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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170344

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Our study aimed to explore the effect of parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of congenital heart diseases (CHDs) in the offspring, and to compare job-exposure matrix (JEM)-assessed and self-reported occupational exposures with each other. METHODS: Live-born infants born in 2007-2008 were selected from the population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities Study. 577 cases with any CHDs were compared to 1731 matched controls. Parental periconceptional occupational exposure to EDCs was assessed by a JEM and by questionnaire-based self-reporting of parents. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations between parental occupational exposure to EDCs and the entire spectrum of CHDs and by CHD subtypes in the offspring. Kappa statistics were also performed to determine the consistency among JEM-assessed and self-reported occupational exposure of parents. RESULTS: JEM-assessed paternal exposure to polychlorinated organic substances, phthalates, biphenolic compounds, and solvents were significantly associated with the entire spectrum of CHDs. Ventricular septal defects were significantly associated with paternal self-reported exposure to pesticides, while atrial septal defects were significantly associated to paternal JEM-assessed phthalate exposure. Paternal solvent exposure was significantly associated with atrial septal defects and right ventricle outflow tract obstructions. JEM-assessed and self-reported exposures to pesticides, heavy metals, and solvents exhibited poor agreement for mothers and slight agreement for fathers. CONCLUSION: Even though parental occupational exposure to EDCs seems to have a minor impact on the occurrence of CHDs, the results of biological and environmental monitoring should be taken into consideration as well.

2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 991-998, 2020 11 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215490

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore self-reported oral hygiene practices (OHPs) among Hungarian adult e-cigarette-only (former smokers who switched completely to e-cigarette use or vaping) and dual users (smokers who use e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco cigarettes concomitantly). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based survey of 930 adult Hungarian e-cigarette users was conducted in 2015. Participants reported 10 OHPs, which were included in analyses as separate binary variables and as a composite variable of the 10 OHP items (inadequate/adequate). Chi-square test was used to explore whether separate OHPs differ by vaping status, and to examine the relationship between inadequate OHPs and past combustible or e-cigarette use characteristics. Associations between separate OHPs and vaping status, and between inadequate OHPs and vaping status were tested by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: More dual users reported toothbrushing twice a day or more than e-cigarette-only users (73.6% vs 65.3%, respectively, p = 0.041) and using sugar-free chewing gum (57.7% vs 45.8%, respectively, p = 0.006) while adequacy of other OHPs did not differ statistically significantly by vaping status. Inadequate OHPs were more typical in the sample (63.7%) than adequate OHPs, however, inadequate OHPs did not differ statistically significantly among dual users and e-cigarette-only users (62.0% vs 64.0%, respectively, OR = 1.20, p = 0.400), controlling for age, gender, education, past combustible and current e-cigarette use characteristics. CONCLUSION: In this study, both e-cigarette-only and dual users demonstrated similarly high prevalence of inadequate OHPs. Therefore dentists should educate them about effective OHPs and the role of tobacco and e-cigarette use in the development of oral diseases.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Higiene Bucal
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140474

RESUMEN

The etiology of congenital heart diseases is not fully understood yet, however, endocrine disrupting chemicals may have a causative role in their development. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between congenital heart diseases and periconceptional parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In our Hungarian population-based case-control study, we examined 2263 live born cases with any congenital heart disease and 6789 matched controls selected between years 1997 to 2002. Occupational exposure was assessed with a job-exposure matrix developed for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Conditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to test associations between parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and congenital heart diseases of the offspring as a whole and by congenital heart disease subtypes. The prevalence of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals was 4.5% for both case and control mothers and 19.1% and 19.4% for case and control fathers, respectively. We found a positive association between paternal pesticide (adjusted odds ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-2.69) and alkylphenolic compound exposure (adjusted odds ratio = 1.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-2.93) and the development of patent ductus arteriosus in the offspring. Alkylphenolic compound exposure occurred among painters, famers, and those working in the food service industry, while pesticide exposure occurred predominantly among farm workers. We identified that certain occupations may increase the occurrence of certain congenital heart disease phenotypes in the offspring. By paying closer attention to those working in these areas, antenatal detection rates of congenital heart diseases may be improved.

4.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 13-17, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228811

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated smoking habits among foster care home children and employees, who are at high risk for smoking. Additionally, there are no published studies on the intention to quit smoking among employees of the Romanian Child Protection system, a gap we address in this manuscript. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted among foster care employees in three Transylvanian counties (Mures, Sibiu, Covasna) in January 2014 to February 2015 (baseline) and September-December 2016 (follow-up). A foster home-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention targeting employees and children was conducted between the two waves. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine associations between socio-demographics, reasons for smoking, tobacco use patterns, reasons for quitting, and tobacco policy attitudes on intention to quit (dependent variable), controlling for participation in the smoking prevention intervention. RESULTS: 305 employees participated in the baseline (76.4% of females, 23.6% of males) and 304 employees in the follow-up surveys (68.8% of females, 31.2% of males) after the smoking prevention and cessation intervention. At baseline, 34.8% of respondents reported that no one was smoking within the foster care home, which increased to 59.1% at follow-up (p < 0.001). Being male and a high level of professional satisfaction were the only correlates of intention to quit in the bivariate models at baseline. Professional satisfaction and a belief that smoking is bad for one's health were the only correlates of intention to quit at follow-up. In multivariable models, professional satisfaction was the only consistent predictor of intention to quit at both time points (OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.71-18.56; OR 4.98, 95% CI 1.43-17.30). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be made to promote cessation among foster care employees that includes evidence-based support, along with compliance to policies that prohibit smoking indoors to reinforce cessation efforts.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Protección Infantil/organización & administración , Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Rumanía/epidemiología
5.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(1): 3-9, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927390

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Alternative tobacco product (ATP) use is popular among adolescents in Western countries, however, little is known about factors influencing ATP experimentation in Europe. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with ATP experimentation, and to identify patterns of ATP experimentation among Hungarian adolescents who had ever tried manufactured cigarette smoking. METHODS: Logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate the relationship between individual cigarette smoking experiences, social smoking influences, demographics, and ATP experimentation (roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipe, traditional pipe and flavoured cigarettes) in a cross-sectional sample of 8th and 11th grade students (N = 1,067, 56.0% of girls) who had ever tried manufactured cigarette smoking in six metropolitan cities of Hungary. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify patterns of different ATP use. RESULTS: Almost 90% of the sample had ever tried ATPs and significantly more commonly older (91.8%) versus younger (79.8%) students. Waterpipe was the most popular product to try followed by flavoured cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, RYO cigarettes, and pipe. Boys were more likely to report ATP experimentation compared to girls. Younger age of cigarette smoking experimentation, greater frequency of past month cigarette smoking and history of ever daily smoking for 30 days showed strong association with ATP experimentation. Students with one or more smoking friends were more vulnerable to experiment with ATPs. Weekly allowance, school academic achievement and household smoking exposure showed no effect on the experimentation. LCA identified four subgroups of ATP experimenters comprising intense polytobacco experimenters (38.4%), mainly waterpipe experimenters (34.2%), moderate polytobacco experimenters (14.9%), and less interested experimenters (12.5%). CONCLUSION: Tobacco prevention programmes targeting adolescents should emphasize the risks of using ATPs in addition to manufactured cigarettes. Accessibility of ATPs should be better regulated and restrictions should be strongly enforced in order to prevent potential harmful consequences of adolescent polytobacco use.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaco , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Masculino , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 302, 2019 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866897

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the health effects of e-cigarette use (or vaping) among past and current combustible cigarette users is limited. Several studies have assessed vaping-related adverse events (AEs) and beneficial health effects, however, most studies focused on AEs in general and examined only a few physiological changes that vapers experience. This study aims to explore self-reported AEs and perceived health changes due to e-cigarette use among Hungarian adult e-cigarette-only users (former smokers who switched completely to e-cigarette use) and dual users (smokers who use e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco cigarettes concomitantly). METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based survey of 1042 adult Hungarian e-cigarette users was conducted in 2015. Participants reported AEs and changes in physiological functions since they switched from smoking to e-cigarette use or while dually using e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes. Confirmatory factor analysis with covariates was applied to explain perceived health changes due to e-cigarette-only use and dual use. RESULTS: Dual users (17.6%) were significantly more likely to report AEs of vaping than e-cigarette-only users (26.2% vs. 11.8%, p < 0.001). Experiencing health improvements were significantly more likely among e-cigarette-only users than for dual users for all surveyed physiological functions. E-cigarette-only users reported larger effects of vaping on sensory, physical functioning, and mental health factors compared to dual users. Self-reported changes in sensory and physical functioning were significantly higher among individuals using e-cigarettes more than a year and people who were past heavy smokers (smoked ≥20 cigarettes per day). Gender was related to sensory improvement only; males reported greater improvement than females. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of e-cigarette-only users reported more perceived beneficial changes in physiological functions and fewer AEs than dual users. Perceived short-term benefits of e-cigarette use may reinforce users despite the uncertainty of long-term health consequences. Health professionals should provide balanced information regarding the possible short- and long-term positive and negative health effects of e-cigarette use during consultations with patients.


Asunto(s)
Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072587

RESUMEN

Background: To evaluate changes in smoke free rules in the foster care system after the implementation of the Romanian national clean air law. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire among foster care employees (n = 599) was conducted in 58 foster care homes during 2014 (n = 295) and 51 homes during 2016 (n = 304). We estimated the absolute difference in the proportion of employees who stated that smoke free rules existed before and after national clean air legislation. Results: There was an absolute increase in 4 of 5 smoke free measures after the law: bans on non-cigarette tobacco products (n = 169 to 206, +10.6%), non-smoking on premises for adults (n = 142 to 202, +18.3%), and for children (n = 201 to 239, +10.3%), and no smoking in cars to transport children (n = 194 to 227, +9%). There was a significant increase in the perception of outdoor bans that prohibit employees from smoking on foster care home premises (AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.14⁻4.38). The increase in the perception of indoor smoking bans did not change. Conclusion: The national law may have had a spillover influence by strengthening smoke free rules in unregulated spaces. Nonetheless, foster care home rules could be further enhanced, particularly in cars that transport children.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados en el Hogar de Adopción , Política para Fumadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control Social Formal , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Adulto , Automóviles , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rumanía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia
8.
Addict Behav ; 80: 59-64, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355818

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: With an increasingly diverse tobacco product market, it is imperative to understand the trajectories of product experimentation in order to design effective prevention programs. This study aims to explore the bidirectional associations of conventional cigarette, e-cigarette and waterpipe experimentation in a large adolescent sample. METHODS: Longitudinal assessment of conventional cigarette, e-cigarette and waterpipe use initiation was conducted in a school-based cohort of 1369 9th graders (mean age=14.88 SD=0.48 at baseline) during fall 2014 and reassessed 6-months later using online self-reported questionnaires. Autoregressive cross-lagged analysis within structural equation modeling framework was performed to simultaneously estimate the initiation of these products over a six-month period, controlling for age, gender, and participation in an intervention program to reduce conventional cigarette initiation. RESULTS: Tobacco product lifetime use was prevalent at baseline in the sample: conventional cigarettes (48.4%), e-cigarettes (35.8%), and waterpipe (20.8%). At six-month follow-up, trying conventional cigarettes predicted trying e-cigarette (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.78, CI95%: 2.66-5.37) and trying waterpipe (AOR=2.82, CI95%: 2.00-3.97). Trying e-cigarette predicted trying conventional cigarette (AOR=3.57, CI95%: 1.96-6.49) and trying waterpipe (AOR=1.51, CI95%: 1.07-2.14). Although trying waterpipe predicted trying e-cigarette at follow-up (AOR=2.10, CI95%: 1.30-3.40), its use did not predict trying conventional cigarette (AOR=0.55, CI95%: 0.24-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of poly-tobacco use and the bidirectionality of tobacco product experimentation demands comprehensive tobacco control and prevention programs that address the increasingly diverse tobacco product market targeting adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Rumanía/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Orv Hetil ; 158(2): 67-76, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088888

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Understanding adolescent smoking trajectories is necessary for tailored prevention programs. AIM: To identify adolescent cigarette use patterns and risk factors of smoking trajectories by a longitudinal study. METHOD: We conducted a three-year prospective survey in two age cohorts (6th and 9th school grades) of metropolitan adolescents (n = 1,092) with yearly data collection by self-administered questionnaires. Five smoking trajectory groups were defined by cigarette smoking data. RESULTS: 67.5% of the sample remained nonsmoker, 11.3% smoked all the time, 14.3% were initiators, 3.3% quitters and 3.7% experimenters. Members of smoking trajectory groups differed significantly from each other according to number of smoking friends, parental smoking, family structure, academic achievement and weekly allowance at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Concerning tobacco prevention programs, adolescents are not homogenous population, because distinct set of risk factors are highlighted in their different smoking behavior groups. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 67-76.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 19(8): 908-915, 2017 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27838661

RESUMEN

Introduction: Although web-based, multimedia smoking prevention programs have been tested in several high-income countries, their efficacy in Central and Eastern Europe is unknown. The aim of this trial was to assess the short-term effects of ASPIRA, among Romanian and Hungarian speaking ninth graders in Tirgu Mures, Romania. ASPIRA is the Romanian acronym for the translated and adapted version of ASPIRE, "A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience," an evidence-based smoking prevention program originally developed to prevent tobacco use among high school students in the United States. Methods: Sixteen high schools in Tirgu Mures, Romania were randomized to receive five weekly sessions of the ASPIRA web-based, multimedia program or to a control condition. Socio-demographic data, psychosocial characteristics, and smoking behavior were collected from students at baseline and at 6 months. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the efficacy of the intervention on smoking initiation and current smoking among 1369 students. Results: Never-smoker students in the intervention arm were 35% less likely to report smoking initiation 6 months after the baseline assessment (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.44-0.97). Reduced smoking initiation was observed most notably among students who were exposed to at least 75% of the ASPIRA program. There was no statistically significant effect of the intervention on current tobacco use (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.44-1.46). Conclusions: ASPIRA, an adapted version of the evidence-based, multimedia ASPIRE program that was originally developed and tested in the United States may decrease smoking initiation among multi-ethnic adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe. Implications: (1). Web-based, multimedia smoking prevention programs may be effective tools to prevent smoking initiation among multi-ethnic adolescent communities in Central and Eastern Europe. (2). The degree of exposure is critical, only high exposure to the multimedia smoking prevention program is associated with reduced smoking initiation.


Asunto(s)
Internet , Multimedia , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Rumanía/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
Orv Hetil ; 157(25): 979-86, 2016 Jun 19.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27287837

RESUMEN

The decreasing proportion of smokers due to smoking restrictions have led producers to invent and disseminate electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) worldwide as a new form of nicotine enjoyment. This review summarizes the existing knowledge about e-cigarettes based on publications of PubMed, and on reviews and research data published by national and international scientific institutions. Present knowledge about the composition of e-cigarettes confirms that they are harmful products since their vapor is equally detrimental to the health of users and bystanders. Their benefits in smoking cessation still have not been justified by adequate scientific evidence, however, it has been proven that e-cigarettes uphold nicotine addiction and may increase the risk of starting conventional cigarette use by youth. In order to ensure the results of tobacco control policy and to assist smoking cessation, the same regulations are to be applied to e-cigarettes as to conventional tobacco products.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/efectos adversos , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/psicología , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/tendencias , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efectos adversos , Salud Pública
12.
Subst Use Misuse ; 51(9): 1083-92, 2016 07 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27159776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes are often used to promote cessation. Only a few studies have explored the motivations for e-cigarette experimentation among young adults. OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to assess the intention to try e-cigarettes among Hungarian university students and to develop a motivational scale to measure vulnerability to e-cigarette experimentation. METHODS: 826 Hungarian university students completed an internet-based survey in 2013 to measure motives for trying e-cigarettes. We conducted exploratory factor analyses and identified factors that promote and deter experimentation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the concurrent predictive validity of the identified motivational factors and we used these factors to predict e-cigarette experimentation, controlling for other known correlates of e-cigarette use. RESULTS: 24.9% of the participants have ever tried an e-cigarette and 17.2% of current nonsmokers experimented with the product. Almost 11% of respondents intended to try an e-cigarette in the future, yet only 0.6% were current e-cigarette users. Six factors were identified in the motivational scale for experimentation, four that promote usage (health benefits/smoking cessation; curiosity/taste variety; perceived social norms; convenience when smoking is prohibited) and two that deter usage (chemical hazard; danger of dependence). In a logistic regression analysis, the curiosity/taste factor was the only motivational factor significantly associated with the intention to try e-cigarettes in the future. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to test a motivational scale about what motivates e-cigarettes usage among university students. Additional research is needed to better understand these factors and their influence on e-cigarette uptake.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Hungría , Intención , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
13.
Int J Public Health ; 61(2): 199-207, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26729271

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess socio-demographic and smoking-related correlates of e-cigarette and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) use in a multi-ethnic group of adolescents in Tîrgu Mures, Romania. METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 1835 high school students from Tirgu Mures, Romania. Socio-demographic variables and data about smoking and e-cigarettes and ATP use were collected using an online questionnaire. Chi-square tests or one-way ANOVA were applied to compare never smokers, non-current smokers, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine the correlates of e-cigarettes and ATP use. RESULTS: The most frequently tried non-cigarette nicotine and tobacco products were e-cigarette (38.5 %), cigar (31.4 %) and waterpipe (21.1 %). Ever trying and current use of cigarettes were the most important correlates of e-cigarette and ATPs use. Sex, ethnicity, sensation seeking and perceived peer smoking were correlates of several ATPs use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may inform the development of tailored tobacco control programs.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Rumanía/epidemiología
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 24(4): 276-280, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095282

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Smoking before, during and after pregnancy leads to detrimental outcomes on maternal and foetal health and represents an important public health issue. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of smoking before and during pregnancy in a sample of Romanian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among mothers (N=1,278) in three maternity hospitals in Tirgu-Mures, Romania, immediately after childbirth, in 2014. We evaluated the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and used binary logistic regression to assess the influence of socio-demographics and other health behaviour factors in three groups of women: non-smoking pregnant women, women who continued smoking during pregnancy, and smokers who quit during pregnancy. RESULTS: 30% of the interviewed mothers were smokers prior to pregnancy, of whom 43.3% continued smoking during pregnancy. Women with a family income of less than 100 Euro/month (OR=3.01, 95% CI: 1.02-8.83) and those who were unemployed (OR=13.2, 95% CI: 3.90-44.79) had increased odds of continued smoking versus quitting during pregancy in multivariable analyses. Women who continued smoking during pregnancy were also more likley to be of lower socioeconomic status than never smokers (OR=14.1, 95% CI: 4.97-39.6). CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of women of reproductive age smoke and continue to smoke despite their knowledge about risks of smoking during pregnancy. Smoking prior to and during pregnancy is predominantly associated with lower socioeconomic status. Women with limited economic means should be a high priority target group for smoking cessation interventions.


Asunto(s)
Madres/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Rumanía/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 20(1): 11-7, 2012 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22571010

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between body weight and smoking has been well-documented among adult populations, but the data among youth are inconsistent. This study explores the relationship among social, behavioural, body weight-related factors and adolescent smoking while identifying factors associated with the belief that smoking controls weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from a three-year, prospective cohort study started in 2009 in Hungary's six metropolitan cities. Randomly selected 6th and 9th grade students completed a self-administered questionnaire during the 2009-2010 school year (n = 1445; 45% boys, mean age of 6th graders: 12.06 years, SD = 0.63; mean age of 9th graders: 15.06 years, SD = 0.63). Calculations of Body Mass Index (BMI) were based on objectively measured weight and height data of participants. Appetite-Weight Control Scale of the Short Form of Smoking Consequences Questionnaire was used to measure the belief that smoking supports weight control. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the perception of weight control and smoking, while controlling for potential confounding variables (e.g., gender). RESULTS: 24.8% of participants smoked cigarettes within the past 30 days. The odds of smoking were increased among students who were older, had smoking friends, were exposed to parental smoking, and had poorer academic performance. BMI showed positive association with smoking (increases in BMI were associated with higher odds of smoking), and the belief that smoking controls weight mediated this association. There was no difference in smoking prevalence among those motivated either to lose or gain weight (approximately 30%), but was considerably lower among adolescents satisfied with their body weight (19%). The belief that smoking supports weight control was more common for girls, older students, and those who perceived themselves as overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Dissatisfaction with body weight and the belief that smoking has weight controlling effects are associated with an increased likelihood of adolescent smoking, therefore they must be considered in smoking prevention programmes among youth.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Imagen Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Masculino , Padres , Grupo Paritario , Estudios Prospectivos , Medio Social , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco
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