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2.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 38(3): 247-257, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930460

RESUMEN

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is only one of several organisations internationally that uses economic evaluation as part of decision making regarding funding and pricing of new medical technologies. However, it can be argued that NICE has developed a more prominent international profile than most in their use of economics. After 20 years of operation, it is timely to assess the extent of NICE's achievements, including the economic evaluation methods it has used and its willingness to adapt these as new evaluative approaches emerge and when NICE faces particular policy challenges. This paper considers some of the important policy and contextual developments in the UK over the last 20 years and how these may have shaped NICE's approach to economic evaluation. It then assesses key areas of NICE methods, including perspective, defining benefits, modelling and uncertainty. The paper concludes that NICE has provided important support for the development of new methods, in particular through its role in identifying priorities for methods research funding and its sponsorship of the NICE Decision Support Unit. However, potentially important developments in methods in a number of important areas have yet to be formally included in NICE's methods guidance and this should be addressed in the Institute's 2019/2020 methods review.

3.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 259, 2019 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690719

RESUMEN

Here, we determine annual estimates of occupancy and species trends for 5,293 UK bryophytes, lichens, and invertebrates, providing national scale information on UK biodiversity change for 31 taxonomic groups for the time period 1970 to 2015. The dataset was produced through the application of a Bayesian occupancy modelling framework to species occurrence records supplied by 29 national recording schemes or societies (n = 24,118,549 records). In the UK, annual measures of species status from fine scale data (e.g. 1 × 1 km) had previously been limited to a few taxa for which structured monitoring data are available, mainly birds, butterflies, bats and a subset of moth species. By using an occupancy modelling framework designed for use with relatively low recording intensity data, we have been able to estimate species trends and generate annual estimates of occupancy for taxa where annual trend estimates and status were previously limited or unknown at this scale. These data broaden our knowledge of UK biodiversity and can be used to investigate variation in and drivers of biodiversity change.

4.
JAMA ; 322(6): 582-583, 2019 08 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408128
5.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(9): 1081-1091, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887470

RESUMEN

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Pfizer, the manufacturer of inotuzumab ozogamicin (henceforth inotuzumab), to submit clinical- and cost-effectiveness evidence for inotuzumab as part of NICE's single technology appraisal process. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Centre for Health Economics, both at the University of York, were commissioned as the independent evidence review group (ERG). The clinical-effectiveness data were from a multicentre randomised controlled trial that compared inotuzumab with standard of care (SoC), where SoC was the investigator's choice of chemotherapy. Inotuzumab demonstrated statistically significant improvements in response rates or in the proportion of patients progressing to haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) but failed to meet the second primary objective of longer overall survival. Treatment-emergent adverse events were more frequent in the SoC arm, except veno-occlusive disease, which was more frequent in the inotuzumab arm. The company's economic model split patients into three post-hoc subgroups and used a partitioned survival approach within each group, with a cure assumption 3 years after receiving HSCT. In contrast with the trial results, the economic model estimated substantial improvement in survival with inotuzumab compared with SoC, providing an additional 5.2 life-years and 2.2 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) using a discount rate of 1.5% per annum. The ERG's critique highlighted a number of concerns, including the use of a post-hoc post-randomisation patient subset for extrapolation, the choice of a 1.5% discount rate, the complexity of the parametric modelling, the assumption of further treatment benefit post-HSCT, the nature of the cure assumption, and the length of inpatient stay while receiving treatment. The combination of the ERG's adjustments resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £122,174 per QALY gained using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and £114,078 per QALY gained with parametric survival models fit to the trial data. The final determination of the appraisal followed four NICE Appraisal Committee meetings, an appeal by the company and other stakeholders, two patient access schemes, and a company response to each appraisal consultation. The final ICER post-consultation was between £33,749 and £37,497 per QALY gained compared with SoC (excluding the confidential discount for blinatumomab received as subsequent therapy). The Appraisal Committee concluded that the ICER for inotuzumab was within the range usually considered cost effective for end-of-life care and recommended inotuzumab within its licensed indication.

6.
Adv Ther ; 36(4): 950-961, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758745

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the absence of head-to-head trials, this analysis aimed to provide a fair indirect comparison of the efficacy between blinatumomab and inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO), two treatments for adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (R/R ALL) who received no more than one prior salvage therapy, by adjusting for cross-trial differences. METHODS: Patient-level data from the Phase 3 blinatumomab trial TOWER and published aggregated data from the Phase 3 InO trial INO-VATE-ALL were used to conduct matching-adjusted indirect comparisons. Patients with 2+ prior salvage therapies from TOWER were excluded because such patients were not included in INO-VATE-ALL. To ensure balance in the remaining patients, baseline characteristics for the TOWER patients were weighted to match the average baseline characteristics in INO-VATE-ALL, including sex, age, race, performance status, bone marrow blast, previous salvage therapy, previous allogeneic transplantation, complete remission with complete hematologic recovery (CR) to most recent induction therapy, and duration of first remission. Overall survival (OS), including median and restricted mean survival time (RMST) at 12 and 20.7 months, and CR were estimated and compared. RESULTS: A total of 310 patients in TOWER were included (blinatumomab, n = 203; standard of care chemotherapy, n = 107). After matching the listed baseline characteristics, the median OS was 9.3 months for blinatumomab and 7.7 months for InO (weighted log-rank test p = 0.4). The relative RMST at 12 months was 1.6 months longer for blinatumomab than for InO [95% CI (0.1, 3.2); p = 0.04]; at 20.7 months the RMST was not significantly different. The CR rates were similar [anchor-based difference = - 2.8%, 95% CI (- 17.5%, 11.9%); p = 0.71]. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for cross-trial differences, blinatumomab demonstrated a similar CR rate and potential OS benefit versus InO among adult patients with R/R ALL who received no more than one prior salvage therapy. Further studies are suggested to confirm this finding. FUNDING: Amgen.

7.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 20, 2019 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health economic models are critical tools to inform reimbursement agencies on health care interventions. Many clinical trials report outcomes using the frequency of an event over a set period of time, for example, the primary efficacy outcome in most clinical trials of migraine prevention is mean change in the frequency of migraine days (MDs) per 28 days (monthly MDs [MMD]) relative to baseline for active treatment versus placebo. Using these cohort-level endpoints in economic models, accounting for variation among patients is challenging. In this analysis, parametric models of change in MMD for migraine preventives were assessed using data from erenumab clinical studies. METHODS: MMD observations from the double-blind phases of two studies of erenumab were used: one in episodic migraine (EM) (NCT02456740) and one in chronic migraine (CM) (NCT02066415). For each trial, two longitudinal regression models were fitted: negative binomial and beta binomial. For a thorough comparison we also present the fitting from the standard multilevel Poisson and the zero inflated negative binomial. RESULTS: Using the erenumab study data, both the negative binomial and beta-binomial models provided unbiased estimates relative to observed trial data with well-fitting distribution at various time points. CONCLUSIONS: This proposed methodology, which has not been previously applied in migraine, has shown that these models may be suitable for estimating MMD frequency. Modelling MMD using negative binomial and beta-binomial distributions can be advantageous because these models can capture intra- and inter-patient variability so that trial observations can be modelled parametrically for the purposes of economic evaluation of migraine prevention. Such models have implications for use in a wide range of disease areas when assessing repeated measured utility values.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas del Receptor Peptídico Relacionado con el Gen de la Calcitonina/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Migrañosos/tratamiento farmacológico , Modelos Estadísticos , Distribución Binomial , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Humanos , Trastornos Migrañosos/prevención & control , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(5): 727-737, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610657

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In economic evaluations in oncology, adjusted survival should be generated if imbalances in prognostic/predictive factors across treatment arms are present. To date, no formal guidance has been developed regarding how such adjustments should be made. We compared various covariate-adjusted survival modeling approaches, as applied to the ENDEAVOR trial in multiple myeloma that assessed carfilzomib plus dexamethasone (Cd) versus bortezomib plus dexamethasone (Vd). METHODS: Overall survival (OS) data and baseline characteristics were used for a subgroup (bortezomib-naïve/one prior therapy). Four adjusted survival modeling approaches were compared: propensity score weighting followed by fitting a Weibull model to the two arms of the balanced data (weighted data approach); fitting a multiple Weibull regression model including prognostic/predictive covariates to the two arms to predict survival using the mean value of each covariate and using the average of patient-specific survival predictions; and applying an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) derived from a Cox proportional hazard model to the baseline risk estimated for Vd. RESULTS: The mean OS estimated by the weighted data approach was 6.85 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.62-10.70) for Cd, 4.68 years (95% CI 3.46-6.74) for Vd, and 2.17 years (95% CI 0.18-5.06) for the difference. Although other approaches estimated similar differences, using the mean value of covariates appeared to yield skewed survival estimates (mean OS was 7.65 years for Cd and 5.40 years for Vd), using the average of individual predictions had limited external validity (implausible long-term OS predictions with > 10% of the Vd population alive after 30 years), and using the adjusted HR approach overestimated uncertainty (difference in mean OS was 2.03, 95% CI - 0.17 to 6.19). CONCLUSIONS: Adjusted survival modeling based on weighted or matched data approaches provides a flexible and robust method to correct for covariate imbalances in economic evaluations. The conclusions of our study may be generalizable to other settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01568866 (ENDEAVOR trial).

9.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(2): 131-139, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112635

RESUMEN

As part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence single technology appraisal process, brodalumab was assessed to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of its use in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Centre for Health Economics Technology Assessment Group at the University of York were commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group. This article provides a summary of the Evidence Review Group's review of the company's submission, the Evidence Review Group report and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Appraisal Committee's subsequent guidance issued in March 2018. The main clinical effectiveness data were derived from three well-conducted, multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trials. The trials demonstrated that brodalumab statistically significantly reduced the severity of psoriasis and its impact on health-related quality of life, compared with placebo, at 12 weeks. In comparison with ustekinumab, statistically significantly more patients taking brodalumab had reduced psoriasis severity at 12 weeks. Psoriasis severity and quality of life also appeared improved at 52 weeks, although statistical significance was not assessed. Withdrawal rates were comparable to drug survival rates of other biological therapies and rates of adverse events were similar between brodalumab and ustekinumab. A network meta-analysis was presented, comparing brodalumab with other therapies available at the same point in the treatment pathway (i.e. in patients for whom standard systemic therapy or phototherapy is inadequately effective, not tolerated or contraindicated). The network meta-analysis ranked treatments in order of effectiveness, in terms of achieving different levels of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index response. The results indicated that brodalumab had a similar probability of response to ixekizumab, secukinumab and infliximab and a higher probability of response than ustekinumab, adalimumab, etanercept, apremilast, dimethyl fumarate and placebo. The company's economic model compared nine treatment sequences that included three lines of active therapy, consisting of brodalumab and other comparators recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, followed by best supportive care. The sequence with brodalumab in the first-line position dominated sequences that started with adalimumab, infliximab, secukinumab and ustekinumab. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the brodalumab sequence compared to less effective and non-dominated sequences ranged from £7145 (vs. the etanercept sequence) to £13,353 (vs. the dimethyl fumarate sequence) per quality-adjusted life-year gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the more costly and effective ixekizumab sequence was £894,010 per quality-adjusted life-year gained compared to the brodalumab sequence. At a threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, the brodalumab sequence had the highest probability of being cost effective (96%). The main limitation of the company's economic model was the restrictive nature of the sequences compared. Twelve separate scenarios based on key uncertainties were explored by the Evidence Review Group. The only scenarios where brodalumab was ranked lower than first were not considered to be more appropriate or plausible than the assumptions or scenarios included in the company's base case. The treatment rankings identified in the Evidence Review Group's alternative base case were identical to those derived from the company's base case model. At the first National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Appraisal Committee meeting, the Committee concluded that brodalumab appears to be as effective as other anti-interleukin-17 agents and is cost effective, based on the discount agreed in the patient access scheme. Brodalumab is recommended as an option for treating adults with severe plaque psoriasis (defined by a total Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score of 10 or more and a Dermatology Life Quality Index score of more than 10) who have not responded to other systemic non-biological therapies. Brodalumab should be stopped at 12 weeks if the psoriasis has not responded adequately.

10.
Iperception ; 9(6): 2041669518808535, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479734

RESUMEN

When people make cross-modal matches from classical music to colors, they choose colors whose emotional associations fit the emotional associations of the music, supporting the emotional mediation hypothesis. We further explored this result with a large, diverse sample of 34 musical excerpts from different genres, including Blues, Salsa, Heavy metal, and many others, a broad sample of 10 emotion-related rating scales, and a large range of 15 rated music-perceptual features. We found systematic music-to-color associations between perceptual features of the music and perceptual dimensions of the colors chosen as going best/worst with the music (e.g., loud, punchy, distorted music was generally associated with darker, redder, more saturated colors). However, these associations were also consistent with emotional mediation (e.g., agitated-sounding music was associated with agitated-looking colors). Indeed, partialling out the variance due to emotional content eliminated all significant cross-modal correlations between lower level perceptual features. Parallel factor analysis (Parafac, a type of factor analysis that encompasses individual differences) revealed two latent affective factors- arousal and valence -which mediated lower level correspondences in music-to-color associations. Participants thus appear to match music to colors primarily in terms of common, mediating emotional associations.

11.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(54): 1-260, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284968

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dynamic Spectral Imaging System (DySIS)map (DySIS Medical Ltd, Edinburgh, UK) and ZedScan (Zilico Limited, Manchester, UK) can be used adjunctively with conventional colposcopy, which may improve the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence on the diagnostic accuracy, clinical effectiveness and implementation of DySISmap and ZedScan as adjuncts to standard colposcopy, and to develop a cost-effectiveness model. METHODS: Four parallel systematic reviews were performed on diagnostic accuracy, clinical effectiveness issues, implementation and economic analyses. In January 2017 we searched databases (including MEDLINE and EMBASE) for studies in which DySISmap or ZedScan was used adjunctively with standard colposcopy to detect CIN or cancer in women referred to colposcopy. Risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 tool. Summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy were calculated using bivariate and other regression models when appropriate. Other outcomes were synthesised narratively. A patient-level state-transition model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of DySISmap and ZedScan under either human papillomavirus (HPV) triage or the HPV primary screening algorithm. The model included two types of clinics ['see and treat' and 'watchful waiting' (i.e. treat later after confirmatory biopsy)], as well as the reason for referral (low-grade or high-grade cytological smear). Sensitivity and scenario analyses were undertaken. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included in the diagnostic review (nine of DySISmap and two of ZedScan), three were included in the clinical effectiveness review (two of DySISmap and one of ZedScan) and five were included in the implementation review (four of DySISmap and one of ZedScan). Adjunctive DySISmap use was found to have a higher sensitivity for detecting CIN grade 2+ (CIN 2+) lesions [81.25%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 72.2% to 87.9%] than standard colposcopy alone (57.91%, 95% CI 47.2% to 67.9%), but with a lower specificity (70.40%, 95% CI 59.4% to 79.5%) than colposcopy (87.41%, 95% CI 81.7% to 91.5%). (Confidential information has been removed.) The base-case cost-effectiveness results showed that adjunctive DySISmap routinely dominated standard colposcopy (it was less costly and more effective). The only exception was for high-grade referrals in a watchful-waiting clinic setting. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for ZedScan varied between £272 and £4922 per quality-adjusted life-year. ZedScan also dominated colposcopy alone for high-grade referrals in see-and-treat clinics. These findings appeared to be robust to a wide range of sensitivity and scenario analyses. LIMITATIONS: All but one study was rated as being at a high risk of bias. There was no evidence directly comparing ZedScan with standard colposcopy. No studies directly compared DySIS and ZedScan. CONCLUSIONS: The use of adjunctive DySIS increases the sensitivity for detecting CIN 2+, so it increases the number of high-grade CIN cases that are detected. However, it also reduces specificity, so that more women with no or low-grade CIN will be incorrectly judged as possibly having high-grade CIN. The evidence for ZedScan was limited, but it appears to increase sensitivity and decrease specificity compared with colposcopy alone. The cost-effectiveness of both adjunctive technologies compared with standard colposcopy, under both the HPV triage and primary screening algorithms, appears to be favourable when compared with the conventional thresholds used to determine value in the NHS. FUTURE WORK: More diagnostic accuracy studies of ZedScan are needed, as are studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy for women referred to colposcopy as part of the HPV primary screening programme. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42017054515. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Colposcopía/economía , Colposcopía/instrumentación , Espectroscopía Dieléctrica/economía , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiología , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Humanos , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología
12.
Endocrinology ; 159(7): 2704-2716, 2018 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800292

RESUMEN

Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) belongs to the leucine-rich repeat family of the G protein-coupled receptor (LGR), which includes the glycoprotein hormone receptors luteinizing hormone receptor, thyrotropin receptor, and other LGRs 4, 5, 6, and 7. FSH is the key regulator of folliculogenesis in females and spermatogenesis in males. FSH elicits its physiological response through its cognate receptor on the cell surface. Binding of the hormone FSH to its receptor FSHR brings about conformational changes in the receptor that are transduced through the transmembrane domain to the intracellular region, where the downstream effector interaction takes place, leading to activation of the downstream signaling cascade. Identification of small molecules that could activate or antagonize FSHR provided interesting tools to study the signal transduction mechanism of the receptor. However, because of the nature of the ligand-receptor interaction of FSH-FSHR, which contains multiple sites in the extracellular binding domain, most of the small-molecule modulators of FSHR are unable to bind to the orthosteric site of the receptors. Rather they modulate receptor activation through allosteric sites in the transmembrane region. This review will discuss allosteric modulation of FSHR primarily through the discovery of small-molecule modulators, focusing on current data on the status of development and the utility of these as tools to better understand signaling mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Alostérica/fisiología , Hormona Folículo Estimulante/metabolismo , Receptores de HFE/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Humanos , Unión Proteica , Receptores de HL/metabolismo
13.
Med Decis Making ; 38(4): 495-508, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529918

RESUMEN

In recent years, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) processes specific to diagnostics and prognostic tests have been created in response to the increased pressure on health systems to decide not only which tests should be used in practice but also the best way to proceed, clinically, from the information they provide. These technologies differ in the way value is accrued to the population of users, depending critically on the value of downstream health care choices. This paper defines an analytical framework for establishing the value of diagnostic and prognostic tests for HTA in a way that is consistent with methods used for the evaluation of other health care technologies. It assumes a linked-evidence approach where modeling is required, and incorporates considerations regarding several different areas of policy, such as personalized medicine. We initially focus on diagnostic technologies with dichotomous results, and then extend the framework by considering diagnostic tests that provide more complex information, such as continuous measures (for example, blood glucose measurements) or multiple categories (such as tumor classification systems). We also consider how the methods of assessment differ for prognostic information or for diagnostics without a reference standard. Throughout, we propose innovative graphical ways of summarizing the results of such complex assessments of value.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/métodos , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Técnicas y Procedimientos Diagnósticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica/métodos , Toma de Decisiones , Técnicas y Procedimientos Diagnósticos/normas , Humanos , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Monitoreo Fisiológico/estadística & datos numéricos , Pronóstico
14.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(13): 1-172, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High-throughput non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal rhesus (D antigen) (RhD) status could avoid unnecessary treatment with routine anti-D immunoglobulin for RhD-negative women carrying a RhD-negative fetus, although this may lead to an increased risk of RhD sensitisations. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence on the diagnostic accuracy, clinical effectiveness and implementation of high-throughput NIPT and to develop a cost-effectiveness model. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and other databases, from inception to February 2016, for studies of high-throughput NIPT free-cell fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tests of maternal plasma to determine fetal RhD status in RhD-negative pregnant women who were not known to be sensitised to the RhD antigen. Study quality was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) and A Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool: for Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions (ACROBAT-NRSI). Summary estimates of false-positive rates (FPRs) and false-negative rates (FNRs) were calculated using bivariate models. Clinical effectiveness evidence was used to conduct a simulation study. We developed a de novo probabilistic decision tree-based cohort model that considered four alternative ways in which the results of NIPT could guide the use of anti-D immunoglobulin antenatally and post partum. Sensitivity analyses (SAs) were conducted to address key uncertainties and model assumptions. RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the diagnostic accuracy review, seven studies were included in the clinical effectiveness review and 12 studies were included in the review of implementation. Meta-analyses included women mostly at or post 11 weeks' gestation. The pooled FNR (women at risk of sensitisation) was 0.34% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15% to 0.76%] and the pooled FPR (women needlessly receiving anti-D) was 3.86% (95% CI 2.54% to 5.82%). SAs did not materially alter the overall results. Data on clinical outcomes, including sensitisation rates, were limited. Our simulation suggests that NIPT could substantially reduce unnecessary use of antenatal anti-D with only a small increase in the risk of sensitisation. All large implementation studies suggested that large-scale implementation of high-throughput NIPT was feasible. Seven cost-effectiveness studies were included in the review, which found that the potential for the use of NIPT to produce cost savings was dependent on the cost of the test. Our de novo model suggested that high-throughput NIPT is likely to be cost saving compared with the current practice of providing routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis to all women who are RhD negative. The extent of the cost saving appeared to be sufficient to outweigh the small increase in sensitisations. However, the magnitude of the cost saving is highly sensitive to the cost of NIPT itself. LIMITATIONS: There was very limited evidence relating to the clinical effectiveness of high-throughput NIPT, with no evidence on potential adverse effects. The generalisability of the findings to non-white women and multiple pregnancies is unclear. CONCLUSIONS: High-throughput NIPT is sufficiently accurate to detect fetal RhD status in RhD-negative women from 11 weeks' gestation and would considerably reduce unnecessary treatment with routine anti-D immunoglobulin, potentially resulting in cost savings of between £485,000 and £671,000 per 100,000 pregnancies if the cost of implementing NIPT is in line with that reflected in this evaluation. FUTURE WORK: Further research on the diagnostic accuracy of NIPT in non-white women is needed. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42015029497. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.


Asunto(s)
Feto/inmunología , Pruebas de Detección del Suero Materno/economía , Pruebas de Detección del Suero Materno/métodos , Sistema del Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/inmunología , Globulina Inmune rho(D)/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Globulina Inmune rho(D)/administración & dosificación , Globulina Inmune rho(D)/efectos adversos
15.
J Med Econ ; 21(7): 666-675, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Frequent migraine with four or more headache days per month is a common, disabling neurovascular disease. From a US societal perspective, this analysis models the clinical efficacy and estimates the value-based price (VBP) for erenumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. METHODS: A Markov health state transition model was developed to estimate the incremental costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and value-based price range for erenumab in migraine prevention. The model comprises "on preventive treatment", "off preventive treatment", and "death" health states across a 10-year time horizon. The evaluation compared erenumab to no preventive treatment in episodic and chronic migraine patients that have failed at least one preventive therapy. Therapeutic benefits are based on estimated changes in monthly migraine days (MMD) from erenumab pivotal clinical trials and a network meta-analysis of migraine studies. Utilities were estimated using previously published mapping algorithms. A VBP analysis was performed to identify maximum erenumab annual prices at willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds of $100,000-$200,000 per QALY. Estimates of VBP under different scenarios such as choice of different comparators, assumptions around inclusion of placebo effect, and exclusion of work productivity losses were also generated. RESULTS: Erenumab resulted in incremental QALYs of 0.185 vs supportive care (SC) and estimated cost offsets due to reduced MMD of $8,482 over 10 years, with an average duration of treatment of 2.01 years. The estimated VBP at WTP thresholds of $100,000-$200,000 for erenumab compared to SC ranged from $14,238-$23,998. VBP estimates including the placebo effect and excluding work productivity ranged from $7,445-$13,809; increasing to $12,151-$18,589 with onabotulinumtoxinA as a comparator in chronic migraine. CONCLUSION: Erenumab is predicted to reduce migraine-related direct and indirect costs, and increase QALYs compared to SC.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Liberación de Acetilcolina/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Liberación de Acetilcolina/economía , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administración & dosificación , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/economía , Trastornos Migrañosos/prevención & control , Absentismo , Costo de Enfermedad , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Eficiencia , Recursos en Salud/economía , Recursos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Cadenas de Markov , Trastornos Migrañosos/economía , Modelos Econométricos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estados Unidos
16.
Crisis ; 39(4): 267-274, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Escaping from emotional pain is a recognized driver in suicidal patients' desire to die. Formal scales of emotional pain are rarely used during routine contact between patients and their care team. No study has explored facilitators and inhibitors of emotional pain communication between staff and suicidal patients during regular care. AIMS: To identify factors impeding or facilitating emotional pain communication between patients at risk of suicide and mental health professionals. METHOD: Nine patients with a history of a medically serious suicide attempt and 26 mental health (NHS) staff participated in individualized and focus group interviews, respectively. RESULTS: A typological model was created, describing how patients either speak out or inhibit communication, and professionals may hear the communication or fail to do so. Four permutations are possible: unspoken/unheard, spoken/unheard, spoken/heard, and unspoken/heard. We found 14 subthemes of impediments and facilitators, which include misaligned, alienated and, co-bearing. LIMITATIONS: No male patients participated. CONCLUSION: Numerous factors influence whether emotional pain communication is responded to, missed, or ignored. Patients may try more than one way to communicate. Some patients fear that being able to speak out results in their emotional pain being taken less seriously. Knowledge of this model should improve the care of suicidal patients.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Adulto , Emociones , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Enfermería Psiquiátrica , Psicología , Investigación Cualitativa
17.
Health Promot Pract ; 19(3): 455-464, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548556

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure effects of a modified physical education (PE) unit on leisure time physical activity (LTPA), relative autonomy, and known correlates of LTPA in seventh-grade boys and girls. METHOD: A seventh-grade mountain biking unit was modified to include instructional activities targeting known correlates of PA behavior following principles of Physical Education Dedicated to Physical Activity for Life (PEDAL). A three-group design (intervention, standard PE, no PE) was employed. Participants completed a survey at baseline, postintervention, and follow-up at 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 300 seventh graders (girls = 151) from two schools completed the surveys. Data suggest PE may influence certain correlates of and autonomous motivation for PA although results revealed no intervention main effects for continuous and noncontinuous dependent variables. Results also provide evidence of sport-specific skill being improved through physical education. CONCLUSION: While results of this study showed no main effects from the intervention, data suggest PE may influence certain correlates of and autonomous motivation for PA. This warrants attention toward autonomy supporting PE environments and instruction sensitive to autonomous motivation. Future studies should examine PEDAL-designed PE programs over an entire year or more.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Promoción de la Salud , Motivación , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Adolescente , Arizona , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Masculino , Obesidad/prevención & control , Instituciones Académicas , Autoinforme
18.
Med Decis Making ; 38(2): 200-211, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823204

RESUMEN

Standard methods for indirect comparisons and network meta-analysis are based on aggregate data, with the key assumption that there is no difference between the trials in the distribution of effect-modifying variables. Methods which relax this assumption are becoming increasingly common for submissions to reimbursement agencies, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). These methods use individual patient data from a subset of trials to form population-adjusted indirect comparisons between treatments, in a specific target population. Recently proposed population adjustment methods include the Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison (MAIC) and the Simulated Treatment Comparison (STC). Despite increasing popularity, MAIC and STC remain largely untested. Furthermore, there is a lack of clarity about exactly how and when they should be applied in practice, and even whether the results are relevant to the decision problem. There is therefore a real and present risk that the assumptions being made in one submission to a reimbursement agency are fundamentally different to-or even incompatible with-the assumptions being made in another for the same indication. We describe the assumptions required for population-adjusted indirect comparisons, and demonstrate how these may be used to generate comparisons in any given target population. We distinguish between anchored and unanchored comparisons according to whether a common comparator arm is used or not. Unanchored comparisons make much stronger assumptions, which are widely regarded as infeasible. We provide recommendations on how and when population adjustment methods should be used, and the supporting analyses that are required to provide statistically valid, clinically meaningful, transparent and consistent results for the purposes of health technology appraisal. Simulation studies are needed to examine the properties of population adjustment methods and their robustness to breakdown of assumptions.


Asunto(s)
Investigación sobre la Eficacia Comparativa , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica/métodos , Algoritmos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Health Technol Assess ; 21(64): 1-244, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the skin. Adalimumab (HUMIRA®, AbbVie, Maidenhead, UK), etanercept (Enbrel®, Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) and ustekinumab (STELARA®, Janssen Biotech, Inc., Titusville, NJ, USA) are the three biological treatments currently licensed for psoriasis in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adalimumab, etanercept and ustekinumab within their respective licensed indications for the treatment of plaque psoriasis in children and young people. DATA SOURCES: Searches of the literature and regulatory sources, contact with European psoriasis registries, company submissions and clinical study reports from manufacturers, and previous National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) technology appraisal documentation. REVIEW METHODS: Included studies were summarised and subjected to detailed critical appraisal. A network meta-analysis incorporating adult data was developed to connect the effectiveness data in children and young people and populate a de novo decision-analytic model. The model estimated the cost-effectiveness of adalimumab, etanercept and ustekinumab compared with each other and with either methotrexate or best supportive care (BSC), depending on the position of the intervention in the management pathway. RESULTS: Of the 2386 non-duplicate records identified, nine studies (one randomised controlled trial for each drug plus six observational studies) were included in the review of clinical effectiveness and safety. Etanercept and ustekinumab resulted in significantly greater improvements in psoriasis symptoms than placebo at 12 weeks' follow-up. The magnitude and persistence of the effects beyond 12 weeks is less certain. Adalimumab resulted in significantly greater improvements in psoriasis symptoms than methotrexate for some but not all measures at 16 weeks. Quality-of-life benefits were inconsistent across different measures. There was limited evidence of excess short-term adverse events; however, the possibility of rare events cannot be excluded. The majority of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the use of biologics in children and young people exceeded NICE's usual threshold for cost-effectiveness and were reduced significantly only when combined assumptions that align with those made in the management of psoriasis in adults were adopted. LIMITATIONS: The clinical evidence base for short- and long-term outcomes was limited in terms of total participant numbers, length of follow-up and the absence of young children. CONCLUSIONS: The paucity of clinical and economic evidence to inform the cost-effectiveness of biological treatments in children and young people imposed a number of strong assumptions and uncertainties. Health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) gains associated with treatment and the number of hospitalisations in children and young people are areas of considerable uncertainty. The findings suggest that biological treatments may not be cost-effective for the management of psoriasis in children and young people at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year, unless a number of strong assumptions about HRQoL and the costs of BSC are combined. Registry data on biological treatments would help determine safety, patterns of treatment switching, impact on comorbidities and long-term withdrawal rates. Further research is also needed into the resource use and costs associated with BSC. Adequately powered randomised controlled trials (including comparisons against placebo) could substantially reduce the uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of biological treatments in biologic-experienced populations of children and young people, particularly in younger children. Such trials should establish the impact of biological therapies on HRQoL in this population, ideally by collecting direct estimates of EuroQol-5 Dimensions for Youth (EQ-5D-Y) utilities. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42016039494. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.


Asunto(s)
Adalimumab/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapéutico , Etanercept/uso terapéutico , Psoriasis , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ustekinumab/uso terapéutico , Adalimumab/economía , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Psoriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Psoriasis/economía
20.
Health Technol Assess ; 21(56): 1-326, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several biologic therapies are approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients who have had an inadequate response to two or more synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). NICE does not specifically recommend switching from one biologic to another, and only ustekinumab (UST; STELARA®, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Horsham, PA, USA) is recommended after anti-tumour necrosis factor failure. Secukinumab (SEC; COSENTYX®, Novartis International AG, Basel, Switzerland) and certolizumab pegol (CZP; CIMZIA®, UCB Pharma, Brussels, Belgium) have not previously been appraised by NICE. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CZP and SEC for treating active PsA in adults in whom DMARDs have been inadequately effective. DESIGN: Systematic review and economic model. DATA SOURCES: Fourteen databases (including MEDLINE and EMBASE) were searched for relevant studies from inception to April 2016 for CZP and SEC studies; update searches were run to identify new comparator studies. REVIEW METHODS: Clinical effectiveness data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were synthesised using Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) methods to investigate the relative efficacy of SEC and CZP compared with comparator therapies. A de novo model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of SEC and CZP compared with the other relevant comparators. The model was specified for three subpopulations, in accordance with the NICE scope (patients who have taken one prior DMARD, patients who have taken two or more prior DMARDs and biologic-experienced patients). The models were further classified according to the level of concomitant psoriasis. RESULTS: Nineteen eligible RCTs were included in the systematic review of short-term efficacy. Most studies were well conducted and were rated as being at low risk of bias. Trials of SEC and CZP demonstrated clinically important efficacy in all key clinical outcomes. At 3 months, patients taking 150 mg of SEC [relative risk (RR) 6.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.55 to 15.43] or CZP (RR 3.29, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.56) were more likely to be responders than patients taking placebo. The NMA results for the biologic-naive subpopulations indicated that the effectiveness of SEC and CZP relative to other biologics and each other was uncertain. Limited data were available for the biologic-experienced subpopulation. Longer-term evidence suggested that these newer biologics reduced disease progression, with the benefits being similar to those seen for older biologics. The de novo model generated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for three subpopulations and three psoriasis subgroups. In subpopulation 1 (biologic-naive patients who had taken one prior DMARD), CZP was the optimal treatment in the moderate-severe psoriasis subgroup and 150 mg of SEC was optimal in the subgroups of patients with mild-moderate psoriasis or no concomitant psoriasis. In subpopulation 2 (biologic-naive patients who had taken two or more prior DMARDs), etanercept (ETN; ENBREL®, Pfizer Inc., New York City, NY, USA) is likely to be the optimal treatment in all subgroups. The ICERs for SEC and CZP versus best supportive care are in the region of £20,000-30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). In subpopulation 3 (biologic-experienced patients or patients in whom biologics are contraindicated), UST is likely to be the optimal treatment (ICERs are in the region of £21,000-27,000 per QALY). The optimal treatment in subpopulation 2 was sensitive to the choice of evidence synthesis model. In subpopulations 2 and 3, results were sensitive to the algorithm for Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index costs. The optimal treatment is not sensitive to the use of biosimilar prices for ETN and infliximab (REMICADE®, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Kenilworth, NJ, USA). CONCLUSIONS: SEC and CZP may be an effective use of NHS resources, depending on the subpopulation and subgroup of psoriasis severity. There are a number of limitations to this assessment, driven mainly by data availability. FUTURE WORK: Trials are needed to inform effectiveness of biologics in biologic-experienced populations. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42016033357. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Artritis Psoriásica/tratamiento farmacológico , Certolizumab Pegol/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Inmunosupresores/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
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