested positive for IBV. Genetic data revealed the presence of TCoV in chickens on two of the farms. Interestingly, these two farms had never reared turkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IBV S1 sequences formed two distinct clusters. Two sequences grouped with vaccine strains within the GI-1 lineage, whereas three sequences grouped together, but separately from other defined lineages, forming a likely new lineage of IBV. Pairwise comparison revealed that the three unique variant strains within the distinct lineage of IBV were significantly different in their S1 nucleotide coding regions from viruses in the closest lineage (16% difference) and locally used vaccine strains (>20% difference). Results also suggested that one of the samples was a recombinant virus, generated from a recombination event between a Trinidad virus of the GI-1 lineage and a Trinidad virus of the newly defined lineage. Many amino acid differences were also observed between the S1 coding regions of the circulating field and vaccine strains, indicating that the IBV vaccines may not be protective. Vaccine-challenge studies are however needed to prove this.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Pollos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Patos , Gansos , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/clasificación , Filogenia , Codorniz , ARN Viral , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria , Trinidad y Tobago , Pavos , Vacunación/veterinaria
3.
Viruses ; 12(2)2020 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033370

RESUMEN

: Rabies virus (RABV) is the only lyssavirus known to be present within the Caribbean. The island of Trinidad, is richly diverse in chiropteran fauna and endemic for bat-transmitted rabies with low RABV isolation rates observed in this population. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in light of spatio-temporal and bat demographic factors to infer the extent of natural exposure to RABV in the Trinidadian bat population. RVNA titers were determined by the RABV micro-neutralization test on 383 bat samples representing 21 species, comprising 30.9% of local bat diversity, from 31 locations across the island over 5 years. RVNA was positively detected in 33 samples (8.6%) representing 6 bat species (mainly frugivorous) with titers ranging from 0.1 to 19 IU/mL (mean 1.66 IU/mL). The analyses based on a multivariable binomial generalised linear mixed-effects model showed that bat age and year of capture were significant predictors of seropositivity. Thus, juvenile bats were more likely to be seropositive when compared to adults (estimate 1.13; p = 0.04) which may suggest early exposure to the RABV with possible implications for viral amplification in this population. Temporal variation in rabies seropositivity, 2012-2014 versus 2015-2017 (estimate 1.07; p = 0.03) may have been related to the prevailing rabies epizootic situation. Regarding other factors investigated, RVNA was found in bats from both rural and non-rural areas, as well as in both hematophagous and non-hematophagous bat species. The most common seropositive species, Artibeus jamaicensis planirostris is ubiquitous throughout the island which may potentially facilitate human exposure. The findings of this study should be factored into public health assessments on the potential for rabies transmission by non-hematophagous bats in Trinidad.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Quirópteros/inmunología , Rabia/inmunología , Rabia/veterinaria , Animales , Quirópteros/virología , Femenino , Masculino , Rabia/epidemiología , Virus de la Rabia/inmunología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología
4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 74: 103931, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238112

RESUMEN

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a Culicoides-transmitted orbivirus that infects domestic and wild ruminants in many parts of the world. Of the eight proposed serotypes, only EHDV-1, 2 and 6 have been reported to be present in the Americas. Following the identification of a virulent EHD-6 reasssortant virus in the USA in 2007 (EHDV-6 Indiana), with outer coat protein segments derived from an Australian strain of EHDV and all remaining segments derived from a locally circulating EHDV-2 strain, questions have remained about the origin of the Australian parent strain and how it may have arrived in the USA. When EHDV-6 was identified in asymptomatic cattle imported into the Caribbean island of Trinidad in 2013, full genome sequencing was carried out to further characterise the virus. The EHDV-6 Trinidad was a reassortant virus, with 8 of its 10 segments, being derived from the same exotic Australian EHDV-6 strain as the VP2 and VP5 present in the EHDV-6 Indiana strain from the USA. Analyses of the two remaining segments revealed that segment 8 showed the highest nucleotide identity (90.4%) with a USA New Jersey strain of EHDV-1, whereas segment 4 had the highest nucleotide identity (96.5%) with an Australian EHDV-2 strain. This data strongly suggests that the Trinidad EHDV-6 has an Australian origin, receiving its segment 4 from a reassortment event with an EHDV-2 also from Australia. This reassortant virus likely came to the Americas, where it received its segment 8 from a locally-circulating (as yet unknown) EHDV strain. This virus then may have gained entry into the USA, where it further reassorted with a known locally-circulating EHDV-2, the resulting strain being EHDV-6 Indiana. This study therefore identifies, for the first time, the likely minor parent virus of the EHDV-6 currently circulating in the USA.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Virus de la Enfermedad Hemorrágica Epizoótica/clasificación , Infecciones por Reoviridae/veterinaria , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/métodos , Animales , Australia , Bovinos , Genoma Viral , Virus de la Enfermedad Hemorrágica Epizoótica/genética , Virus de la Enfermedad Hemorrágica Epizoótica/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Virus Reordenados/clasificación , Virus Reordenados/genética , Virus Reordenados/aislamiento & purificación , Trinidad y Tobago , Estados Unidos
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(3): 1341-1348, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817083

RESUMEN

Fowl adenovirus (FAdV), which causes the high-impact diseases such as inclusion body hepatitis and hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome, is of major concern to the poultry industry internationally. This study was carried out in direct response to mortality rates of up to 75% in commercial broiler flocks in Trinidad, West Indies. Symptoms in 3- to 8-week-old broilers and 13- to 18-week-old pullets pointed to infection with an immunosuppressive viral pathogen. The objectives of the study were to determine whether the infectious agent FAdV, along with other viral pathogens, was responsible for the clinical disease, and to obtain information on the serotypes of FAdV that were infecting the birds. Tissue samples from clinically affected birds from eight different farms were tested for chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for FAdV by conventional PCR. The birds tested positive for FAdV and CIAV, but negative for IBDV. The gene corresponding to the L1 loop of the hexon protein for FAdV was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of seven FAdV strains inferred that four serotypes were likely to be circulating in the chickens. Well supported genetic relatedness was observed for serotype 8a (97.8%), 8b (97.8%), 9 (95.8%) and 11 (98.8%-99.5%). This is the first published report from Trinidad and Tobago on the presence and circulation of pathogenic FAdV strains, in combination with CIAV, in poultry. The data demonstrate a possible need for the introduction of serotype-specific vaccines against FAdV, as well as vaccines against CIAV, in broilers in the region and emphasize the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on farms to prevent the spread of these potentially devastating viruses between farms.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenoviridae/veterinaria , Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Anemia del Pollo/aislamiento & purificación , Pollos/virología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Birnaviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Birnaviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Birnaviridae/virología , Virus de la Anemia del Pollo/genética , Virus de la Anemia del Pollo/inmunología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/virología , Coinfección/veterinaria , Femenino , Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa/genética , Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa/inmunología , Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Serogrupo , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 229: 1-6, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642583

RESUMEN

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is an economically important virus that can cause severe clinical disease in deer and to a lesser extent cattle. This study set out to determine and characterize which EHDV serotypes were circulating in Trinidad. Serum and whole blood samples were collected monthly for six months from a cohort of cattle imported to Trinidad from the USA. Results revealed that all the cattle seroconverted to EHDV within six months of their arrival, with EHDV RNA being detected in the samples just prior to antibodies, as expected. Serotyping assays revealed that a single serotype (EHDV-6) was circulating in the cattle. Sequencing of the surface viral protein (VP2) of EHDV-6, followed by phylogenetic analysis, revealed that the Trinidad EHDV-6 strain was closely related to EHDV-6 viruses found in Guadeloupe (2010), Martinique (2010) and USA (2006), with 96-97.2% nucleotide identity. The Trinidad EHDV-6 VP-2 shared 97.2% identity with the Australian EHDV-6 prototype strain, classifying it within the eastern topotype clade. Bayesian coalescent analysis support Australia as the most probable source for the EHDV-6 VP2 sequences in the Americas and Caribbean region and suggests that the they diverged from the Australian prototype strain around 1966 (95% HPD 1941-1979).


Asunto(s)
Lengua Azul/complicaciones , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Virus de la Enfermedad Hemorrágica Epizoótica/clasificación , Animales , Lengua Azul/epidemiología , Virus de la Lengua Azul , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , Proteínas de la Cápside/metabolismo , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Femenino , Virus de la Enfermedad Hemorrágica Epizoótica/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , ARN Viral , Serogrupo , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología
7.
Vet Sci ; 5(2)2018 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751649

RESUMEN

Despite frequent reports of subfertility and abortion in dairy cattle in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), little is known about the potential infectious and non-infectious causes. This study set out to investigate possible infectious causes of reproductive problems by measuring the seroprevalence of four of the most significant reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle worldwide: Brucella abortus (B. abortus); Neospora caninum (N. caninum), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). These four reproductive pathogens have been suspected to be present in dairy cattle in T&T for some time but, previously, studies have not been carried out to confirm their presence. Bulk milk samples were collected from 92 dairy farms across Trinidad, representing a total of 1177 dairy cattle. Four dairy farms were selected for individual milk sampling to assess in-farm seroprevalence levels. Milk samples were tested for antibodies to the four pathogens by commercial ELISA kits. The overall farm seroprevalence was 62% for N. caninium and 23% for IBRV, and no antibodies were detected in any of the bulk milk samples for B. abortus or BVDV. Mixed infections for IBRV and N. caninum were common. Seroprevalence levels were between 8% and 65% for N. caninum and between 3% and 53% IBRV on the four individual farms. These results reveal the presence of IBRV and N. caninum for the first time on the island of Trinidad and importantly reveal no evidence for the circulation of BVDV or B. abortus in dairy cattle in Trinidad.

8.
Prev Vet Med ; 149: 75-81, 2018 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290303

RESUMEN

Viruses affecting poultry cause significant levels of disease leading to severe economic losses among poultry farmers worldwide. The Americas region continues to be vulnerable to the spread of poultry viruses across the continents and Caribbean island chains. In Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) there is limited information on the viruses circulating in poultry. Many flock are vulnerable to infection and there are occasional outbreaks of disease resulting in high levels of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify important viruses of poultry circulating in T&T through a broad-based surveillance approach. Serum samples from 29 layer farms in Trinidad and 14 layer farms in Tobago were collected from the eldest laying hens. Samples were tested from unvaccinated birds for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against Avian influenza virus (AIV), Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Avian pneumovirus (APV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Fowl adenovirus Gp1 (FADV) and Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV). In Trinidad, the estimated true seroprevalence levels of antibodies were 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for AIV, 100% (CI 95%: 97-100%) for IBV, 79.8% (CI 95%: 70.6-86.9%) for NDV, 1% (CI 95%: 0-2.6%) for ILTV, 67.55% (CI 95%: 62.3-72.4%) for APV, 94.93% (CI 95%: 88.0-98.6%) for IBDV, 100% (CI 95%: 99.7-100%) for FADV and 67.8% (CI 95%: 62.4-72.8%) for EDSV. In Tobago, seroprevalence levels were 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for AIV, 100% (CI 95%: 95.6-100%) for IBV, 80.5% (CI 95%: 70.1-88.5%) for NDV, 29.9% (CI 95%: 20.8-40.6%) for ILTV, 100% (CI 95%: 97.7-100%) for APV, 97.1% (CI95%: 89.9-100%) for IBDV, 100% (CI 95%: 97.5-100%) for FADV and 100% (CI 95%: 99-100%) for EDSV. The results reveal strong evidence for the circulation of IBV, NDV, APV, IBDV, FADV and EDSV in layer poultry on both islands, as well as ILTV in Tobago.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 49(6): 1117-1124, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523387

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to the aforementioned viruses using commercial ELISA kits, and the circulating strains of SwIV were identified by the hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT). Antibodies against SwIV were detected in 114 out of the 309 samples (37%). Out of a total of 26 farms, 14 tested positive for SwIV antibodies. HI testing revealed high titers against the A/sw/Minnesota/593/99 H3N2 strain and the pH1N1 2009 pandemic strain. Antibodies against PPV were detected in 87 out of the 309 samples (28%), with 11 out of 26 farms testing positive for PPV antibodies. Antibodies against PCV-2 were detected in 205 out of the 309 samples tested (66%), with 25 out of the 26 farms testing positive for PCV-2 antibodies. No antibodies were detected in any of the tested pigs to PRRSV, TGEV, PRCV, or CSFV.


Asunto(s)
Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología
10.
Vaccine ; 33(28): 3256-61, 2015 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26056063

RESUMEN

The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated animals in the field. The three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (Ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) Neethling and Kenyan sheep and goat pox (KSGP) O-180 strain vaccines) and a Gorgan goat pox (GTP) vaccine manufactured by Jordan Bio-Industries Centre (JOVAC). The latter vaccine was evaluated for the first time in cattle against LSDV. The Ethiopian Neethling and KSGPO-180 vaccines failed to provide protection in cattle against LSDV, whereas the Gorgan GTP vaccine protected all the vaccinated calves from clinical signs of LSD. There was no significant difference in protective efficacy detected between two dosage levels (P=0.2, P=0.25, and P=0.1 for KSGP, Neethling and Gorgan vaccines, respectively). Additionally, the Gorgan GTP vaccinated cattle showed stronger levels of cellular immune responses measured using Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions at the vaccination site indicating higher levels of immunogenicity produced by the GTPV vaccine in cattle, as opposed to the other two vaccines. This study indicated, for the first time, that the Gorgan GTP vaccine can effectively protect cattle against LSDV and that the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine were not protective. The results emphasise the need for molecular characterization of the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine seed viruses used for vaccine production in Ethiopia. In addition, the potency and efficacy testing process of the Ethiopian LSD Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccines should be re-evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Capripoxvirus/inmunología , Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa/prevención & control , Virus de la Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Bovinos , Etiopía , Ovinos , Vacunación/veterinaria , Vacunas Atenuadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Virales/efectos adversos
11.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 84(1): E1-3, 2013 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23718259

RESUMEN

The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood) from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT) antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90%) were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by real-time RT-PCR, 84 (56%) were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region.


Asunto(s)
Lengua Azul/virología , Enfermedades de las Cabras/virología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Lengua Azul/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Cabras , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Uganda/epidemiología
12.
Vaccine ; 29(28): 4593-600, 2011 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21549789

RESUMEN

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs for which there is currently no vaccine. We showed that experimental immunisation of pigs with the non-virulent OURT88/3 genotype I isolate from Portugal followed by the closely related virulent OURT88/1 genotype I isolate could confer protection against challenge with virulent isolates from Africa including the genotype I Benin 97/1 isolate and genotype X Uganda 1965 isolate. This immunisation strategy protected most pigs challenged with either Benin or Uganda from both disease and viraemia. Cross-protection was correlated with the ability of different ASFV isolates to stimulate immune lymphocytes from the OURT88/3 and OURT88/1 immunised pigs.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana/patogenicidad , Fiebre Porcina Africana/prevención & control , Sus scrofa/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Fiebre Porcina Africana/inmunología , Fiebre Porcina Africana/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana/clasificación , Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Benin , Inmunización , Interferón gamma/biosíntesis , Portugal , Sus scrofa/virología , Porcinos , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Uganda
13.
Vet J ; 188(2): 193-6, 2011 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20466568

RESUMEN

Cattle and sheep that had received a primary course of vaccination with an inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine were booster vaccinated 6 or 12 months later with the homologous vaccine or an alternative inactivated BTV-8 vaccine and neutralising antibody responses were determined. Antibody titres to the alternative vaccine were significantly higher than to the homologous vaccine (P=0.013) in cattle. There was no significant difference between the antibody responses to alternative and homologous vaccines in sheep. These data indicate that cattle and sheep primed with one inactivated BTV-8 vaccine may be effectively boosted with an alternative commercial inactivated BTV-8 vaccine.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Virus de la Lengua Azul/inmunología , Lengua Azul/prevención & control , Inmunización Secundaria/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Lengua Azul/inmunología , Bovinos , Femenino , Masculino , Ovinos , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados
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