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1.
J Transcult Nurs ; : 1043659619889118, 2019 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752617

RESUMEN

Introduction: In recent decades, Italy has been exposed to significant migrant flows resulting from political and economic instability in neighbouring countries. As a result, there has been an increased amount of cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD) among nursing students. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of CALD nursing students as lived in the Italian nursing programmes. Method: A descriptive phenomenological method was used in 2017 with the involvement of a purposeful sample of 21 CALD nursing students in five Italian Bachelor of Nursing Science campuses. Data were collected using semistructured interviews; the subsequent content analysis was conducted by two independent researchers. Results: CALD nursing students reported having lived a transformative experience based on seven themes, from "living in the middle, between belonging and detachment" to "acquiring cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity." Discussion: Dealing with linguistic and cultural differences can affected CALD students' academic success, but also encourages them to develop awareness and cultural sensitivity by influencing their peers and the environment of the nursing programme. Therefore, having CALD students is a great value for nursing programmes. Nursing programmes should embody the values of cultural sensitivity and acceptance, including them as a nursing care value and as a concrete strategy to support CALD students. They should also develop strategies to promote the knowledge and responsibilities of nurses among CALD students and increase cultural sensitivity among faculty members at different levels.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 775, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to estimate the direct and indirect effects of the unit environment alongside individual and nursing care variables on eating dependence among residents who are cognitively impaired and living in a nursing home. METHOD: A multicentre observational study was carried out in 2017: 13 Italian nursing homes were involved in data collection. Included residents were aged > 65 at baseline, living in the considered facility for the last 6 months and during the entire study period and having received at least one comprehensive assessment. Data were collected (a) at the individual level: eating dependence using the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia Scale and other clinical variables; (b) at the nursing care level with daily interventions to maintain eating independence assessed with a checklist; and (c) at the nursing home level, using the Therapeutic Environment Screening Survey for Nursing Homes. RESULTS: One thousand twenty-seven residents were included with an average age of 85.32 years old (95% CI: 84.74-85.89), mainly female (781; 76%). The path analysis explained the 57.7% variance in eating dependence. Factors preventing eating dependence were: (a) at the individual level, increased functional dependence measured with the Barthel Index (ß - 2.374); eating in the dining room surrounded by residents (ß - 1.802) as compared to eating alone in bed; and having a close relationship with family relatives (ß - 0.854), (b) at the nursing care level, the increased number of interventions aimed at promoting independence (ß - 0.524); and (c) at the NH level, high scores in 'Space setting' (ß - 4.446), 'Safety' (ß - 3.053), 'Lighting' (ß - 2.848) and 'Outdoor access' (ß - 1.225). However, environmental factors at the unit level were found to have also indirect effects by influencing the degree of functional dependence, the occurrence of night restlessness and the number of daily interventions performed by the nursing staff. CONCLUSION: Eating dependence is a complex phenomenon requiring interventions targeting individual, nursing care, and environmental levels. The NH environment had the largest direct and indirect effect on residents' eating dependence, thus suggesting that at this level appropriate interventions should be designed and implemented.

3.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 42: 102670, 2019 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775083

RESUMEN

Contextual Factors (CFs) have been documented to influence nursing interventions and patients' outcomes triggering placebo/nocebo effects. However, given that no studies to date have explored the beliefs and the use of CFs among nursing students, a cross-sectional study was undertaken. Two Italian nursing programmes were involved and a self-administered survey tool was used. A total of 510 students participated. The majority (266; 52.2%) defined CFs as an intervention without a specific effect on the condition being treated, but with a possible nonspecific effect. They reported a substantial level of confidence in CFs and in using them more than twice/week in addition to nursing interventions to optimise clinical outcomes. Physiological and psychological therapeutic effects were mostly reported by participants in treating insomnia (n = 351; 68.8%) and chronic pain (n = 310; 60.8%). The use of CF was considered ethically acceptable when it exerted beneficial psychological effects (n = 188; 36.8%). Participants communicated to patients that a CF is a treatment that can help and will not hurt (n = 128; 25.1%). Students are aware of the value of CFs. Increasing their emphasis in nursing programmes can promote nursing students' consideration with regards to their use, their underlying mechanisms, their potential effects, as well as their ethical and comunicative implications.

4.
Int J Older People Nurs ; : e12282, 2019 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631519

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To validate a tool measuring self-directed learning (SDL) abilities and to determine these abilities among older individuals attending the University of the Third Age. BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) and SDL abilities have been documented as being closely linked to each other and as prerequisites in enhancing self-management competences required by older people to protect their health and to manage health issues. Furthermore, individuals with SDL abilities have been documented to have a full understanding of their health treatment prescriptions, to be able to demonstrate increased compliance and to further develop self-care competences. DESIGN: A validation and a cross-sectional study design. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 313 older people (68.7% female) who attended lessons in two Italian Universities of the Third Age and who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled. The Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning (SRSSDL) validated previously in the healthcare context, was used. RESULTS: At the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the SRSSDL in Older people (SRSSDLO) has demonstrated good psychometric properties: the tool is composed by four factors ("Awareness," "Attitudes," "Availability" and "Motivation") and 13 items. According to the findings, the average SDL score was 54.27 ± 6.69 out of 65, and women achieved significantly higher scores compared with men (54.81 ± 6.69 vs. 53.08 ± 6.54, p = .033), while participants with a university degree (55.95 ± 6.56) or secondary education (54.75 ± 6.13) had higher scores than those with lower secondary education (50.37 ± 7.34, p = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Participants were responsible for their learning processes and were capable of identifying learning needs and goals. They were also internally motivated to develop learning methods and to organise learning activities. However, they were less able to keep up to date with the learning resources available. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The SRSSDLO can help nurses identify healthy older people that lack SDL abilities and design tailored educational interventions to prevent health conditions and/or promote self-care management in chronic conditions.

5.
Nurse Educ Today ; 83: 104194, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493620

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The need to provide care for the dying patient and his/her family may occur in every medical setting. Newly graduated nurses and physicians should therefore be prepared to deliver it at a high-quality level. OBJECTIVES: To explore (a) the primary difficulties participants anticipate they will encounter whilst working with dying patients, (b) their interest in developing competencies in caring for dying patients, and (c) their interest in working in palliative/hospice settings or with dying patients in the future. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: A medical university in Poland. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of nursing (=112) and medical students (=101) at the end of their undergraduate education. METHODS: Questionnaire distributed online and in hard-copy format. RESULTS: Half of the participants anticipated experiencing various emotional and professional difficulties in caring for dying individuals, especially medical students. These difficulties pertained mostly the reaction of family members to the patient's death, addressing the psychological needs of the dying person, and coping with his/her own emotions when dealing with the patient's death. Students reported that working with dying patients could cause occupational stress - more so among medical students. The majority of them showed an interest in improving knowledge regarding palliative care and also in this case this was mostly true of medical rather than nursing students. However, more than half of the participants preferred avoiding work in palliative/hospice settings, with no differences between the two groups. Participants attributed this attitude to two factors: (a) the desire to avoid negative emotions and stress that could be triggered by dealing with death and dying; and (b) because they felt they lacked the required skills and personal abilities to handle such situations. CONCLUSIONS: Undergraduate curricula that include strategies for coping with negative emotions associated with facing the process of death and dying should be developed. Interprofessional education should be encouraged, especially regarding the psychosocial aspects of end-of-life care.

6.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(8): 1773-1783, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529750

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aims of the study were (a) to assess whether the proportion of female nurses and female physicians in a given unit influences the attitude of collaboration between nurses and physicians as reported by nurses, and (b) to examine how these two dimensions interact to influence attitudes towards cooperation. BACKGROUND: Available studies have documented that gender influences the collaboration between physicians and nurses, but no have explored the influence of specific combinations-such as a high proportion of female nurses and a high proportion of female physicians. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 700 nurses working in 36 hospital units in Italy. The validated Italian version of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration was used. A three stages hierarchical linear regression was performed by entering: (a) the control variables at the individual and at the unit levels, (b) the proportion of female nurses and physicians and (c) the two-way interaction. RESULTS: A total of 430 nurses participated; the average Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration total score was 48.64 ± 5.27. At the second and third stages of the hierarchical linear regression model (explaining 12.8% and 14.1% of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration variance, respectively), having more female RNs as staff (model two: ß = 0.61, p =< .1; model three: ß = 0.69, p =< .05) was significantly associated with higher Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration scores; differently, higher physician-nurse ratios (model two: ß = -4.09, p =< .05; model three: ß = -4.54, p =< .01), and more female physicians (model two: ß = -1.06, p =< .05; model three: ß = -1.29, p =< .01) were associated with lower Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration scores. CONCLUSION: There is a decreased collaboration as reported by nurses when predominantly male nursing teams interact with teams with more female physicians. However, in units lead by female physicians, having more female members among the nursing team, ensures increased attitudes of collaboration as reported by nurses. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: With the increasing proportion of female physicians and male nurses, unit mangers should be prepared to manage their influence on interprofessional cooperation.

7.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 42: 50-62, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446264

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: to map (a) methodological features, (b) Haemorrhagic Cystitis (HC) preventive and treatment interventions scrutinized to date, (c) outcomes measured, and (d) trends in effectiveness as documented among Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplanted (HSCT) adults. METHODS: A scoping review was performed in 2018. Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane Systematic Reviews databases were researched using "haemorrhagic cystitis", "prevention", "treatment", "prevent*" and "treat*" as search terms. Handsearching was also performed. Clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, comparative and observational studies, reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in English and concerning adults were all included. RESULTS: Fifteen primary studies, mainly monocentric, retrospective and with a sample size <200, were identified. Seven focused on preventive (mainly continuous bladder irrigation and mesna) and eight on treatment interventions (mainly intravenous and intravesical cidofovir). The onset of micro and macrohaematuria and the clinical resolution of HC were the main measured outcomes. Positive effectiveness trends were apparent for mesna and cidofovir. CONCLUSIONS: In HC prevention and treatment, published primary studies are sparse and further research is required with larger, multicenter, and longitudinal designs conducted at international levels, with standardized methods, interventions, outcome measures, and reported data.

8.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378845

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The management of delirium among older in-hospital patients is a challenge, leading to worse outcomes, including death. Specifically, psychomotor agitation, one of the main characteristics of hyperactive delirium, requires a significant amount of medical and nursing surveillance. However, despite its relevance, to date incidence and/or prevalence of psychomotor agitation, its predictors and outcomes have not been studied among Italian older patients admitted in medical units. AIMS: To describe the incidence and the prevalence of psychomotor agitation among patients aged > 65 years admitted to medical units and identify predictors at the individual, nursing care and hospital levels. METHODS: A longitudinal multicentre study was conducted involving 12 medical units in 12 northern Italian hospitals. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Among the 1464 patients included in the study, two hundred (13.6%) have manifested episode(s), with an average of 3.46/patient (95% confidence of interval [CI] 2.73-4.18). In 108 (54.0%) patients, episode(s) were present also in the week prior to hospitalisation: therefore, in-hospital-acquired psychomotor agitation was reported in 92 patients (46%). The multivariate logistic regression analysis explained the 25.4% of the variance and identified the following variables as psychomotor agitation predictors: the risk of falls (relative risk [RR] 1.314, 95% CI 1.218-1.417), the amount of missed nursing care (RR 1.078, 95% CI 1.037-1.12) and the patient's age (RR 1.018, 95% CI 1.002-1.034). Factors preventing the occurrence of episode(s) were: the amount of care received from graduated nurses (RR 0.978; 95% CI 0.965-0.992) and the lower functional dependence at admission (RR 0.987, 95% CI 0.977-0.997). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable number of elderly patients admitted in medical units develop psychomotor agitation; its predictors need to be identified early to inform decisions regarding the personal care needed to prevent its occurrence, especially by acting on modifiable factors, such as the risk of falls, missed nursing care and functional dependence.

9.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(7): 1492-1504, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349372

RESUMEN

AIM: To support the development of appropriate policies and actions in the field of missed nursing care (MNC). BACKGROUND: There has been an ever-growing international debate on MNC, interventions that nurses have identified as necessary for their patients, but which for various reasons they are unable to provide or are forced to delay. Despite MNC's relevance, its translation into policies and actions has not been documented to date. METHOD: A consensus development method was employed involving (a) a nominal group composed of experts in the field, policymakers and the President of the Regional Nursing Professional Boards, and (b) 218 nurses appointed primarily at the managerial levels. RESULTS: A total of eight consensus statements were approved and organized in a series of sub-statements designed to (1) render the concept of MNC culturally acceptable in the Italian context, with the agreement that compromised nursing care (CNC) is the best term to be used in this field, as a synonym for MNC; (2) measure CNC as a strategy to increase patient safety; (3) select an appropriate CNC measurement tool; (4) optimize CNC measurement; (5) conduct effective CNC data analysis; (6) design and implement interventions to prevent and/or minimize CNC; (7) assess and disseminate findings on interventions' effectiveness; and (8) provide final remarks on the way to move forward. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a process to introduce the phenomenon of MNC in the Italian culture and agreed firstly on the term compromised nursing care, which better reflects MNC's meaning according to the context and facilitates an open discussion on the phenomenon both within and outside the profession. The following consensus statements emerged represent a systematic approach, starting from the measurement and finishing with the re-measurement of the occurrence of MNC after having implemented concrete actions. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: The approved consensus statements can guide decision-makers to develop concrete policies and actions that promote the improvement of quality of care and patients' safety by minimizing and/or preventing MNC's occurrence.

10.
Int J Older People Nurs ; 14(3): e12245, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148416

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nursing students report care of the older people as an undesirable career pathway. Positive clinical placement experiences influence students' attitudes and career intentions with respect to nursing home (NH) setting. The clinical environment's quality depends on meaningful learning opportunities, the relationship with the preceptors, and the pedagogical atmosphere as influenced by the staff-student interactions. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore nursing students' perceptions on their clinical learning experience and competence learned in the NH setting as compared to other clinical areas. METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed of an Italian national cross-sectional study involving 9,607 nursing students attending 95 different three-year bachelor laureate nursing programmes in 27 universities. A questionnaire exploring individual and nursing programme variables was devised. Moreover, students self-reported the perceived quality of the clinical learning experience using the Clinical Learning Quality Evaluation Index tool and the degree of competence learned using a four-point Likert-type scale. RESULTS: Students in the NH setting scored the overall quality of the learning environment significantly higher (p = 0.046) compared to those experiencing other clinical settings, and they scored higher learning occasions (p = 0.002) and self-directed learning opportunities (p = 0.018). No difference emerged in the perceived mean degree of competences learned at the end of the clinical rotation (p = 0.271). CONCLUSION: Nursing students perceive the NH setting to be a good quality learning environment with valuable learning opportunities and self-directed learning opportunities compared to other settings. The nursing home setting provides opportunities to acquire clinical competences comparable to the ones in other clinical settings such as hospital units. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Nursing home settings should be considered by all nursing programmes as a learning environment particularly worthy for students at different levels of their education.

11.
Worldviews Evid Based Nurs ; 16(4): 299-309, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155844

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies are considered capable of generating substantial evidence; therefore, their production and diffusion are continuously encouraged. However, their trends as publication outputs in nursing journals have rarely been evaluated to date. AIMS: To describe experimental study design features among the highest indexed nursing journals. METHODS: A scoping review was performed by retrieving and analyzing experimental studies published between 2009 and 2016 in nursing journals with a 5-year impact factor >1.5 according to Thomson's Journal Citation Reports. RESULTS: A total of 602 studies were reviewed and 340 (56%) were included; in all, 298/340 (87.6%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 37/340 (10.9%) pilot studies. The publication trend exhibited a fluctuating pattern with a slight decrease over time (from 54 studies in 2009 to 32 in 2016). Researchers working in Asia and Europe have published more frequently in the selected journals. Published studies most often involved oncological (n = 69, 20%), surgical (n = 41, 12%), and elderly patients (n = 38, 11%). Educational and supportive (n = 119, 35%) interventions were mainly tested for effectiveness. Approximately half of studies enrolled <100 patients, and only two-thirds had included an a priori sample size calculation. Less than one quarter (n = 76) of the research teams were multiprofessional, and 70% of studies were funded, generally, by public institutions. LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: A broad range of research questions has been investigated to date by using experimental study designs. However, study methods and multidisciplinary collaborations must be enhanced with the intent of producing large-scale and methodologically sound studies. Furthermore, reasons for limited funding and, particularly, the lack of support from private funding should be further investigated.

13.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 18(6): 435-448, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a complex syndrome characterised by disturbances in attention and awareness, associated with alterations in cognitive functions, which can emerge in a time frame of hours or days and tend to fluctuate in severity over time. Delirium is a clinical manifestation of the brain's vulnerability and diminished resilience to insult. Stroke patients are particularly vulnerable to delirium episodes. AIMS: The aim of this study was to map: (a) studies focused on ischaemic or haemorrhagic post-stroke delirium; (b) factors that have been investigated as being possibly associated with post-stroke delirium; and (c) outcomes that have been studied to date. METHODS: A scoping review was performed. Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched. Eligible studies were those: (a) exploring any variable regarding delirium in patients with stroke; (b) involving adults; (c) as primary studies; (d) written in English; and (e) published before April 2017. RESULTS: To date 25 studies have been published, mainly prospective or cohort studies. The most commonly studied predisposing factors have been the older age, gender, aetiology of the stroke and its location, and the presence of previous cognitive decline/dementia. The most studied precipitating factors to date have been pneumonia, urinary tract infections and symptoms of neglect. Functional dependence, length of inhospital stays, post-stroke cognitive impairments or dementia, short and long-term mortality have been the most studied post-stroke delirium outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Studies across different clinical settings, also at the international level, including more female patients and a wider range of ages should be designed in order to improve the evidence available to develop specific clinical guidelines. Standardised frameworks of research addressing the great variability of methods and measures used in the field should be established at the international level by clinicians and researchers' experts in the field.

14.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 38(1): 6-14, 2019.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933185

RESUMEN

. The nurses' tasks performed by aids in hospital settings: a mixed-methods study. INTRODUCTION: The role of Nurses' aides (NAs) in the clinical practice has been widely debated to date. AIMS: To describe the activities/tasks performed by NAs and the dedicated time; to identify the activities/tasks shifted from nurses to NAs and to investigate the motivations. METHODS: A multi-center mixed-methods study was conducted. Fifty-six NAs working in 17 hospitals in the North-Italy were observed during daily practice and then interviewed about the motivations associated with task shifting. RESULTS: NAs mainly performed direct care tasks (67.7% of the observed time), such as helping with personal hygiene, feeding and mobilization. Larger hospitals (p = 0.034), surgical units (p = 0.001), a skill mix> 40% (p = 0.044) and a reduced nurse to patient ratio (p = 0.041), were significantly associated with a higher amount of indirect care activities/tasks performed by NAs. The tasks shifted most frequently from nurses to NAs were: mobilization (22; 39.3%) and personal hygiene (21; 37.5%) of unstable patients, feeding patients with dysphagia (19; 34%), intra-venous set replacement (16; 28.6%) and pressure ulcers' dressing (11; 19.6%). NAs reported that they chose to act autonomously because of their experience and the trust-based relationship with nurses, in order to promptly respond to patients needs and to reduce nurse workload. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to further assess the development of the NAs role in the hospital setting to understand their inclusion in the nursing care.


Asunto(s)
Rol de la Enfermera , Asistentes de Enfermería/organización & administración , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/organización & administración , Carga de Trabajo , Adulto , Femenino , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 76: 234-241, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During their clinical learning experience, students are exposed to the nursing profession as a powerful structural reality, experiencing the so-called professional socialisation, a process recognised as the basis of professional identity. Inside this process, students progressively acknowledge their professional identity as being composed of several competencies and, among these, also non-nursing tasks. OBJECTIVES: To explore non-nursing tasks in the context of nursing students' clinical learning experiences. DESIGN: An interpretative phenomenological study design was performed and carried out in 2016. The COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative (COREQ) research principles were used in reporting study methods and findings. SETTING: Two Italian Bachelor of Nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Students attending their nursing programmes who a) had successfully passed one or more theoretical examinations; b) had one or more clinical learning experiences in varied contexts (e.g. hospital, community); c) were attending the 1st, 2nd or 3rd year, and d) were willing to participate, were interviewed with an open-ended, face-to-face, audio-recorded interview. METHODS: A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Participating students (n = 18) were between 20 and 25 years old and were attending the 1st to the 3rd (and final) academic year. Non-nursing tasks were experienced by them according to three main themes: a) "Being out of the scope of the learning experience," b) "Being forced by external and internal forces," and c) "Dealing with mixed outcomes by looking for a compromise." All students have reported learning to perform non-nursing tasks by shadowing clinical nurses and also practising these tasks by themselves. Internal and external forces prompted students to perform non-nursing tasks, which were recognised as having positive, negative, and neutral effects on themselves and on their learning outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Non-nursing tasks are acquired since the beginning of the clinical experience, thus shaping the nursing students' professional identity. At the undergraduate nursing level, strategies should be implemented to prevent the phenomena that a) threaten the acquisition of more complex nursing competences expected by patients and society, and b) shape future generations to be flexible and to perform different tasks, included those below their role.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Competencia Profesional , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Adulto , Bachillerato en Enfermería , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto Joven
17.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; 53: 43-53, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926174

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To summarise evidence on sleep deprivation and/or poor sleep determinants as experienced by intensive care unit patients. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGN: A systematic review of qualitative studies identified through PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases published in English up to 2018 was performed following PRISMA guidelines. The included studies were critically evaluated by using the Critical Appraisal Screening Programme tool. Study findings were then subjected to a meta-summary and a meta-synthesis. SETTING: Intensive Care Units. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Critically ill patients' experiences of sleep deprivation. RESULTS: Seven qualitative studies were included documenting the experience of 109 adult patients. A total of 12 codes emerged as causes of sleep deprivation and 'feeling fear/concern' was reported with the greatest frequency (71.4%) in the meta-summary. The 12 codes were categorised into three main themes influencing both directly and also interdependently the quality of sleep: (1) Experiencing complex interactions with the environment (nursing activities, frightening or disturbing sounds, acceptable sounds, time and space disorientation); (2) Undergoing intensive emotions and feelings (fear/concerns, state of abandon, inexplicable insomnia, inability to move, inability to talk) and (3) Receiving an appropriate standard of care (physical pain, feeling safe/unsafe). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increased relevance of sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality, only a few studies have been performed to date aimed at identifying the factors involved in the phenomenon according to patient experience. The majority of determinants as identified from patients' perspective are modifiable.

18.
Scand J Caring Sci ; 33(3): 556-568, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bedside shift reports have been recently recommended to ensure handovers. However, no evidence summarising studies designed to determine the qualitative approaches capable of better understanding patient experience have been published to date. AIM: The aim of this study was to acquire a deeper understanding of the experiences of patients regarding bedside shift reports. DATA SOURCES AND REVIEW METHODS: A systematic review of qualitative studies followed by a meta-synthesis method based upon Sandelowski's and Barroso's guidelines was performed. Four databases were systematically explored (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycINFO) without any limitation in time and up to the 31 August 2018. A total of 10 studies were included and evaluated in their methodological quality; then, a thematic synthesis was developed to synthetize the findings. RESULTS: Three major themes reflect patients' experience regarding the bedside shift reports: (i) 'Being involved'; (ii) 'Being the centre of nursing care processes'; and (iii) 'Experiencing critical issues'. Patients are supportive of bedside shift reports as a right, as an opportunity to be involved, and of being in the centre of the nursing care process. By designing and implementing bedside shift reports, nurses also have an opportunity to increase patient safety and to provide concrete proof of the advancements achieved by the nursing profession in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: The bedside shift reports experience has been little studied to date from the perspective of patients. According to the findings, implementation of the bedside shift reports should include providing education to nurses with regard to the preferences and expectations of patients, as well as the critical issues that they can experience during the bedside shift reports. Presenting the bedside shift reports method, asking patient consent, discussing potential critical issues and the degree of involvement preferred at hospital admission, is strongly recommended.

19.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025575, 2019 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898820

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore nursing students' interprofessional educational (IPE) experiences during their most recent clinical rotation and to explore the factors supporting IPE experiences. DESIGN: National cross-sectional study on data collected in 2016. SETTING: 95 Bachelor of Nursing Sciences programmes; 27 Italian Universities. PARTICIPANTS: Students who (a) were attending or just completed their clinical rotations lasting at least 2 weeks in the same unit, and (b) willing to participate in the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: First to measure the occurrence of IPE experiences in the most recent clinical rotation; the secondary outcome was to discover factors associated with IPE occurrence. MEASURES: The primary outcome was measured using questions based on a 4-point Likert scale (from 0='never' to 3='always'). Explanatory variables were collected at both individual and regional levels with items included in the same questionnaire. RESULTS: 9607 out of 10 480 students took part in the study. Overall, 666 (6.9%) perceived not having had any IPE experience, while 3248 (33.8%), 3653 (38%) and 2040 (21.3%) reported having experienced IPE opportunities 'only a little', to 'some extent' or 'always', respectively. From the multilevel analysis performed using the generalised linear mixed model, factors promoting the occurrence of IPE experiences were mainly set at (a) the clinical learning environment level (high: learning environment quality, self-directed learning encouragement, learning opportunities, quality of safety and nursing care and quality of tutorial strategies); and (b) the regional level, where significant differences emerged across regions. In contrast, male gender was negatively associated with the perception of having had IPE experiences. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of nursing students experienced either 'never' or 'only a little' IPE opportunities, thus suggesting that nursing education tends to remain within the nursing profession. Limiting students' interprofessional exposure during education can prevent future collaborative approaches that have been shown to be essential in providing best patient care. In order to increase IPE exposure, it is necessary to develop strategies designed both at the singular unit and regional levels.

20.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(9-10): 1966-1978, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706543

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe contextual factors (CFs) used by nurses to increase placebo and to prevent nocebo effects. BACKGROUND: Placebo effects have been studied in the nursing discipline, but nocebo effects still remain unexplored. Recently, a set of CFs functioning as triggers of placebo/nocebo effects has been described; however, its use in daily care has never been documented to date. DESIGN: A national cross-sectional survey, according to the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys guidelines and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE), was performed in 2016. METHODS: A wide sample of Italian nurses belonging to four national associations was involved. A questionnaire based on CFs literature was developed and administered through the SurveyMonkey Software® exploring: (a) CFs definition, (b) beliefs, (c) case-by-case frequency of use, (d) circumstances of application, (e) clinical conditions where participants perceived their potential beneficial effects, (f) ethical implications and (g) communication issues with the patient. RESULTS: Out of 1,411 eligible nurses, 455 answered (32.2%) and 425 questionnaires (30.1%) were valid for the analysis. A total of 211 nurses (49.6%) defined the CFs as an intervention with a possible aspecific effect; participants believed in the CFs (2.91; 95%CI 2.88-2.94), using them >2 times/month, mainly in addition to a nursing intervention to optimise clinical outcomes (n = 79; 18.6%). Psychological and physiological therapeutic effects have been perceived mainly in chronic pain (n = 259; 60.9%) and insomnia (n = 243; 57.2%). According to participants, CFs have been reported as ethically acceptable when exerting beneficial psychological effects (n = 148; 34.8%); however, 103 (24.2%) of nurses did not communicate to the patient when CFs were used. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses are aware of CFs as elements to increase the placebo and prevent the nocebo effects in concomitance with evidence-based nursing interventions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The CFs valued by nurses and experienced as effective are mainly based upon the internal quality of the nurse and the quality of the relationship between the nurse and the patient. These qualities require a large personal investment; therefore, nurses should be supported in developing these qualities since their nursing graduation.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería Basada en la Evidencia , Efecto Nocebo , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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