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Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 39: 100971, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35198727


BACKGROUND: Critical limb ischemia (CLI), the most severe form of peripheral artery disease, is associated with pain, poor wound healing, high rates of amputation, and mortality (>20% at 1 year). Little is known about the processes of care, patients' preferences, or outcomes, as seen from patients' perspectives. The SCOPE-CLI study was co-designed with patients to holistically document patient characteristics, treatment preferences, patterns of care, and patient-centered outcomes for CLI. METHODS: This 11-center prospective observational registry will enroll and interview 816 patients from multispecialty, interdisciplinary vascular centers in the United States and Australia. Patients will be followed up at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months regarding their psychosocial factors and health status. Hospitalizations, interventions, and outcomes will be captured for 12 months with vital status extending to 5 years. Pilot data were collected between January and July of 2021 from 3 centers. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients have been enrolled. The mean age was 68.4 ± 11.3 years, 31.4% were female, and 20.0% were African American. CONCLUSIONS: SCOPE-CLI is uniquely co-designed with patients who have CLI to capture the care experiences, treatment preferences, and health status outcomes of this vulnerable population and will provide much needed information to understand and address gaps in the quality of CLI care and identifier (NCT Number): NCT04710563

Saúde debate ; 46(134): 665-681, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410151


RESUMO Existe ampla evidência que a contenção da pandemia de Covid-19 requer vigilância sindrômica e isolamento de casos suspeitos/confirmados. É essencial a disponibilidade de testes diagnósticos no Sistema Único de Saúde, que poderia ser facilitada pela soberania nacional no desenvolvimento e produção, considerando-se a alta demanda/escassez no mercado internacional. Este estudo identificou as etapas da pesquisa translacional de testes diagnósticos para Covid-19 no Brasil, verificando sua distribuição geográfica, entre outros indicadores. Estudo transversal, exploratório, partindo de banco público com 789 projetos de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Inovação (PD&I) em Covid-19, complementado com outras buscas, inclusive no CVLattes dos pesquisadores. No banco, havia 89 projetos de testes diagnósticos. Em 45 casos, foi possível obter informações complementares para classificá-los conforme as etapas da pesquisa translacional. Identificaram-se 15 inovações que atingiram o estágio T3, ou seja, tiveram seus produtos incorporados em protocolos clínicos na atenção à saúde, mesmo considerando-se as profundas restrições orçamentárias em PD&I. O Brasil possui potencial de desenvolvimento e implementação de produtos tecnológicos na área de testes de diagnóstico para Sars-CoV-2. Políticas públicas de PD&I em saúde necessitam ser priorizadas para ampliação de cooperações nacionais e internacionais, a fim de promover efetiva autonomia nacional na vigilância sindrômica e à saúde da população.

ABSTRACT There is much evidence suggesting that mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic requires syndromic surveillance and isolation of suspected/confirmed cases. The availability of diagnostic tests in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) is essential, which could be facilitated by national sovereignty in development and production, considering the high demand/lack of supply in the international market. This study identified the stages of translational research into diagnostic tests for COVID-19 in Brazil, verifying their geographic distribution, among other indicators. A cross-sectional, exploratory study based on a public database with 789 Research, Development, and Innovation (RD&I) projects regarding COVID-19, complemented by other searches, including the researchers' curricula (CVLattes). There were 89 diagnostic test projects in the database. In 45 cases, it was possible to obtain additional information to classify them according to the translational research stages. Fifteen innovations that reached the T3 stage were identified, with their products incorporated into clinical protocols in healthcare, even considering the deep budget restrictions in RD&I. Brazil has the potential to develop and implement technological products in the field of diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2. Public health RD&I policies need to be prioritized to expand national and international cooperation to promote effective national autonomy in syndromic surveillance and population health.

JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121011, 2021 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415313


Importance: The management of coronary disease epitomizes the call to better engage patients in shared medical decision-making. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is the foundation of diagnosis, risk stratification, and subsequent therapy; however, MPI reports are currently interpretable by specialists but not patients. Objective: To design and test a patient-centered report for stress MPI test results. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study of outpatients who underwent an MPI stress test and clinicians used a mixed methods approach. Phase 1 (December 2018 to July 2019) used qualitative methods to design a patient-centered reporting tool, with 5 focus groups with 36 patients and 2 focus groups with 27 clinicians. Phase 2 (June to September 2019) consisted of pilot testing the reporting tool with feedback from a structured survey given to patients who received MPI reports before and after implementing the tool. Main Outcomes and Measures: Key themes around patient experiences with the current MPI reporting and their desire for a more useful report were identified, which led to a sample reporting tool after serial iterations with feedback. Differences in patient knowledge and engagement were assessed between patients before and after implementation of the new reporting tool using χ2 tests. Results: From patient focus groups (26 patients; mean [SD] age, 66.3 [9.6] years, 9 [35%] women), 3 themes on the inadequacies of current MPI reporting were identified: (1) inconsistent delivery of results, (2) use of medical jargon, and (3) unclear posttest course. We identified 5 themes for a more patient-centered MPI report: desire for written information, discussion of the report with medical personnel, presentation of results in simple language with use of visual graphics, comparisons with normal results, and personalized risk estimates. In a pilot survey with 123 patients split into a pre-implementation group (69 patients; mean [SD] age, 68.2 [8.5] years; 27 [51%] women) and a postimplementation group (54 patients; mean [SD] age, 66.4 [8.7] years; 30 [56%] women), the patient-centered report led to more patients reading the entire report (45 [83%] vs 46 [67%]; P = .04) and improved knowledge of future risk of cardiac events (41 [76%] vs 20 [29%]; P < .001). There was also a numerically higher percentage of patients who found the report easy to read (45 [83%] vs 44 [68%]; P = .05) and understand (42 [78%] vs 43 [66%]; P = .16), although these results were not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identified key elements of a patient-centered report design for stress MPI test results, which improved patient engagement and knowledge. These preliminary data support further implementation and study of a more patient-centered MPI report.

Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Toma de Decisiones Conjunta , Imagen de Perfusión Miocárdica/métodos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Anciano , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/fisiopatología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfacción del Paciente , Proyectos Piloto , Investigación Cualitativa
PeerJ ; 9: e10500, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859869


BACKGROUND: Physical exercise is a health promotion factor regulating gene expression and causing changes in phenotype, varying according to exercise type and intensity. Acute strenuous exercise in sedentary individuals appears to induce different transcriptional networks in response to stress caused by exercise. The objective of this research was to investigate the transcriptional profile of strenuous experimental exercise. METHODOLOGY: RNA-Seq was performed with Rattus norvegicus soleus muscle, submitted to strenuous physical exercise on a treadmill with an initial velocity of 0.5 km/h and increments of 0.2 km/h at every 3 min until animal exhaustion. Twenty four hours post-physical exercise, RNA-seq protocols were performed with coverage of 30 million reads per sample, 100 pb read length, paired-end, with a list of counts totaling 12816 genes. RESULTS: Eighty differentially expressed genes (61 down-regulated and 19 up-regulated) were obtained. Reactome and KEGG database searches revealed the most significant pathways, for down-regulated gene set, were: PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, RAF-MAP kinase, P2Y receptors and Signaling by Erbb2. Results suggest PI3K-AKT pathway inactivation by Hbegf, Fgf1 and Fgr3 receptor regulation, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Cell signaling transcription networks were found in transcriptome. Results suggest some metabolic pathways which indicate the conditioning situation of strenuous exercise induced genes encoding apoptotic and autophagy factors, indicating cellular stress. CONCLUSION: Down-regulated networks showed cell transduction and signaling pathways, with possible inhibition of cellular proliferation and cell degeneration. These findings reveal transitory and dynamic process in cell signaling transcription networks in skeletal muscle after acute strenuous exercise.

Vasc Med ; 26(3): 273-280, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627058


Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) face a range of treatment options to improve survival and quality of life. An evidence-based shared decision-making tool (brochure, website, and recorded patient vignettes) for patients with new or worsening claudication symptoms was created using mixed methods and following the International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) criteria. We reviewed literature and collected qualitative input from patients (n = 28) and clinicians (n = 34) to identify decisional needs, barriers, outcomes, knowledge, and preferences related to claudication treatment, along with input on implementation logistics from 59 patients and 27 clinicians. A prototype decision aid was developed and tested through a survey administered to 20 patients with PAD and 23 clinicians. Patients identified invasive treatment options (endovascular or surgical revascularization), non-invasive treatments (supervised exercise therapy, claudication medications), and combinations of these as key decisions. A total of 65% of clinicians thought the brochure would be useful for medical decision-making, an additional 30% with suggested improvements. For patients, those percentages were 75% and 25%, respectively. For the website, 76.5% of clinicians and 85.7% of patients thought it would be useful; an additional 17.6% of clinicians and 14.3% of patients thought it would be useful, with improvements. Suggestions were incorporated in the final version. The first prototype was well-received among patients and clinicians. The next step is to implement the tool in a PAD specialty care setting to evaluate its impact on patient knowledge, engagement, and decisional quality. Identifier: NCT03190382.

Enfermedad Arterial Periférica , Calidad de Vida , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Humanos , Claudicación Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicación Intermitente/terapia , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 10, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478499


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread throughout more than 160 countries, infecting millions of people worldwide. To address this health emergency, countries have organized the flow of production and innovation to reduce the impact on health. This article shows the response of the Brazilian scientific community to meet the urgent needs of the public unified health system [SUS], aiming to guarantee universal access to an estimated population of 211 million. By December 2020, Brazil had recorded more than six million cases and approximately 175,000 deaths. METHODS: We collected data on research, development and innovation projects carried out by 114 public universities (plus Oswaldo Cruz Foundation [Fiocruz] and Butantan Institute), as reported on their websites. Additionally, we examined the studies on COVID-19 approved by the National Comission for Research Ethics, as well as those reported on the Ministry of Education website as of May 15, 2020. RESULTS: The 789 identified projects were classified according to research categories as follows: development and innovation (n = 280), other types of projects (n = 226), epidemiologic research (n = 211), and basic research on disease mechanisms (n = 72). Most proposals focused on the development and innovation of personal protective equipment, medical devices, diagnostic tests, medicines and vaccines, which were rapidly identified as research priorities by the scientific community. Some promising results have been observed from phase III vaccine trials, one of which is conducted in partnership with Oxford University and another of which is performed with Sinovac Biotech. Both trials involve thousands of volunteers in their Brazilian arms and include technology transfer agreements with Fiocruz and the Butantan Institute, respectively. These vaccines proved to be safe and effective and were immediately licensed for emergency use. The provision of doses for the public health system, and vaccination, started on January 17, 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The mobilized Brazilian scientific community has generated comprehensive research, development and innovation proposals to meet the most urgent needs. It is important to emphasize that this response was only possible due to decades of investment in research, development and innovation in Brazil. We need to reinforce and protect the Brazilian science, technology and innovation system from austerity policies that disregard health and knowledge as crucial investments for Brazilian society, in line with the constitutional right of universal health access and universal health coverage.

Investigación Biomédica , COVID-19 , Atención a la Salud , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Investigación Biomédica/economía , Brasil/epidemiología , Economía , Urgencias Médicas , Humanos , Industrias , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Investigación Biomédica Traslacional , Universidades , Vacunación , Vacunas
Saúde debate ; 43(spe2): 169-180, nov. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059034


RESUMO A pesquisa translacional envolve a interface entre a pesquisa básica e a clínica médica com o intuito de gerar produtos ou processos inovadores para introduzi-los nos protocolos clínicos e nos sistemas de saúde. O objetivo desse ensaio foi apresentar uma visão geral dos avanços da transcriptômica, subsidiados pela disponibilidade e utilização das novas tecnologias da informação e biologia molecular. Na busca pelo diagnóstico preciso e menos invasivo, testes transcriptômicos utilizam assinaturas de expressão gênica visando detectar doenças neurodegenerativas (Parkinson e Alzheimer), autoimunes (lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, granulomatose de Wegener), insuficiência cardíaca, autismo e câncer (de mama, colorretal, hepático e de pulmão). No sistema de saúde inglês as diretrizes clínicas incorporam oito testes transcriptômicos, todos com foco no câncer. No Brasil testes genômicos com base nas sequências de DNA são regulamentados para diagnosticar anomalias congênitas, tanto no Sistema Único de Saúde, como na saúde suplementar, mas os testes moleculares não avançaram no âmbito da transcriptômica diagnóstica. O sistema de saúde brasileiro deveria ir além dos testes de análise genômica e iniciar o processo de regulamentação das tecnologias transcriptômicas de diagnóstico. No futuro, testes diagnósticos avaliando múltiplos perfis de expressão gênica podem se transformar em exames de rotina numa forma de triagem molecular.

ABSTRACT Translational research involves the interface between basic research and medical practice in order to generate innovative products or processes to introduce them into clinical protocols and health systems. The objective of this essay was to present an overview of transcriptomic advances, subsidized by the availability and use of new information technologies and molecular biology. In the search for accurate and less invasive diagnosis, transcriptomic tests use gene expression signatures to detect neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson and Alzheimer), autoimmune (systemic lupus erythematosus, Wegener's granulomatosis), heart failure, autism and cancer (breast, colorectal, hepatic and lung). In the English health system the clinical guidelines incorporate eight transcriptomic tests, all with a focus on cancer. In Brazil genomic tests based on DNA sequences are regulated to diagnose congenital anomalies both in the Unified Health System and in supplementary health, but the molecular tests have not advanced in the scope of the diagnostic transcriptomics. The Brazilian health system should go beyond the tests of genomic analysis and begin the process of regulation of transcriptomic diagnostic technologies. In the future, diagnostic tests evaluating multiple gene expression profiles may become routine exams in a form of molecular screening.

J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(20): e010076, 2018 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371269


Background Smoking is the most important risk factor for peripheral artery disease ( PAD ). Smoking cessation is key in PAD management. We aimed to examine smoking rates and smoking cessation interventions offered to patients with PAD consulting a vascular specialty clinic; and assess changes in smoking behavior over the year following initial visit. Methods and Results A total of 1272 patients with PAD and new or worsening claudication were enrolled at 16 vascular specialty clinics (2011-2015, PORTRAIT (Patient-Centered Outcomes Related to Treatment Practices in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Investigating Trajectories) registry). Interviews collected smoking status and cessation interventions at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Among smokers, transition state models analyzed smoking transitions at each time point and identified factors associated with quitting and relapse. On presentation, 474 (37.3%) patients were active, 660 (51.9%) former, and 138 (10.8%) never smokers. Among active smokers, only 16% were referred to cessation counseling and 11% were prescribed pharmacologic treatment. At 3 months, the probability of quitting smoking was 21%; among those continuing to smoke at 3 months, the probability of quitting during the next 9 months varied between 11% and 12% ( P<0.001). The probability of relapse among initial quitters was 36%. At 12 months, 72% of all smokers continued to smoke. Conclusions More than one third of patients with claudication consulting a PAD provider are active smokers and few received evidence-based cessation interventions. Patients appear to be most likely to quit early in their treatment course, but many quickly relapse and 72% of all patients smoking at baseline are still smoking at 12 months. Better strategies are needed to provide continuous cessation support. Clinical Trial Registration URL : . Unique identifier: NCT 01419080.

Fumar Cigarrillos/prevención & control , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/prevención & control , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Análisis de Varianza , Fumar Cigarrillos/efectos adversos , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Claudicación Intermitente/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Apoyo Social
Biol Sport ; 35(1): 3-11, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237656


Regular exercise is an exogenous factor of gene regulation with numerous health benefits. The study aimed to evaluate human genes linked to physical exercise in an 'omic scale, addressing biological questions to the generated database. Three literature databases were searched with the terms 'exercise', 'fitness', 'physical activity', 'genetics' and 'gene expression'. For additional references, papers were scrutinized and a text-mining tool was used. Papers linking genes to exercise in humans through microarray, RNA-Seq, RT-PCR and genotyping studies were included. Genes were extracted from the collected literature, together with information on exercise protocol, experimental design, gender, age, number of individuals, analytical method, fold change and statistical data. The 'omic scale dataset was characterized and evaluated with bioinformatics tools searching for gene expression patterns, functional meaning and gene clusters. As a result, a physical exercise-related human gene compendium was created, with data from 58 scientific papers and 5.147 genes functionally correlated with 17 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. While 50.9% of the gene set was up-regulated, 41.9% was down-regulated. 743 up- and 530 down-regulated clusters were found, some connected by regulatory networks. To summarize, up- and down-regulation was encountered, with a wide genomic distribution of the gene set and up- and down-regulated clusters possibly assembled by functional gene evolution. Physical exercise elicits a widespread response in gene expression.

Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(5): 552-560, 2018 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177511


Introduction: Prevalence of cigarette smoking is highest among American Indians, yet few culturally appropriate smoking cessation programs have yet been developed and tested for multi-tribal American Indian adult populations. This study examined implementation of the All Nations Breath of Life culturally tailored smoking cessation program in multi-tribal urban and suburban American Indian communities in seven locations across five states (N = 312). Methods: This single-arm study used community-based participatory research to conduct a 12-week intervention whose primary purpose was to curb commercial tobacco use among American Indians. Participants were followed through month 6 in person and month 12 via telephone. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence from recreational cigarette smoking at 6 months post-baseline, verified through voluntary provision of salivary cotinine levels. Results: At program completion (12 weeks post-baseline), 53.3% of program completers remained abstinent; labeling those lost to follow-up as smokers resulted in a 41.4% quit rate. At 6 months post-baseline (primary endpoint), 31.1% of retained participants quit smoking (p < .0001 compared to the highest quit rates among multi-tribal populations reported in the literature, 7%); final quit rate was 22.1% labeling those lost to follow-up as smokers (p = .002). Retention rate at endpoint was 71.2%. 12-month follow-up was attempted with all participants and had a retention rate of 49.0%. Of those participants reached, 34.0% were smoke-free. Conclusions: All Nations Breath of Life shows promise as a smoking cessation program for multi-tribal urban American Indian communities. It can be successfully implemented in a variety of urban settings. Implications: This is the first large feasibility study of a culturally tailored smoking cessation program for American Indians with good cessation and retention rates in a multi-tribal urban American Indian population. It shows that All Nations Breath of Life can be implemented in multiple urban settings across five states. To our knowledge, this is the first program of its kind to be implemented across multiple heterogeneous urban locations and to include salivary cotinine testing for verification of self-report data across these locations.

Fumar Cigarrillos , Indios Norteamericanos/etnología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fumar Cigarrillos/etnología , Fumar Cigarrillos/terapia , Competencia Cultural , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
J Am Coll Health ; 66(2): 133-140, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111947


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge, awareness, and support for campus smoke-free policies. PARTICIPANTS: 1,256 American Indian tribal college students from three tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains. METHODS: Data are from an observational cross-sectional study of American Indian tribal college students, collected through a web-based survey. RESULTS: Only 40% of tribal college students reported not being exposed to second hand smoke in the past 7 days. A majority of nonsmokers (66%) agreed or strongly agreed with having a smoke-free campus, while 34.2% of smokers also agreed or strongly agreed. Overall, more than a third (36.6%) of tribal college students were not aware of their campus smoking policies. CONCLUSIONS: Tribal campuses serving American Indian students have been much slower in adopting smoke-free campus policies. Our findings show that tribal college students would support a smoke-free campus policy.

Indios Norteamericanos/psicología , Política para Fumadores , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
Int J Biometeorol ; 61(12): 2195-2203, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842788


The main objective of this research was to analyze the climate data for the host cities of the soccer World Cup held in Brazil in June and July 2014. A great deal of criticism was expressed about the Brazilian climate in the national and international press and media in the run-up to the competition, suggesting that the air temperature and relative air humidity would be the main adversaries of the soccer teams, especially those from Europe, during the competition. An analysis of the weather was done at the places and times of each of the 64 matches held. A human thermal comfort index was calculated (discomfort index (DI)) for each of the matches in order to discover the real climatic conditions in the host cities during the 2014 World Cup and their potential influence on the teams and human comfort in general. During the 2014 World Cup, only two matches were played at temperatures above 30 °C, representing a negligible percentage of the total number of matches. The air temperature for over half the matches (53%) was 20-25 °C. The results showed the air temperature and relative humidity data analyzed here both individually and in the form of an index indicate that the World Cup held in Brazil in 2014 did not put any of the players at risk due to extreme heat.

Humedad , Fútbol , Temperatura , Brasil , Ciudades , Clima , Humanos
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 23(4): 328-334, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-898991


RESUMO Introdução: Novos estudos de regulação gênica do exercício físico por meio de técnicas pós-genômicas em ensaios de resistência (endurance) e força caracterizam a transcriptômica do exercício físico. Entre os genes afetados, destacamos a via da proteína quinase ativada por AMP (AMPK), cuja ativação ocorre durante o exercício como resultado das alterações dos níveis de fosfato energético da fibra muscular. Objetivo: Avaliar a via de sinalização da AMPK por revisão sistemática da expressão de genes e análise in silico. Método: Foi efetuada uma revisão sistemática para avaliar a regulação gênica da via de sinalização AMPK, caracterizando os genes estudados na literatura, as variações de regulação obtidas, na forma de fold change e tipos de exercício usados. Resultados: A via de sinalização AMPK mostrou 133 genes no repositório KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), os quais foram confrontados com a revisão sistemática da literatura, totalizando 65 genes. Dezessete genes apresentaram UR e 24 mostraram DR com relação ao seu respectivo controle. Além destes, 20 genes estavam presentes nos trabalhos, apresentando tanto UR e DR e quatro genes não apresentaram dados de regulação. Verificou-se regulação específica em função do tipo de exercício efetuado. Discussão: Dos 133 genes da via AMPK, 48,8% foram amostrados nos trabalhos revisados, indicando que uma parte significativa da via é regulada pelo exercício. O estudo apresentou a regulação gênica básica de dois mecanismos para a recuperação energética, a biogênese mitocondrial e o bloqueio da gliconeogênese. Conclusão: Este trabalho mostrou que o exercício atua ativamente na via de sinalização da AMPK, na importância da regulação via PGC-1α e no papel de outros genes, regulando a expressão de mais da metade dos genes amostrados.

ABSTRACT Introduction: New studies of gene regulation by physical exercise through post-genomic techniques in endurance and strength tests characterize the physical exercise transcriptomics. Among the affected genes, we highlight the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, the activation of which occurs during exercise because of changes in muscle fiber energetic phosphate levels. Objective: To evaluate the AMPK signaling pathway by systematic review of gene expression and in silico analysis. Method: A systematic review was performed in order to assess the gene regulation of AMPK signaling pathway, characterizing the genes studied in the literature, regulation variations obtained in the form of fold change, and types of exercise performed. Results: The AMPK signaling pathway showed 133 genes in the KEGG repository (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), which were compared with the systematic review of the literature, totaling 65 genes. Seventeen genes presented UR and 24 showed DR in relation to their respective control. In addition to these, 20 genes were present in the literature, presenting both UR and DR and four genes showed no regulatory data. Specific regulation was verified according to the type of exercises performed. Discussion: Of the 133 genes of the AMPK pathway, 48.8% were sampled in the revised studies indicating that a significant part of the pathway is regulated by exercise. The study presented the basic gene regulation of two mechanisms for energy recovery, mitochondrial biogenesis, and gluconeogenesis blockade. Conclusion: This work showed that the exercise actively works in the AMPK signaling pathway, in the importance of regulation via PGC-1α and in the role of other genes, regulating the expression of more than half of the genes sampled.

RESUMEN Introducción: Nuevos estudios de regulación génica del ejercicio físico por medio de técnicas pos-genómicas en ensayos de resistencia (endurance) y fuerza caracterizan la transcriptómica del ejercicio físico. Entre los genes afectados, destacamos la vía de la proteína quinasa activada por AMP (AMPK), cuya activación ocurre durante el ejercicio como resultado de las alteraciones de los niveles de fosfato energético de la fibra muscular. Objetivo: Evaluar la vía de señalización AMPK por revisión sistemática de la expresión de genes y análisis in silico. Método: Se ha efectuado una revisión para evaluar la regulación génica de la vía de señalización AMPK, caracterizando los genes estudiados en la literatura, las variaciones de regulación obtenidas en forma de fold change y tipos de ejercicios utilizados. Resultados: La vía de señalización AMPK mostró 133 genes en el repositorio KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), los cuales fueran confrontados con la revisión sistemática de la literatura, totalizando 65 genes. Diecisiete genes presentaron UR y 24 mostraron DR con respecto a su respectivo control. Además de estos, 20 genes estaban presentes en los trabajos, presentando tanto UR y DR y cuatro genes no presentaron dados de regulación. Se observó una regulación específica en función del tipo de ejercicio efectuado. Discusión: De los 133 genes de la vía AMPK, 48,8% fueron muestreados en los trabajos revisados, indicando que una parte significativa de la vía es regulada por el ejercicio. El estudio presentó la regulación génica básica de dos mecanismos para la recuperación energética, la biogénesis mitocondrial y el bloqueo de la gluconeogénesis. Conclusión: Este trabajo mostró que el ejercicio actúa activamente en la vía de señalización AMPK, en la importancia de la regulación vía factor PGC-1a y en el papel de otros genes, regulando la expresión de más de la mitad de los genes muestreados.

Health Commun ; 32(7): 916-920, 2017 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435103


The popularity and usage of social media networks or SNS (social networking sites) among American Internet users age 50 and over doubled between 2009 and 2010 and has steadily climbed. Part of this increased access may be the result of older adults who are living with a chronic disease and are reaching out for online support. Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is among those concerns, particularly among middle-age and older minority populations where disparities exist. This exploratory study investigates information seeking behavior related to cancer factors (e.g. testing for colon cancer, cancer fatalism) and current social media usage among racial and ethnic minority groups (African American and Latinos) and Whites age 50 and older. The secondary data from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was analyzed to compare these populations. Results show that African Americans and Latinos were only slightly more likely to use social network sites to seek out cancer information compared to Whites. However, Whites were more likely to use the Internet to seek health information compared to African Americans and Latinos. In this sample, Whites were also more likely to be informed by a physician about CRC testing (p <.01). Whites were also more fatalistic about CRC (p<.001) and more likely to have self-reported receiving a positive diagnosis (p <.001). Implications of this study suggest that use of both traditional health information sources (physician) and the Internet (social media networks, Internet sites) have increased among older Americans and can serve as critical channels for cancer information and education.

Neoplasias Colorrectales/etnología , Información de Salud al Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Etnicidad , Femenino , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Raciales
J Biopharm Stat ; 27(4): 659-672, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27295566


Balanced two-arm designs are more powerful than unbalanced designs and, consequently, Bayesian adaptive designs (BADs) are less powerful. However, when considering other subject- or community-focused design characteristics, fixed two-arm designs can be suboptimal. We use a novel approach to identify the best two-arm study design, taking into consideration both the statistical perspective and the community's perception. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to estimate the relative performance of competing designs in the presence of multiple optimality criteria. The two-arm fixed design has enough deficiencies in subject- and community-specific benefit to make it the least favorable study design.

Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos
Am J Prev Med ; 51(5): e139-e144, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450725


INTRODUCTION: National data indicate a higher prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) populations and greater disparity of morbidity and mortality among younger age groups compared with other ethnicities. Diet and physical activity are important obesity preventive behaviors, but no published data exist that describe these behaviors in relation to obesity in AI young adults at tribal colleges. Study purposes were to: (1) identify fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity practices of AI young adults from three U.S. tribal colleges according to BMI categories; (2) identify the accuracy of body weight perceptions; and (3) identify predictor variables for weight misperception. METHODS: In this observational study during 2011-2014, a total of 1,256 participants were recruited from three participating U.S. tribal colleges to complete an online survey addressing issues related to diet, physical activity, and weight perception. Reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI categories, and differences between BMI categories were examined. Gender differences related to accuracy of weight perception by BMI categories were also examined. Analyses were conducted in 2016. RESULTS: Based on self-reported height and weight, 68% of the sample was overweight or obese (BMI ≥25) and mean BMI was 28.9 (SD=6.9). Most did not meet recommendations for fruit intake (78.7%), vegetable intake (96.6%), or physical activity (65.6%). More than half (53.7%%) who were overweight/obese underestimated their weight category. Men more often underestimated their weight category (54.2%) than women (35.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed to improve weight-related lifestyle behaviors of AI tribal college students.

Índice de Masa Corporal , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción del Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos/psicología , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Verduras , Adulto Joven
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27121380


BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic degenerative disease responsible for hyperglycemic episodes through insulin secretion deficiency or cellular resistance. Clinical diagnosis in diabetic patients established that this disease affects the CNS, damaging the brain and impairing cognition, and thus establishing a clinical diabetic condition named diabetic encephalopathy. Despite the physiological mechanisms responsible for the development diabetic encephalopathy are still unclear, an excessive formation of reactive oxygen species, an alteration of acetylcholinesterase activity, and a reduction of growth factor levels, may be related with the pathogenesis of this condition. Pharmacological treatments with natural compounds have been proven useful to treat and cure a wide variety of diseases through their antioxidant actions. METHODS: This study built a compendium of chemical compounds used for the treatment of diabetic encephalopathy demonstrating the most important physiological targets that future drugs should aim for, reviewing them. RESULTS: As previously suspected, antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were useful to prevent memory loss in streptozotocin-induced animals. In addition, growth factors showed an improvement of memory in diabetic rodents. Most studies focused on antioxidant compounds despite cross studies researched both antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase activities. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it could be suggested that future studies regarding treatments for diabetic encephalopathy should focus on the antioxidant profile and acetylcholinesterase, since they seem to play pivotal roles in cognitive impairment in diabetes. No less important, studies with growth factors are also important physiological targets for treating the diabetic encephalopathy.

Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 22(2): 126-130, mar.-abr. 2016. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-781467


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disease worldwide. Endothelial dysfunction characteristic of these patients is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. Early diagnosis of endothelial dysfunction is essential for the treatment especially of non-invasive manner, such as flow mediated dilation. Physical exercise is capable of generating beneficial adaptations may improve endothelial function. Objective: Identify the effect of physical exercise, using the clinical technique of ultrasound in the assessment of the endothelial function of patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Thirty-one patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome were studied, with a mean age (± SD) of 58±6 years, randomized into three groups. The training was performed for 50 minutes, four times a week. Before and after six weeks of training, subjects performed the endurance test and a study of the endothelial function of the brachial artery by high-resolution ultrasound. Results: After hyperemia, the percentage of arterial diameter was significantly higher for the high-intensity group (HI before = 2.52±2.85mm and after = 31.81±12.21mm; LI before = 3.23±3.52mm and after = 20.61±7.76mm; controls before = 3.56±2.33mm and after = 2.43±2.14mm; p<0.05). Conclusions: The high-intensity aerobic training improved the vasodilatation response-dependent endothelium, recorded by ultrasound, in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

Introdução: Diabetes melittus é a doença metabólica mais comum no mundo. A disfunção endotelial característica desses pacientes é um dos principais fatores de risco para aterosclerose. O diagnóstico precoce da disfunção endotelial é imprescindível para o tratamento, sobretudo, de maneira não invasiva, tal como dilatação mediada pelo fluxo. O exercício físico é capaz de gerar adaptações benéficas podendo melhorar a função endotelial. Objetivo: Identificar o efeito do exercício físico de alta intensidade, usando a técnica clínica de ultrassom, na avaliação da função endotelial de pacientes com síndrome metabólica ou diabetes mellitus tipo dois. Métodos: Foram estudados 31 pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo dois ou síndrome metabólica, com média de idade (± DP) de 58 ± 6 anos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos. O treinamento foi realizado por 50 minutos, quatro vezes por semana. Antes e depois de seis semanas de treinamento, os indivíduos realizaram o ensaio de resistência e um estudo da função endotelial por ultrassom de alta resolução da artéria braquial. Resultados: Depois da hiperemia, a porcentagem do diâmetro arterial foi significativamente maior para o grupo de alta intensidade. (AI antes = 2,52 ± 2,85 mm e depois = 31,81 ± 12,21 mm; BI antes = 3,23 ± 3,52 mm e depois = 20,61 ± 7,76 mm; controles antes = 3,56 ± 2,33 mm e depois = 2,43 ± 2,14 mm; p < 0,05). Conclusões: O treinamento aeróbico de alta intensidade melhorou o endotélio de modo dependente da resposta vasodilatadora, constatada por meio de ultrassom, em pacientes com síndrome metabólica e diabetes tipo 2.

Introducción: Diabetes mellitus es la enfermedad metabólica más común en todo el mundo. La disfunción endotelial característica de estos pacientes es uno de los principales factores de riesgo para la aterosclerosis. El diagnóstico precoz de la disfunción endotelial es esencial para el tratamiento, sobre todo de forma no invasiva como la dilatación mediada por flujo. El ejercicio es capaz de Generar adaptaciones beneficiosas mejorando la función endotelial. Objetivo: Identificar los efectos del ejercicio de alta intensidad, utilizando la técnica clínica del ultrasonido en la evaluación de la función endotelial en pacientes con síndrome metabólico o diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Se estudiaron 31 pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 o síndrome metabólico, con una edad media (± DE) de 58 ± 6 años, divididos aleatoriamente en tres grupos. El entrenamiento se llevó a cabo durante 50 minutos, cuatro veces por semana. Antes y después de seis semanas de entrenamiento, los sujetos realizaron la prueba de resistencia y un estudio de la función endotelial mediante ultrasonido de alta resolución de la arteria braquial. Resultados: Después de hiperemia, el porcentaje de diámetro arterial fue significativamente mayor en el grupo de alta intensidad (AI antes = 2,52 ± 2,85 mm y después = 31,81 ± 12,21 mm; BI antes = 3,23 ± 3,52 mm y después = 20,61 ± 7,76 mm; controles antes = 3,56 ± 2,33 mm y después = 2,43 ± 2,14 mm; p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El entrenamiento aeróbico de alta intensidad, mejoró el endotelio de manera dependiente de la respuesta vasodilatadora, registrado por ultrasonido, en sujetos con síndrome metabólico y diabetes tipo 2.

Nicotine Tob Res ; 18(6): 1488-93, 2016 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26438647


INTRODUCTION: American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. METHODS: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. RESULTS: The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. IMPLICATIONS: AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and quitting. Results from this study could lead to the development of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation and prevention program for American Indian tribal college students.

Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(3): 2810-22, 2015 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25749318


American Indians (AI) have the highest rate of severe physical housing problems in the U.S. (3.9%). Little information exists about the environmental hazards in AI homes. The purposes of this paper are to discuss challenges that were encountered when recruiting AI for a home-and employment-based environmental health assessments, highlight major successes, and propose recommendations for future indoor environmental health studies. The Center for American Indian Community Health (CAICH) and Children's Mercy Hospital's Center for Environmental Health and Allergy and Immunology Research Lab collaborated to provide educational sessions and healthy home assessments for AI. Through educational trainings, more than 240 AI were trained on the primary causes of health problems in homes. A total of 72 homes and places of employment were assessed by AI environmental health specialists. The top three categories with the most concerns observed in the homes/places of employment were allergens/dust (98%), safety/injury (89%) and chemical exposure (82%). While some information on smoking inside the home was collected, these numbers may have been underreported due to stigma. This was CAICH's first endeavor in environmental health and although challenges arose, many more successes were achieved.

Contaminación del Aire Interior/prevención & control , Salud Ambiental , Promoción de la Salud , Vivienda/normas , Indios Norteamericanos , Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Sustancias Peligrosas , Humanos , Seguridad , Fumar