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2.
Blood Press ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172593

RESUMEN

Purpose: Previous data suggest that tronco-conical cuffs should be used for accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement in the obese. However, not only arm size but also its shape may affect the accuracy of BP measurement when a cylindrical cuff is used.Methods: In 197 subjects with arm circumference >32 cm, and 157 subjects with arm circumference ≤ 32 cm, the upper-arm was considered as formed from two truncated cones and the frustum slant angles of the proximal (upper angle) and distal (middle angle) truncated cones were measured. Five cylindrical and five tronco-conical cuffs of appropriate size in relation to arm circumference were used.Results: In the group with large arm, the upper slant angle was greater than the middle angle (86.5 ± 1.7° versus 84.7 ± 2.3°), whereas in the group with normal arm the two angles were similar. In the former group, the cylindrical cuff overestimated BP by 2.5 ± 5.4/1.7 ± 4.7 mmHg, whereas in the latter negligible between-cuff BP discrepancies were found. In the whole sample, BP discrepancies between the cylindrical and the tronco-conical cuffs correlated with both arm size and shape, considered as the difference between the upper and middle slant angles (all p < 0.0001). Among the participants with large arm, the between-cuff BP discrepancies increased progressively with increasing upper-middle angle difference (3.75 ± 0.38/2.78 ± 0.32 mmHg for the top tertile, p < 0.001/<0.001).Conclusions: These data indicate that in people with large upper arms, the tronco-conical shape of the arm is more pronounced on the lower than the upper half, a feature that amplifies the BP measurement error when cylindrical cuffs are used.

3.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
4.
J Hypertens ; 38(7): 1244-1250, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141969

RESUMEN

: Blood pressure measurement in obese individuals can be challenging because of the difficulty in properly cuffing large upper arms. Achieving a proper cuff fit can be problematic especially in people with a shorter arm length relative to circumference. This expert statement provides recommendations on blood pressure measurement in large arms for clinical use and research purposes. Tronco-conically shaped cuffs should be used in people with large arms, especially with arm circumferences greater than 42 cm as they better fit on the conical arm shape. Cuffs with frustum of the cone slant angle of 85° should satisfy most conditions. In individuals with short upper-arm that does not allow application of a properly sized cuff, wrist or forearm measurement might be used in clinical practice, but not for validation of automatic devices. Wide-range cuffs coupled to oscillometric devices provided with special software algorithms can also be used as alternatives to standard cuff measurement, provided they are independently validated per AAMI/ISO 81060-2 protocol. For validation studies, the intraarterial measurement is generally considered as the gold standard, yet for possible methodological pitfalls and ethical concerns, it is not recommended as the method of choice. Tronco-conical cuffs with inflatable bladder dimensions of 37-50 × 75-100% arm circumference should be used for reference auscultatory blood pressure measurement wherever the upper arm length allows a proper fit. There is a need for future studies that help identify the optimal shape of cuffs and bladders investigating the influence of sex, age, arm physical properties, and artery characteristics.

5.
J Hypertens ; 38(7): 1235-1243, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990898

RESUMEN

: Blood pressure (BP) exhibits seasonal variation with lower levels at higher environmental temperatures and higher at lower temperatures. This is a global phenomenon affecting both sexes, all age groups, normotensive individuals, and hypertensive patients. In treated hypertensive patients it may result in excessive BP decline in summer, or rise in winter, possibly deserving treatment modification. This Consensus Statement by the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on BP Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability provides a review of the evidence on the seasonal BP variation regarding its epidemiology, pathophysiology, relevance, magnitude, and the findings using different measurement methods. Consensus recommendations are provided for health professionals on how to evaluate the seasonal BP changes in treated hypertensive patients and when treatment modification might be justified. (i) In treated hypertensive patients symptoms appearing with temperature rise and suggesting overtreatment must be investigated for possible excessive BP drop due to seasonal variation. On the other hand, a BP rise during cold weather, might be due to seasonal variation. (ii) The seasonal BP changes should be confirmed by repeated office measurements; preferably with home or ambulatory BP monitoring. Other reasons for BP change must be excluded. (iii) Similar issues might appear in people traveling from cold to hot places, or the reverse. (iv) BP levels below the recommended treatment goal should be considered for possible down-titration, particularly if there are symptoms suggesting overtreatment. SBP less than 110 mmHg requires consideration for treatment down-titration, even in asymptomatic patients. Further research is needed on the optimal management of the seasonal BP changes.

6.
J Hypertens ; 38(2): 274-281, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568058

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mild-to-moderate hypertension with preserved left ventricular (LV) function may be associated with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). METHODS: The present study explored the adequacy of RV-pulmonary arterial (PA) coupling in 211 never-treated hypertensive patients (mean blood pressure, BP 112 ±â€Š12 mmHg) and 246 controls (BP 93 ±â€Š12 mmHg). They underwent a comprehensive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, and RV-PA coupling was estimated by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) ratio (TAPSE/PASP). RESULTS: Compared with the controls, hypertensive patients had increased LV wall thickness and decreased trans-mitral E/A with only slight but significant increase in transmitral Doppler E wave to tissue Doppler mitral annulus e' wave ratio (6.3 ±â€Š1.9 vs. 5.8 ±â€Š1. 5, P < 0.05). RV dimensions and indices of either systolic or diastolic function were not different. PASP was increased in the hypertensive patients (25 ±â€Š7 vs. 21 ±â€Š7 mmHg, P < 0.001), as was PVR estimated from the tricuspid regurgitation velocity to right ventricular outflow tract velocity ratio (1.7 ±â€Š0.4 vs. 1.5 ±â€Š0.5 Wood units, P < 0.001). The TAPSE/PASP ratio was decreased (1.08 ±â€Š0.35 vs. 1.43 ±â€Š0.67 mm/mmHg, P < 0.001). This difference was mainly driven by male hypertensive patients. At multivariable analysis, the only independent predictors of decreased TAPSE/PASP were age and blood pressure. CONCLUSION: The TAPSE/PASP is markedly decreased in hypertension without heart failure, chiefly in men, with only slight increases in estimates of LV filling pressure or PVR, suggesting RV-PA uncoupling.

7.
J Hypertens ; 38(3): 395-399, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688462

RESUMEN

: The diagnosis and management of hypertension is dependent upon accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement. Despite intense efforts over several decades by the international medical community worldwide, the use of inaccurate devices has resulted in the misdiagnosis and poor management of hypertension, which remains a largely unresolved public health problem. STRIDE BP (www.stridebp.org) is an international nonprofit organization the mission of which is to improve the accuracy of BP measurement and the diagnosis of hypertension. STRIDE BP comprises a group of 24 recognized experts in BP monitoring from across the world and operates in affiliation with the European Society of Hypertension, the International Society of Hypertension, and the World Hypertension League. In the first stage, STRIDE BP has reviewed 419 validations of 260 devices and approved 69% of them, providing recommendations on accurate devices for office, ambulatory and home BP measurement in adults, children and during pregnancy. At the next stage, STRIDE BP intends to develop programs for on-line training and tools for use in clinical practice leading to improved measurement of BP and better diagnosis of hypertension world-wide.

8.
J Hypertens ; 38(3): 412-419, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644519

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Working Group on Uric Acid and Cardiovascular Risk of the Italian Society of Hypertension conceived and designed an ad-hoc study aimed at searching for prognostic cut-off values of serum uric acid (SUA) in predicting fatal myocardial infaction (MI) in women and men. METHODS: The URic acid Right for heArt Health study is a nationwide, multicentre, observational cohort study involving data on individuals aged 18-95 years recruited on a regional community basis from all the territory of Italy under the patronage of the Italian Society of Hypertension with a mean follow-up period of 122.3 ±â€Š66.9 months. RESULTS: A total of 23 467 individuals were included in the analysis. Cut-off values of SUA able to discriminate MI status were identified by mean of receiver operating characteristic curves in the whole database (>5.70 mg/dl), in women (>5.26 mg/dl) and in men (>5.49 mg/dl). Multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for confounders (age, arterial hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, smoking habit, ethanol intake, BMI, haematocrit, LDL cholesterol and use of diuretics) identified an independent association between SUA and fatal MI in the whole database (hazard ratio 1.381, 95% confidence intervals, 1.096-1.758, P = 0.006) and in women (hazard ratio 1.514, confidence intervals 1.105-2.075, P < 0.01), but not in men. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study confirm that SUA is an independent risk factor for fatal MI after adjusting for potential confounding variables, and demonstrate that a prognostic cut-off value associated to fatal MI can be identified at least in women.

9.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 302-308, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813345

RESUMEN

Serum uric acid (SUA) levels discriminating across the different strata of cardiovascular risk is still unknown. By utilizing a large population-based database, we assessed the threshold of SUA that increases the risk of total mortality and cardiovascular mortality (CVM). The URRAH study (Uric Acid Right for Heart Health) is a multicentre retrospective, observational study, which collected data from several large population-based longitudinal studies in Italy and subjects recruited in the hypertension clinics of the Italian Society of Hypertension. Total mortality was defined as mortality for any cause, CVM as death due to fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death, or heart failure. A total of 22 714 subjects were included in the analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analyses identified an independent association between SUA and total mortality (hazard ratio, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.21-1.93]) or CVM (hazard ratio, 2.08 [95% CI, 1.146-2.97]; P<0.001). Cutoff values of SUA able to discriminate total mortality (4.7 mg/dL [95% CI, 4.3-5.1 mg/dL]) and CVM status (5.6 mg/dL [95% CI, 4.99-6.21 mg/dL]) were identified. The information on SUA levels provided a significant net reclassification improvement of 0.26 and of 0.27 over the Heart Score risk chart for total mortality and CVM, respectively (P<0.001). Sex-specific cutoff values for total mortality and CVM were also identified and validated. In conclusion, SUA levels increasing the risk of total mortality and CVM are significantly lower than those used for the definition of hyperuricemia in clinical practice. Our data provide evidence of a cardiovascular SUA threshold that might contribute in clinical practice to improve identification of patients at higher risk of CVM.

10.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

11.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 324-330, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865788

RESUMEN

Whether extreme dipping is associated with cardiovascular events (CVE) is unclear. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the prognostic role of extreme dipping varies as a function of age. The analysis was performed in 10 868 participants (53% men) aged 53±15 (mean±SD) years enrolled in 8 prospective studies. Using the ambulatory systolic blood pressure nocturnal decline, we identified 4 groups: dippers (>10%-20%), nondippers (>0%-10%), reverse dippers (≤0%), and extreme dippers (>20%). The association between dipping category and CVE was estimated as a function of age using Cox models adjusted for sex, average 24-hour systolic blood pressure, and traditional risk factors. During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, there were a total of 829 CVE (168 fatal). For extreme dippers, no increase in risk of CVE was observed among the participants <70 years (hazard ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.73-1.34]; P=0.93) compared with dippers. In contrast, among the participants ≥70 years, there was a significant increase in risk (hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.14-3.11]; P=0.013). Among the octogenarians, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for CVE were 2.34 (1.12-4.93) for nondippers (P=0.024), 3.91 (1.75-8.73) for reverse dippers (P=0.001), and 4.12 (1.64-10.37) for extreme dippers (P=0.003) compared with dippers. These data show that extreme dipping is not associated with poorer outcome in people younger than 70 years. A U-shaped relationship between nocturnal blood pressure dipping and adverse outcome is present in subjects older than 70 years. In the octogenarian extreme dippers, the risk of CVEs was 4× higher than in the dippers and similar to that in the reverse dippers.

12.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

13.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(11): 1616-1622, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654494

RESUMEN

Blood pressure (BP) is a vital sign, and its measurement is essential for diagnosing and treating hypertension. The accuracy of BP monitors is therefore essential, but unfortunately very few devices available on the market have been validated using an established protocol. STRIDE BP (www.stridebp.org) is an international nonprofit organization with the mission to improve the accuracy of BP measurement and the diagnosis of hypertension. It has a prestigious Scientific Advisory Board and operates in affiliation with the European Society of Hypertension, the International Society of Hypertension, and the World Hypertension League. STRIDE BP provides lists of accurate office, ambulatory, and home BP monitors. STRIDE BP performed a systematic review of 419 published validations (270 articles and 260 devices). In these publications, 50 (12%) of the validations were rejected compared with 129 (31%) rejected by STRIDE BP (P < .001). Of 79 validations approved in publications but rejected by STRIDE BP, 7 (9%) were rejected due to device inaccuracy and 72 (91%) due to inadequate study quality (execution, analysis, and reporting). Errors in conducting and reporting published validations must be avoided. Peer review must ascertain that a comprehensive checklist of all aspects of a validation study have been adhered to. The implementation of a Universal Standard for device validation and the global dissemination of information on accurate devices by STRIDE BP are expected to improve the quality and accuracy of BP measurement, which should have a positive impact on the diagnosis and management of hypertension globally.

14.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(7): 966-974, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169986

RESUMEN

The prognostic value of uric acid (UA) for cardiovascular events (CVE) is still debated. Our purpose was to investigate the association between UA and CVE in 5243 participants of the ABP-International study with the main aim of identifying optimal sex-specific cut-points. In multivariable Cox analyses, the relationship between CVE and UA as a continuous variable was modeled by including both linear and nonlinear terms. Survival models were also estimated with UA as a categorical variable. Optimal UA cut-points were determined using an outcome-oriented approach. During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 423 CVE (93 fatal). In age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, UA as a continuous variable was a significant predictor of CVE in all individuals and in men and women considered separately. The relationship between UA and CVE was linear (P-value for nonlinearity 0.54 and 0.80 for men and women, respectively). For each 1 mg/dL increase in UA, the relative hazard increase was 16% in men and 19% in women. In fully adjusted models, UA remained a significant predictor of CVE in the whole study cohort. The optimal cut-point best separating patients at low and high risk of CVE was 6.3 mg/dL for men and 4.4 mg/dL for women. Subjects with high UA had a 38% greater risk of CVE. In a sex-specific analysis, the association remained significant only in men (hazard ratio, 1.47; P < 0.01). In conclusion, high UA is an independent predictor for subsequent CVE and significantly improves risk discrimination and reclassification over the baseline multivariable model.

15.
Blood Press Monit ; 24(4): 163-166, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116156

RESUMEN

In the last three decades protocols for the validation of blood pressure measuring devices have been developed by the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, the British Hypertension Society, the German Hypertension League, the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure Monitoring and the International Organization for Standardization. The European Society of Hypertension International Protocol required much smaller sample size than the other protocols, aiming to reduce the time, resources and cost of validation studies and thereby increase the number of validated devices. Given its specifications, the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol was adequate for 'high- and low-accuracy' devices, yet assessment of 'moderate accuracy' devices had high uncertainty with resultant high rate of device failure. Thus, devices validated using the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol should be considered to be as accurate as those validated with the previous Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation or British Hypertension Society protocols. However, the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol did not allow subgroup evaluation (arm sizes, special populations, etc). The mission of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol to promote the concept of validation has been well achieved, as almost double studies have been published using it than all the other protocols together. However, the maintenance of different validation protocols is confusing and therefore experts from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, European Society of Hypertension International Protocol and International Organization for Standardization have now developed the AAMI/ESH/ISO Universal Standard (ISO 81060-2:2018) as the recommended 21st-century procedure for worldwide application. The European Society of Hypertension Working Group has published a practical guide for using the Universal Standard. It is in the interests of all scientific bodies to propagate the Universal Standard and ensure its wide implementation.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea , Monitores de Presión Sanguínea/normas , Presión Sanguínea , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/instrumentación , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Sociedades Médicas
16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(14): 1549-1555, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122039

RESUMEN

Owing to its undisputed multitude of beneficial effects, European Society of Cardiology guidelines advocate regular physical activity as a class IA recommendation for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, competitive athletes with arterial hypertension may be exposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Guidance to physicians will be given in this summary of our recently published recommendations for participation in competitive sports of athletes with arterial hypertension.

17.
J Hypertens ; 37(7): 1419-1426, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882599

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The association of short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) with cardiovascular events (CVEs) is controversial. Aim of this study was to investigate whether BPV measured as weighted 24-h SD was associated with CVE in a prospective cohort study of young patients screened for stage 1 hypertension. METHODS: We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 1206 participants aged 33.1 ±â€Š8.5 years, untreated at baseline examination. Participants were divided into two categories with low (<12.8 mmHg) or high (≥12.8 mmHg) SBPV. Hazard ratios for CVE associated with BPV expressed either as continuous or categorical variable were computed from multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: During 15.4 ±â€Š7.4 years of follow-up there were 69 fatal and nonfatal CVE. In multivariable Cox models, high SBPV was an independent predictors of CVE [2.75 (1.65-4.58); P = 0.0001] and of coronary events [3.84 (2.01-7.35), P < 0.0001]. Inclusion in the model of development of hypertension requiring treatment during the follow-up, did not reduce the strength of the associations. Addition of SBPV to fully adjusted models had significant impact on risk reclassification and integrated discrimination (relative integrated discrimination improvement for BPV as continuous variable: 13.5%, P = 0.045, and for BPV as categorical variable: 26.6%, P = 0.001). When the coefficient of variation was used as BPV metric similar results were obtained. Of note, in all Cox models average 24-h BP was no longer an independent predictor of outcome after BPV was included. CONCLUSION: Short-term BPV adds to the risk stratification for cardiovascular events in young-to-middle-age patients screened for stage 1 hypertension over and above traditional 24-h ambulatory monitoring indexes.

18.
Blood Press Monit ; 24(3): 151-154, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807305

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Hingmed WBP-02A device for ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP). Device evaluation was carried out in 33 patients. The mean age was 69.8±13.8 years, the mean systolic BP was 137.6±27.0 mmHg (range: 96-172), the mean diastolic BP was 86.7±20.1 mmHg (range: 48-124) and the mean arm circumference was 30.1±6.2 cm (range: 20-43). The protocol requirements were followed precisely. Four different cuffs, small, standard, large, and extra-large were used. The device comfortably passed all ESH-IP requirements, as 84 out of 99 device-observer systolic BP differences and 97 of 99 diastolic BP differences were within ±5 mmHg thereby fulfilling the standards of the protocol. Device-observer BP differences were unrelated to arm circumference. These data show that the Hingmed WBP-02A device for ambulatory BP monitoring met the requirements for validation by the ESH-IP and can be recommended for clinical use in the adult population.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/instrumentación , Monitores de Presión Sanguínea/normas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Presión Sanguínea , Diástole , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sístole
19.
J Hypertens ; 37(3): 459-466, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702492

RESUMEN

: In the past 30 years, several organizations have developed protocols for clinical validation of blood pressure measuring devices. An international initiative was recently launched by the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring (ESH) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), aiming to reach consensus on a universal AAMI/ESH/ISO validation standard. The purpose of this statement by the ESH Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring is to provide practical guidance for investigators performing validation studies according to the AAMI/ESH/ISO Universal Standard (ISO 81060-2:2018), to ensure that its stipulations are meticulously implemented and data are fully reported. Thus, this statement provides: a list of key recommendations for validation studies of intermittent non-invasive automated blood pressure measuring devices according to the AAMI/ESH/ISO Universal Standard; practical stepwise guidance for researchers performing these validation studies; a checklist for authors and reviewers of such studies; an example of a complete validation study report.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/instrumentación , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/normas , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Consenso , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Estudios de Validación como Asunto
20.
Blood Press ; 28(1): 23-33, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465442

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the association between blood pressure (BP), carotid stiffness, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling in never-treated hypertensive patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 178 never-treated hypertensive underwent transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), local carotid stiffness and regional cfPWV assessed using a high-definition echo-tracking ultrasound system and a tonometric transducer, respectively. LV parameters and arterial stiffness were also considered in dippers and non-dippers. RESULTS: Mean night-time BP best correlated with carotid and LV parameters. Carotid stiffness parameters (ß-index, pressure-strain elastic modulus, one-point PWV) correlated with LV mass, relative wall thickness, and E/A ratio while cfPWV correlated only with E/A ratio. In multiple regression analysis, age and mean night-time ABPM had a stroger relation with carotid stiffness than cfPWV. In a second multiple regression analysis, day and night ABPM and carotid stiffness were independently related with LV remodeling and left atrial volume. In non-dippers, local carotid stiffness parameters were significantly higher than in dippers, whereas cfPWV was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid stiffness parameters are independently associated with LV remodeling and have an additive effect to BP and over cfPWV moreover local arterial stiffness is higher in non-dippers.


Asunto(s)
Arterias Carótidas/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Rigidez Vascular , Remodelación Ventricular , Adulto , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Análisis de Regresión
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