Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
1.
Suma psicol ; 27(2): 116-124, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1145121

RESUMEN

Resumen Los delincuentes crónicos resultan ser los responsables de la mayor parte de la actividad criminal, además de ser los más persistentes y violentos. Existe escasa evidencia longitudinal que permita conocer cómo se manifiesta la cronicidad en agresores de violencia doméstica. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar el criterio más adecuado para diferenciar a los hombres crónicos y establecer la relación que existe entre cronicidad, violencia, versatilidad y duración de la carrera criminal en 10 505 hombres chilenos detenidos por delitos de violencia en el ámbito familiar en el 2007, con base en todas las nuevas detenciones producidas los siguientes diez años. El diseño es longitudinal pseudoprospectivo, tal como si correspondiera a un estudio longitudinal prospectivo. Los resultados muestran que tres o más delitos bastan para identificar adecuadamente carreras criminales crónicas, y que un 12.7% del total de hombres pueden considerarse graves, violentos y crónicos, al presentar una trayectoria criminal de entre ocho y diez años, ser responsables de más del 37% del total de las reincidencias, alcanzar un promedio de delitos significativamente alto y versátiles, así como una elevada prevalencia en delitos violentos.


Abstract Chronical criminals turn out to be responsible of most of the criminal activity, in addition to being the most persistent and violent. There exists limited longitudinal evidence that allows knowing how chronicity manifests itself in domestic violence aggressors. The objective of this investigation is to identify the most appropriate criteria to differentiate chronic men and establish the relationship between chronicity, violence and duration of the criminal career in 10 505 Chilean men arrested for domestic violence crimes in 2007, based on all new arrests produced the next 10 years. The design is a longitudinal pseudo-prospective, as if it corresponded to a prospective longitudinal study. The results show that three or more crimes are enough to properly identify chronic criminal careers, and that 12.7% of all men can be considered as serious, violent and chronic, presenting a criminal trajectory between eight and ten years, being responsible for more than 37% of total recidivism, reach a significantly high average of crimes and high prevalence of violent crimes.

2.
Front Psychol ; 11: 539165, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117219

RESUMEN

Literature reports that depressive symptoms may precede suicidal ideation. Several studies have identified social support and substance use as moderators of this relationship. However, no study has evaluated these variables together by testing how substance use can affect the moderating effect of social support in this relationship. The purpose of this article is to individually evaluate dimensions of social support (friends, family, significant others, and school) and substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs), as moderators of the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, as well as analyze the moderating role of substance use in the moderation exerted by social support in this relationship. This study, quantitative and cross-sectional, considered 775 adolescents [Average age = 15.48 (SD = 0.96), 45.9% women], from 20 randomly selected schools in Santiago de Chile. Simple moderation models were used to analyze possible moderators separately, and double moderation models were used to analyze the moderating role of substance use in the moderating effect of social support. The results show that the four dimensions of social support moderate the relationship between depressive symptomatology and suicidal ideation, showing the strongest interaction in the case of family support, followed by support of a significant person, support at school, and support of friends, in that order. On the other hand, alcohol was the only drug that moderated the relationship in question. In addition, the results show that the use of alcohol limits the moderating effect of social support in the fields of family, significant person, and school support, but not in the case of support of friends. The use of marijuana and other illicit drugs did not affect the moderating effects of social support for any of the areas evaluated. The results are discussed according to the different roles that alcohol use can play in adolescence, and how these, together with perceived social support, are related to the emergence of suicidal ideation from depressive symptoms.

3.
J Sex Marital Ther ; : 1-14, 2020 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821014

RESUMEN

This article examines the relationship between sexual satisfaction and gender, age, social status, being in stable relationships, intercourse frequency, and satisfaction with physical attractiveness (physical appearance and sex appeal). A self-report questionnaire was applied in a representative sample of 767 residents of Santiago (Chile), over 18 years old and that have had, at least, one sexual relation (with penetration) during their lives. Higher sexual satisfaction was predicted negatively by age and positively by higher satisfaction with sex appeal, higher intercourse frequency and having a stable relationship. Among women, the principal predictors are satisfaction with sex appeal and intercourse frequency. Among men to the above, it is necessary to add satisfaction with physical appearance and having a stable relationship - at odds with supposed higher relevance for women of body satisfaction and sensibility to social relationships. Discussion emphasizes the controversial nature of the gender differences found regarding the Latin American culture.

4.
Data Brief ; 31: 106000, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695861

RESUMEN

The survey data derives from a newly-developed questionnaire of interaction mindset. Interaction mindset pertains to second language (L2) learners' disposition towards the task and/or an interlocutor prior to and/or during task-based interaction [1]. The theoretical model is consisted of five factors: (a) peer interaction; (b) collaboration; (c) form-orientation; (d) provision of peer feedback; and (e) reception of peer feedback. In the larger study ("Predicting L2 learners' noticing of L2 errors: Proficiency, language analytical ability, and interaction mindset" [2]), the questionnaire results were used as predictor variables of L2 learners' attention to language form. The current dataset contains responses from 102 L2 learners in university-level English classes. In addition to the descriptive statistics of the questionnaire, the current article reports on the results from structural equation modeling explaining the unique contributions of the five factors to the construct of interaction mindset. The model is visually depicted with a figure using AMOS. The model shows the questionnaire's potential in examining L2 learners' affective variables that may influence the learners' cognitive and behavioural engagement patterns. The entire dataset is included in an Excel file (.xlsx) and the original questionnaire is included as a supplementary file.

5.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7958, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678813

RESUMEN

Introduction: This cross-sectional study sought to examine the relationships between the perception of efficiency and quality of the service provided by the staff of the health system with users well-being (satisfaction with life), in the Chilean context. Based on the literature review, we hypothesized that satisfaction with the services provided by the health system would be associated with the well-being of its users. Objective: To determine the relationship between the evaluation of the health system, medical staff, and perceived efficiency, with users subjective well-being. Methods: On a sample of 1,201 respondents (52.4% women, mean age 42.82 years), descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis, and a structural equation model were performed between the evaluation of the health system, medical staff, and perceived efficiency with users subjective well-being. Results: These three variables are positively related to each other and have effects on subjective well-being. Discussion: Health systems also influence the subjective well-being of their users and can be associated with indicators of quality of life. Some implications and considerations related to the Chilean health system are discussed. Also, some of the possible limitations of the study are mentioned. Lastly, the importance of the health systems as part of the state and government functions is discussed.

6.
Medwave ; 20(6)31-07-2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118789

RESUMEN

Introducción El presente estudio examina las posibles relaciones entre la percepción de eficiencia y la calidad de la atención por parte del personal de salud y el bienestar de los usuarios en el contexto chileno. Basados en la literatura, se hipotetiza que, a mayor satisfacción con el sistema de salud, se experimenta mayor bienestar por parte de la ciudadanía que utiliza sus servicios. Objetivos Determinar las relaciones entre la evaluación del sistema de salud, el personal médico y la eficiencia percibida en las prestaciones por parte de los usuarios y su bienestar subjetivo. Métodos Utilizando un diseño de corte transversal, y considerando una muestra de 1201 personas (52,4% mujeres, media de la edad de 42,82 años), se realizaron diferentes análisis descriptivos, bivariados, junto con un modelo de ecuación estructural en relación con la evaluación del sistema de salud, la evaluación del personal médico, y la eficiencia percibida en las prestaciones médicas por parte de los usuarios y su relación con el indicador de bienestar subjetivo de satisfacción con la vida. Resultados Los resultados indican que estas tres variables se relacionan positivamente entre sí y tienen efectos sobre el bienestar subjetivo. Discusión Los sistemas de salud poseen también una función sobre el bienestar subjetivo de sus usuarios, pudiendo asociarse a indicadores de calidad de vida. Se comentan en la discusión algunas implicancias y consideraciones relacionadas con el sistema de salud chileno. También se comentan las posibles limitaciones del presente estudio. Finalmente, se menciona la importancia que tienen los sistemas de salud como parte del aparato estatal y gubernamental.


Introduction This cross-sectional study sought to examine the relationships between the perception of efficiency and quality of the service provided by the staff of the health system with users' well-being (satisfaction with life), in the Chilean context. Based on the literature review, we hypothesized that satisfaction with the services provided by the health system would be associated with the well-being of its users. Objective To determine the relationship between the evaluation of the health system, medical staff, and perceived efficiency, with users' subjective well-being. Methods On a sample of 1,201 respondents (52.4% women, mean age 42.82 years), descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis, and a structural equation model were performed between the evaluation of the health system, medical staff, and perceived efficiency with users' subjective well-being. Results These three variables are positively related to each other and have effects on subjective well-being. Discussion Health systems also influence the subjective well-being of their users and can be associated with indicators of quality of life. Some implications and considerations related to the Chilean health system are discussed. Also, some of the possible limitations of the study are mentioned. Lastly, the importance of the health systems as part of the state and government functions is discussed.

7.
J Sex Marital Ther ; 46(7): 649-659, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536327

RESUMEN

Objective: The purpose of this study is the validation of a proposed additional item for the PWI-7 scale for measuring sexual satisfaction as a dimension of Personal Well-being.Methodology: An adaptation of the PWI-7 questionnaire was administered to adult inhabitants of urban areas of Santiago, Chile. Analysis consisted of exposition of descriptive statistics, item-scale correlation, item-item correlation, multiple linear regression with the Overall Life Satisfaction Scale (OLS), moderation analysis and, confirmatory factor analysis. All analyses were divided by gender due to significant differences in sexual satisfaction found in literature reviewed.Results: All items were significantly and positively associated with the PWI. Internal consistency was satisfactory for Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.884 for males and α = 0.877 for females). After conducting a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using maximum likelihood (ML) as estimator, adequate levels of adjustment were obtained.Discussion: Results indicate that adding a new item on sexual satisfaction might be a contribution for the measurement of life satisfaction. The scale shows adequate internal consistency once the item is added and the new item on sexual satisfaction has a better fit than the one regarding satisfaction with spiritual life. Factor structure was invariant for males and females.

8.
Data Brief ; 27: 104702, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720345

RESUMEN

The data derives from a survey collected from 543 school-level teachers of English in Chile. The survey was originally distributed to 5435 teachers. The survey was developed with an aim of exploring teachers' beliefs about how second language grammar should be taught. The survey consisted of 50 items in total, in four sections: (a) background information (10 items), (b) beliefs regarding L2 learning and teaching (9 items), (c) beliefs regarding grammar instruction (23 items), and (d) classroom realities (8 items). Except for the background information section, the items took the form of a 6-point Likert scale. The entire dataset is included in an Excel file (.xlsx). The entire questionnaire is included as a supplementary file. The data is connected to the theoretical models proposed in [1]. In [1], those models were proposed based on descriptive statistics (e.g., agreement/disagreement rates) and focus-group interview data. Subsequently, in the current paper, the data was submitted to structural equation modelling to explain the theoretical models. Then, the data is visually depicted with figures created via AMOS.

9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(9): 1106-1114, set. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-902594

RESUMEN

Background: Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. Aim: To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Material and Methods: Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. Conclusions: A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.

12.
Rev Med Chil ; 145(9): 1106-1114, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424396

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. AIM: To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. CONCLUSIONS: A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico/estadística & datos numéricos , Sueño/fisiología , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Valores de Referencia , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/fisiopatología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(6): 480-487, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-770154

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, there is no single strategy for optimal management of patients with ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cytology reports. The objective of this study was to determine the kind of clinical management conducted among women with a first ASCUS Pap smear report. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective single cohort study at a cervical pathology unit in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: This was an epidemiological, descriptive, observational and quantitative follow-up study on a cohort of women with ASCUS cytological reports. RESULTS: In the screening phase, 92,001 cervical cytological smears were collected in primary healthcare clinics. In the diagnostic phase, all women with a first ASCUS report were selected (n = 446). These women were asked to undergo the Pap test again and it was found that 301 women had normal results, 62 women had abnormal results and 83 did not repeat the test. In the diagnostic confirmation phase, the 62 women with abnormal results underwent colposcopy and, from these results, 58 of them underwent a biopsy. The results from the biopsies showed that 16 women had negative histological reports, 13 had CIN 1 and 29 had CIN 2+. In the treatment phase, the 42 women with lesions underwent a variety of treatments, according to the type of lesion. In the post-treatment phase, cytological and colposcopic monitoring was instituted. CONCLUSION: The clinical management consisted of traditional management of screening, diagnosis, diagnostic confirmation, treatment and post-treatment monitoring.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Mundialmente, não existe estratégia única para o gerenciamento ideal de pacientes com laudos de citologia ASCUS ( atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ). O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o tipo de gerenciamento clínico realizado em mulheres com o primeiro laudo de Papanicolaou ASCUS. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo de coorte única em uma unidade de patologia cervical em Santiago, Chile. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, observacional e quantitativo de seguimento de um grupo de mulheres com laudos de citologia ASCUS. RESULTADOS: Na fase de rastreamento, 92.001 relatórios de citologia cervical foram coletados nos ambulatórios da rede pública de saúde. Na fase de diagnóstico, foi selecionada a totalidade de mulheres com relatórios citológicos de ASCUS (n = 446). Essas mulheres foram submetidas a repetição do exame de Papanicolaou, obtendo-se 301 mulheres com resultados normais, 62 mulheres com resultados anormais e 83 que não repetiram o exame. Na fase de confirmação de diagnóstico, as 62 mulheres com resultados anormais foram submetidas a colposcopia e, considerando-se os resultados obtidos, 58 foram submetidas a biópsia. Os resultados das biópsias mostraram 16 mulheres com laudos histológicos negativos, 13 com NIC 1 e 29 com NIC 2 +. Na fase terapêutica, as 42 mulheres com lesões foram submetidas a diversos tratamentos de acordo com o tipo de lesão. Para a fase pós-tratamento, foi instituído um sistema de monitoramento citocolposcópico. CONCLUSÃO: As condutas clínicas tiveram gestão tradicional de rastreamento, diagnóstico, confirmação diagnóstica, tratamento e acompanhamento pós-tratamento.


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Células Escamosas Atípicas del Cuello del Útero/patología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/terapia , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/terapia , Chile , Colposcopía , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Estudios de Seguimiento , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Rev Med Chil ; 143(9): 1144-51, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26530197

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Personal well-being calculates quality of life in terms of the necessary conditions required to live well. AIM: To validate the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in a representative sample of vulnerable users of the public health system in Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A probabilistic and multistage sample consisting of 400 individuals aged 44 ± 18 years (61% females) belonging to the lower income group of the National Health Fund (FONASA), residents of Gran Santiago was surveyed. Internal consistency and correlation between items and scale were examined. Structure was analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis. RESULTS: The seven-item PWI is a good indicator of subjective well-being in the population under study, considering internal consistency, factor loadings, relation with overall life satisfaction and goodness of fit. The indicators mostly associated with personal well-being are the socioeconomic level followed by relationships with the community, health conditions and achievements. CONCLUSIONS: The 7-item version of the PWI is suitable for application in vulnerable health service users.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Chile , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Clase Social , Espiritualidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas
15.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 133(6): 480-7, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26465817

RESUMEN

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, there is no single strategy for optimal management of patients with ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) cytology reports. The objective of this study was to determine the kind of clinical management conducted among women with a first ASCUS Pap smear report. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective single cohort study at a cervical pathology unit in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: This was an epidemiological, descriptive, observational and quantitative follow-up study on a cohort of women with ASCUS cytological reports. RESULTS: In the screening phase, 92,001 cervical cytological smears were collected in primary healthcare clinics. In the diagnostic phase, all women with a first ASCUS report were selected (n = 446). These women were asked to undergo the Pap test again and it was found that 301 women had normal results, 62 women had abnormal results and 83 did not repeat the test. In the diagnostic confirmation phase, the 62 women with abnormal results underwent colposcopy and, from these results, 58 of them underwent a biopsy. The results from the biopsies showed that 16 women had negative histological reports, 13 had CIN 1 and 29 had CIN 2+. In the treatment phase, the 42 women with lesions underwent a variety of treatments, according to the type of lesion. In the post-treatment phase, cytological and colposcopic monitoring was instituted. CONCLUSION: The clinical management consisted of traditional management of screening, diagnosis, diagnostic confirmation, treatment and post-treatment monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Células Escamosas Atípicas del Cuello del Útero/patología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patología , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/terapia , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Chile , Colposcopía , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Prueba de Papanicolaou , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
16.
Univ. psychol ; 14(3): 1055-1066, jul.-sep. 2015. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-780668

RESUMEN

Association between indexes of socioeconomic status, satisfaction with income and status, and psychological well-being (PWB) was examined in a representative sample of Chileans. Results confirm a positive association between socioeconomic status and satisfaction with income and status and PWB. Associations were stronger with PWB facets related to relational, control and self-esteem processes, and weaker with purpose of life, growth and autonomy. Structural equation modeling confirmed a direct significant coefficient of socioeconomic status on PWB, as well as an indirect significant path through satisfaction with income and status. Control for satisfaction with socioeconomic status and purchase power reduced but did not eliminate the effect of socioeconomic status on PWB. Results are consistent with a direct effect model of socio-structural position on well-being, but also with the relevance of satisfaction with social position as an appraisal process to indicate high psychological well-being.


Se estudió la asociación entre nivel socioeconómico, satisfacción con los ingresos, estatus económico, y el bienestar psicológico, en una muestra representativa de chilenos. Los resultados confirman una asociación positiva entre el nivel socioeconómico, la satisfacción con el ingreso, estatus económico y el bienestar psicológico. Las asociaciones fueron más fuertes con las dimensiones de bienestar psicológico, relaciones con el entorno, y autoestima, y más débil con las dimensiones de propósito con vida, crecimiento personal y autonomía. Modelo de ecuaciones estructurales confirmaron con indicadores de ajuste significativo la relación entre la situación socioeconómica y el bienestar psicológico, así como una trayectoria significativa indirecta a través de la satisfacción con los ingresos y el estatus económico. Al controlar el poder adquisitivo en su relación con satisfacción con el ingreso, redujo su efecto, pero no eliminó el efecto del nivel socioeconómico sobre el bienestar psicológico. Los resultados son consistentes con un modelo de efecto directo de la relación entre situación económica y bienestar. Se presenta la importancia de la satisfacción con el ingreso y el estatutos como predictores del bienestar psicológico.


Asunto(s)
Psicología , Bienestar Social
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(9): 1144-1151, set. 2015. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-762685

RESUMEN

Background: Personal well-being calculates quality of life in terms of the necessary conditions required to live well. Aim: To validate the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in a representative sample of vulnerable users of the public health system in Santiago, Chile. Material and Methods. A probabilistic and multistage sample consisting of 400 individuals aged 44 ± 18 years (61% females) belonging to the lower income group of the National Health Fund (FONASA), residents of Gran Santiago was surveyed. Internal consistency and correlation between items and scale were examined. Structure was analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The seven-item PWI is a good indicator of subjective well-being in the population under study, considering internal consistency, factor loadings, relation with overall life satisfaction and goodness of fit. The indicators mostly associated with personal well-being are the socioeconomic level followed by relationships with the community, health conditions and achievements. Conclusions: The 7-item version of the PWI is suitable for application in vulnerable health service users.


Asunto(s)
Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Chile , Análisis Factorial , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Clase Social , Espiritualidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas
18.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 13(2): 781-794, jul. 2015. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-785360

RESUMEN

El objetivo del artículo es discutir la relación entre socialización e interés por la política en jóvenes de Chile, desde las teorías de la socialización y la cultura política, que sostienen que las orientaciones de los individuos son adquiridas mediante procesos de relaciones con otros y con instituciones, de forma recíproca. A partir de la Encuesta Metropolitana de Comportamiento Político Juvenil (2012) aplicada a residentes -entre 18 y 25 años- del Gran Santiago, y a través de modelos de regresión logística, se verifica que el principal factor explicativo del interés por la política es informarse de esta temática con los amigos y amigas, destacando así la relevancia del contexto socializador...


Asunto(s)
Adolescente , Chile
19.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 13(1): 313-327, ene.-jun. 2015. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-747680

RESUMEN

El artículo presenta los resultados de la Encuesta Internacional sobre Bienestar Subjetivo infantil (ISCWeB), aplicada en Chile en el año 2012. El cuestionario fue aplicado a una muestra de 2.734 niños y niñas, de 8, 10 y 12 años, residentes de las tres principales zonas urbanas del país. Los resultados dan cuenta de una alta satisfacción con la vida, existiendo diferencias al considerar las variables nivel socioeconómico y sexo, así como también distintos aspectos. Los ámbitos mejor evaluados corresponden a la familia, bienes materiales, y salud; en detrimento de aspectos como el barrio y el colegio. Asimismo, se observa que el conocimiento y percepción de que se respetan los derechos de los niños y niñas, disminuye con la edad. Las conclusiones enfatizan la necesidad de profundizar en el estudio de esta temática.


The article presents the results of International Survey on Children's Well-being (ISCWeB), carried out in Chile in 2012. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of 2.734 children, of 8, 10 and 12 year-old, residents of the three mayor urban areas of the country. Results show high levels of life satisfaction; however differences exist considering socio-economic and gender variables, as well as different aspects. Best rated aspects correspond to family, goods and health, detrimental to neighborhood and school. It is also noted that knowledge and perception that the Children's Rights are respected, decreases with age. Conclusions emphasize the need of further research on this subject.


O artigo apresenta os resultados da Pesquisa Internacional sobre Bem- Estar Subjetivo Infantil (ISCWeB), aplicada no Chile, em 2012. O questionário foi aplicado numa amostra de 2.734 crianças, de 8, 10 e 12 anos, moradores das três maiores áreas urbanas do pai. Os resultados mostram uma alta satisfação com a vida, havendo diferenças quando se consideram as variáveis socioeconômicas e de gênero e, também, diferentes aspectos. As áreas melhor avaliadas correspondem à família, aos bens materiais, e à saúde, em detrimento do bairro e da escola. Nota-se, também, que o conhecimento e a percepção que os direitos das crianças sejam respeitados diminuem com a idade. Os resultados emfatizan a neccesidade dum estudio mais aprofundado sobre este assunto.

20.
Cienc. Trab ; 16(51): 146-151, dic. 2014. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-734625

RESUMEN

Este artículo presenta el nivel de conocimiento y evaluación de las mutuales de seguridad, aseguradoras privadas de accidentes laborales y enfermedades profesionales en Chile. Se aplicó una encuesta telefónica a 300 trabajadores dependientes residentes en hogares ubicados en las zonas urbanas de Santiago de Chile. Los hogares fueron seleccionados de forma aleatoria sobre la base de un listado público de teléfonos de hogares. Los resultados muestran que la mayor parte de los encuestados sabe en qué consisten estas instituciones, pero aproximadamente un tercio afirma no tener conocimiento del sistema. Las evaluaciones más altas respecto a la información recibida de las mutuales están en el área de beneficios no relacionados al trabajo (por ejemplo, descuentos en establecimientos educacionales y tiendas) y a las coberturas en salud en caso de accidente. Para aquellos usuarios que han sufrido un accidente laboral, las valoraciones más altas están en el área de atención médica y rehabilitación, mientras las más bajas se encuentran en las prestaciones asociadas a traslado hacia los centros asistenciales, así como de los procedimientos administrativos asociados al tratamiento del accidente. Se concluye que resulta necesario promover el conocimiento de las actividades de las mutuales y mejorar las estrategias de promoción de actividades de prevención de accidentes ocupacionales con el objeto de hacer más eficiente su rol público. De igual manera, la información recolectada permite identificar los procedimientos de apoyo al tratamiento de accidentes como una de las áreas de mejora en el marco de la atención de salud ocupacional.


This article presents the level of public knowledge and evaluation towards Mutuales de seguridad -private occupational safety and health insurance institutions- in Chile. The sample is composed by phone interviews to 300 adult dependent workers living in households located in urban areas of Santiago de Chile. Households were selected through random dialling. The results show a high proportion of workers declaring to know what these institutions are, while about a third declares not to have information about them. Regarding information provided by mutuales, they report higher satisfaction-with information associated to benefits non-related to health and safety (for instance, discounts) and with those associated with the coverage in case of accident. For those who have suffered an occupational accident, the most valued areas of the service are the medical attention and the rehabilitation process, while the least valued areas are the process of transportation from the site of accident to the medical centre and the administrative process associated to the accident's treatment. These results highlight the need for better strategies to promote activities aiming to prevent occupational accidents. They also make clear that there is space for improvement in the area of support activities related to accidents treatment.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Opinión Pública , Seguridad Social , Prevención de Accidentes , Grupos Profesionales/psicología , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Salud Laboral , Enfermedades Profesionales
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA