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1.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 30, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422082

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: D-dimer and fibrinogen, both belonging to coagulation parameters, are controversial for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). This meta-analysis was conducted to compare their diagnostic accuracies for PJI by synthesizing currently available evidence. METHODS: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase up to March 1, 2020, and other relevant articles were searched. Five hundred and eighty-one articles were identified after initial research, and 11 studies were included finally. No threshold effects were found between studies. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were reported to evaluate the diagnostic performance with heterogeneity analysis. Z test statistics was used to analyze the difference of diagnostic performance between D-dimer and fibrinogen. RESULTS: The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio of D-dimer for PJI were 0.79 (95% [CI], 0.72-0.85), 0.77 (0.67-0.84), 3.38 (2.21-5.18), and 0.27 (0.18-0.41), respectively. As for fibrinogen, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio for PJI were 0.75 (0.68-0.80), 0.85 (0.82-0.88), 5.12 (4.22-6.22), and 0.30 (0.23-0.37), respectively. Great heterogeneity was found in studies for D-dimer, and univariate meta-regression analysis revealed that number of involved joints, disease spectrum, comorbidities influencing D-dimer, and sample sources were the source of heterogeneity. Z test found that the pooled specificity of fibrinogen was significantly higher than D-dimer (0.85 ± 0.01 versus 0.77 ± 0.04, p = 0.03). The pooled positive likelihood ratio of fibrinogen was significantly higher than D-dimer (5.12 ± 0.51 versus 3.38 ± 0.74, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Based on currently available evidence, the meta-analysis suggests that fibrinogen performs better than D-dimer as a rule-in diagnostic tool for its higher specificity. However, more prospective trials with larger size are still needed to provide further confirmation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This meta-analysis was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews), and the registering number was CRD42020177176 .

2.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 577, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261646

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine has shown potential in pain control in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the combination of nerve block and dexmedetomidine may be a preferred alternative for postoperative analgesia after TKA. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis on existing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to local anesthetics in nerve block after TKA. METHODS: A literature survey was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of science, and ScienceDirect for the RCTs completed before February 1st, 2020 that met pre-specified inclusion criteria. The primary outcomes included the pain scores, duration of analgesia, opioid consumption within 24 h postoperatively, and the level of patient satisfaction. The secondary outcomes included the motor strength, degree of sedation, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and other related complications. The methodological quality was assessed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: The initial literature search yielded 143 studies, out of which seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled data indicated that dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthetics in nerve block in TKA decreased the postoperative pain scores at rest as well as at motion (SMD = - 1.01 [95% CI - 1.29 to - 0.72], p < 0.01; SMD = - 1.01 [- 1.25 to - 0.77], p < 0.01) respectively, decreased the total opioid consumption within 24 h (SMD = - 0.63 [- 0.86 to - 0.40], p < 0.01), prolonged the duration of analgesia (SMD = 0.90 [0.64 to 1.17], p < 0.01), improved motor strength (SMD = 0.23 [0.01 to 0.45], p = 0.04), improved the degree of sedation (SMD = 0.94 [0.70 to 1.18], p < 0.01), and increased the level of patient satisfaction (SMD = 0.88 [0.60 to 1.17], p < 0.01) without increasing nausea and vomiting (RD = - 0.05 [- 0.11 to 0.01], p = 0.14), as well as other complications (RD = - 0.01 [- 0.08 to 0.07], p = 0.89), compared with local anesthetics alone. CONCLUSIONS: It is effective and safe for dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to local anesthetics in nerve block in TKA to relieve postoperative pain, decrease total opioid consumption, prolong analgesic duration, and increase patient satisfaction without increasing related complications. Based on the quality of evidence, this meta-analysis recommends that dexmedetomidine can be used in a regular treatment regimen and as an adjunct addition to local anesthetics in nerve block for patients undergoing TKA. REGISTRATION: This meta-analysis was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) and the registering number was CRD42020169171.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 657, 2020 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is still a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with high proportion of smear- and culture- negative incidences worldwide. The conventional diagnostic tests are time-consuming and have a low sensitivity. Digital PCR is a novel technology which can detect target sequences with relatively low abundance and obtain the absolute copy numbers of the targets. METHODS: We assessed the accuracy of dPCR in TB diagnosis using more than 250 specimens, and for the first time, we selected M.tuberculosis-specific IS1081 in addition to widely used IS6110 as the amplification targets for dPCR. The quantification of target DNA was calculated using QuantaSoft Version 1.7.4.0917 (BioRad), and SPSS version 13.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: IS6110-dPCR was more sensitive than IS1081, with the sensitivity and specificity accounting for 40.6 and 93.4% respectively. When we classified the TB patients by personal factors for high copy number of M.tuberculosis derived DNA in plasma: bilateral TB, extrapulmonary TB and disseminated TB, the sensitivity of both IS6110- and IS1081- dPCR was the highest in patients with disseminated TB (IS6110, 100%; IS1081, 68.8%), while their sensitivity was a bit higher in patients with extrapulmonary TB (IS6110, 50.0%; IS1081, 39.3%) than that in bilateral TB (IS6110, 43.3%; IS1081, 33.3%). Compared with traditional TB diagnostic tests, joint detection IS6110 & IS1081-dPCR was not as sensitive as smear microscope or mycobacterial culture, but it was higher than IS6110 qPCR (p < 0.05) and was able to detect 47.4% of smear-negative TB patients. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that plasma IS6110-dPCR is a rapid, moderate accurate and less-invasive method to detect M.tuberculosis DNA in plasma of TB patients and IS6110 & IS1081-dPCR has a potential to aid diagnosis of smear-negative TB.


Asunto(s)
Elementos Transponibles de ADN/genética , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , ADN Bacteriano/sangre , Exactitud de los Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Adulto Joven
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2846297, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733936

RESUMEN

Objectives: Carbon-based nanomaterials have gained attention in the field of biomedicine in recent years, especially for the treatment of complicated diseases such as cancer. Here, we report a novel carbon-based nanomaterial, named carbon quantum dots (CQDs), which has potential for cancer therapy. We performed a systematic study on the effects of CQDs on the osteosarcoma 143B cell line in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cell counting assay, the neutral red assay, lactic dehydrogenase assay, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) Annexin V/Propidium iodide (PI) were used to detect the cytotoxicity and apoptosis of CQDs on the 143B cell line. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. The JC-10 assay was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of 143B cells incubated with CQDs. The effects of CQDs on the 143B cell line were evaluated by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome-C, caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, PARP1, and cleaved-PARP1. Male tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice were used to investigate the antitumor effects of CQDs, and the biosafety of CQDs in vivo was tested in male BALB/c mice by measuring weight changes, hematology tests, and histological analyses of major organs. Results: CQDs exhibited a high cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis toward the 143B cell line. CQDs can also significantly increase the intracellular level of ROS and lower the mitochondrial membrane potential levels of 143B cells. CQDs increase apoptotic protein expression to induce apoptosis of 143B cells by triggering the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway. The tumor volume in the CQD-treated mice was smaller than that in the control group, the tumor volume inhibition rate was 38.9%, and the inhibitory rate by tumor weight was 30.1%. All biosafety test indexes were within reference ranges, and neither necrosis nor inflammation was observed in major organs. Conclusions: CQDs induced cytotoxicity in the 143B cell line through the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway. CQDs not only showed an antitumor effect but also high biocompatibility in vivo. As a new carbon-based nanomaterial, CQDs usage is a promising method for novel cancer treatments.

6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(10): e23437, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592208

RESUMEN

Osteoarthritis (OA) is attributed to a reduction in chondrocytes within joint cartilage, and research has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy play important roles in the survival of chondrocytes. However, the relationship between ER stress and autophagy in chondrocytes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the changes in apoptotic and autophagic activity in chondrocytes under ER stress. Following treatment with tunicamycin, the rate of apoptosis among chondrocytes increased. Western blot analysis showed the levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) related proteins increased, followed by elevated expression of light chain 3B-II (LC3B-II) and Beclin-1. An ultrastructural investigation showed that a large number of pre-autophagosomal structures or autophagosomes formed under tunicamycin treatment. However, the autophagy activity was significantly inhibited in chondrocytes after suppression of GRP78 by siRNA. The apoptosis ratio of chondrocytes pre-treated with 3-methyladenine was much higher than that of normal chondrocytes after exposure to tunicamycin. Our study revealed that the tunicamycin-induced persistent UPR expression led to apoptosis of chondrocytes and activation of autophagy incorporation with GRP78. Blocking autophagy accelerated the apoptosis induced by ER stress, which confirmed the protective function of autophagy in the homeostasis of chondrocytes. These findings advance our understanding of chondrocyte apoptosis and provide potential molecular targets for preventing apoptotic death of chondrocytes.

7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(7): 1599-1609, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417702

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Depression is widely acknowledged as the most common comorbidity of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and executive control (EC) may be particularly impaired in patients with TLE with comorbid depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate brain network alterations in patients with TLE with or without depression using scalp electroencephalography (EEG), and to explore the potential mechanisms of TLE with comorbid depression. METHODS: Forty patients with TLE and 20 healthy controls (HC) were recruited for administered the BDI-II and HAMD-17 surveys. The patients with TLE were divided into those with depression (PDS, n = 20) and those without depression (nPDS, n = 20) according to the surveys. Neural oscillations and functional connectivity during performance of EC tasks were calculated during EEG. RESULTS: Theta oscillation and functional connectivity were significantly weakened in the PDS group compared to the nPDS and HC groups. Furthermore, the PDS group showed more serious EC dysfunction than nPDS group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that weakened theta oscillation and functional connectivity in the frontal lobe may be a mechanism of EC dysfunction in TLE with comorbid depression. SIGNIFICANCE: The present results suggest that the alterations in frontal lobe connections may help predict the depression in patients with TLE.

8.
Life Sci ; 253: 117750, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380078

RESUMEN

AIM: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of disability and joint replacement surgery in the elderly. As a crucial cell survival mechanism, autophagy has been reported to decrease in OA. PHF23 is a new autophagy inhibitor which was first reported by us previously. This study aimed to explore the anti-autophagic mechanism of PHF23 to make it a possible therapeutic target of OA. MAIN METHOD: Lentiviral vectors specific to PHF23 were used on chondrocytes (C28/I2) to establish PHF23 overexpressed or knockdown stable cell strains. Interleukin (IL)-1ß (10 ng/mL) and chloroquine (CQ, 25 uM) were used as an inducer of OA and inhibitor of lysosome, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by autophagosome formation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and western blot analysis of P62 and LC3B on different groups of cells. Effects of PHF23 on OA were evaluated by collagen II immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis of OA-associated proteins MMP13 and ADAMTS5. Effects of PHF23 on AMPK and mTOR/S6K pathways and mitophagy were determined by western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Knockdown of PHF23 enhanced IL-1ß-induced autophagy, while overexpression of PHF23 exerted the opposite effect. Knockdown of PHF23 protected chondrocytes against IL-1ß-induced OA by decreasing the levels of OA-associated proteins and increasing expression of Collagen II. Knockdown of PHF23 also increased mitophagy level and altered the phosphorylation levels of AMPK, mTOR, and S6K. SIGNIFICANCE: PHF23 downregulates autophagy, mitophagy in IL-1ß-induced OA-like chondrocytes and alters the activities of AMPK and mTOR/S6K, which suggests that PHF23 may be a possible therapeutic target for OA.


Asunto(s)
Autofagia/genética , Condrocitos/patología , Proteínas de Homeodominio/genética , Osteoartritis/patología , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Supervivencia Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamiento del Gen , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/administración & dosificación , Lisosomas/metabolismo , Osteoartritis/genética , Proteínas Quinasas S6 Ribosómicas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo
9.
J Arthroplasty ; 35(8): 2230-2236, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376167

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The accurate and timely diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is challenging, and no single biomarker can definitively confirm infection before revision arthroplasty. The coagulation cascade has been linked closely to infection. This study was performed to determine the value of plasma d-dimer, plasma fibrinogen, and plasma fibrin degradation product (FDP) for the diagnosis of PJI and timing of reimplantation. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 136 patients who underwent revision surgery from January 2008 to December 2019. They were assigned to 3 groups: aseptic failure (group A), PJI (group B), and reimplantation (group C). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to estimate the value of plasma fibrinogen, plasma d-dimer, plasma FDP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) for PJI diagnosis and reimplantation timing. RESULTS: All biomarker levels were significantly higher in group B than in group A (P < .05), and plasma fibrinogen, CRP, and ESR values were significantly higher in group B than in group C (all P < .05). The receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the areas under the curve of plasma fibrinogen, plasma d-dimer, plasma FDP, CRP, and ESR were 0.848, 0.914, 0.728, 0.737, and 0.868, respectively, and the threshold values for plasma fibrinogen, plasma d-dimer, and plasma FDP were 3.61 g/L, 0.41 mg/L, and 3.55 mg/L, respectively. CONCLUSION: Plasma fibrinogen exhibits good value for the diagnosis of PJI and can be an indicator of residual infection before reimplantation in 2-stage arthroplasty. Plasma d-dimer and FDP are of limited value for PJI diagnosis and cannot be used to determine the timing of reimplantation.

10.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 137, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295523

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Executive control dysfunction is observed in a sizable number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Neural oscillations in the theta band are increasingly recognized as having a crucial role in executive control network. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations in the theta band in executive control network and explore the functional brain network mechanisms of executive control dysfunction in TLE patients. METHODS: A total of 20 TLE patients and 20 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in the present study. All participants were trained to perform the executive control task by attention network test while the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. The resting state signals were collected from the EEG in the subjects with quiet and closed eyes conditions. Functional connectivity among EEGs in the executive control network and resting state network were respectively calculated. RESULTS: We found the significant executive control impairment in the TLE group. Compared to the HCs, the TLE group showed significantly weaker functional connectivity among EEGs in the executive control network. Moreover, in the TLE group, we found that the functional connectivity was significantly positively correlated with accuracy and negatively correlated with EC_effect. In addition, the functional connectivity of the executive control network was significantly higher than that of the resting state network in the HCs. In the TLE group, however, there was no significant change in functional connectivity strengths between the executive control network and resting state network. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the decreased functional connectivity in theta band may provide a potential mechanism for executive control deficits in TLE patients.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/fisiopatología , Función Ejecutiva , Trastornos Mentales/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Atención , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Red Nerviosa/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344631

RESUMEN

Background: There are few published studies concerning occupational exposure to glyphosate (GLY), and these are limited to spraying, horticulture and other agricultural aspects. Therefore, the concentration of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in the urine of workers exposed to glyphosate during glyphosate production was determined, and the relationship between internal (urinary glyphosate and AMPA concentration) and external exposure dose (time weighted average (TWA) value of glyphosate in the air of workplace) was analyzed. Methods: To avoid the influence of preparations, we selected people who were only involved in GLY production (without exposure to its preparations) as our research subjects. We collected 134 urine samples of workers exposed to GLY (prototype, not preparation). The urinary concentrations of GLY and AMPA (internal exposure dose) were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The subjects' exposure to the amount of GLY in the air (external dose) was determined using ion chromatography. Conventional statistical methods, including quartiles, t-tests and regression analysis, were applied for data processing. Results: An on-site investigation revealed that the workers involved in centrifugation, crystallization, drying, and packaging and feeding were exposed to GLY. The TWA value of GLY in the workshop air was <0.02 mg/m3-34.58 mg/m3. The detection rates of GLY and AMPA in the urine samples were 86.6% and 81.3%, respectively. The concentration of urinary GLY was <0.020-17.202 mg/L (median, 0.292 mg/L). The urinary AMPA concentration was <0.010 mg/L-2.730 mg/L (median, 0.068 mg/L). The geometric means were 0.262 mg/L and 0.072 mg/L for GLY and AMPA, respectively. There was a correlation between the urinary concentration of GLY and AMPA and the TWA value of exposed workers (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.914 and 0.683, respectively; p < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a correlation between the urinary concentration of GLY and AMPA in the exposure group (r = 0.736, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The urinary concentration of GLY and AMPA of workers was correlated with the TWA value of workers' exposure, which could reflect the actual exposure of the workers.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas , Exposición Profesional , Adulto , China , Femenino , Glicina/orina , Herbicidas/orina , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Lugar de Trabajo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137788, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179355

RESUMEN

In this study, we reported a practice at northern Hangzhou Bay, southeast China aimed at restoring coastal wetlands within the intertidal zone outside of the seawalls. The principle idea is protecting the site and helping the marsh establishment by engineering measures, and thereafter, relieving the protections to encourage the self-organization of the restored ecosystem. The results of this implementation showed the marsh reached an average vegetation cover of 70% in the first year. The excess nitrogen was removed by an ecological recirculating treatment system, which was coupled in the wetland. The long-term performance of the wetland suggested that it could resist disturbances such as hurricanes and algal blooms, and provided clean water habitat for aquatic fauna. By presenting the case of Hangzhou Bay, we call for more novel coastal restoration implementations that aim to create new boundaries with engineering features and self-organization, which benefit both human and nature.

13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E07, 2020 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971897

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among US adults (n = 68,896) residing in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties, by state, using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used multinomial logistic regression to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for daily (≥1 time per day) SSB intake. Overall, 26.0% of respondents reported daily SSB intake, with significantly higher prevalence in nonmetropolitan counties (30.9%) than in metropolitan counties (24.8%) (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.39). This same pattern was significant in 5 of 11 states with metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. These findings could inform efforts to reduce frequent SSB intake in nonmetropolitan areas.

14.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 14(1): e1900001, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715074

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To identify potential protein biomarkers for distinguishing tuberculosis plural effusion (TBPE) from malignant plural effusion (MPE). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Five independent samples from each group (TBPE and MPE) are enrolled for label-free quantitative proteomics analyses. The differentially expressed proteins are validated by western blot and ELISA. Logistic regression analysis is used to obtain the optimal diagnostic model. RESULTS: In total, 14 proteins with significant difference are identified between TBPE and MPE. Seven differentially expressed proteins are validated using western blot, and the expression patterns of these seven proteins are similar with those in proteomics analysis. Statistically significant differences in four proteins (AGP1, ORM2, C9, and SERPING1) are noted between TBPE and MPE in the training set (n = 230). Logistic regression analysis shows the combination of AGP1-ORM2-C9 presents a sensitivity of 73.0% (92/126) and specificity of 89.4% (93/104) in discriminating TBPE from MPE. Additional validation is performed to evaluate the diagnostic model in an independent blind testing set (n = 80), and yielded a sensitivity of 74.4% (32/43) and specificity of 91.9% (34/37) in discriminating TBPE from MPE. CONCLUSION: The study uncovers the proteomic profiles of TBPE and MPE, and provides new potential diagnostic biomarkers for distinguishing TBPE from MPE.


Asunto(s)
Derrame Pleural Maligno/genética , Derrame Pleural/genética , Proteoma/genética , Tuberculosis/genética , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural/patología , Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Derrame Pleural Maligno/patología , Proteómica , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/patología
15.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(4): 617-628, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658886

RESUMEN

Combining eye-tracking technique with a revised visual world paradigm, this study examined how positional, phonological, and semantic information of radicals are activated in visual Chinese character recognition. Participants' eye movements were tracked when they looked at four types of invented logographic characters including a semantic radical in the legal (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and illegal positions ([Formula: see text]), a phonetic radical in the legal (e.g., [Formula: see text]) and illegal positions (e.g., [Formula: see text]). These logographic characters were presented simultaneously with either a sound-cued (e.g., /qiao2/) or meaning-cued (e.g., a picture of a bridge) condition. Participants appeared to allocate more visual attention towards radicals in legal, rather than illegal, positions. In addition, more eye fixations occurred on phonetic, rather than on semantic, radicals across both sound- and meaning-cued conditions, indicating participants' strong preference for phonetic over semantic radicals in visual character processing. These results underscore the universal phonology principle in processing non-alphabetic Chinese logographic characters.

16.
Front Chem ; 7: 792, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824924

RESUMEN

Mullite reticulated porous ceramics (RPC) are one of the key components for porous media burner, the mechanical properties of mullite RPC decided the service life of the burner. However, the irregularities of cellular structure made it difficult to reveal the fracture behavior of mullite RPCs. In this study, the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of mullite RPCs were analyzed by X-ray computed tomography. The strength and damage behavior of mullite RPCs were respectively investigated via the compression tests and finite element modeling based on the actual 3-D model, also the corresponding strengthening mechanism was proposed. The results indicated that the reconstructed 3-D model exhibited the real microstructure of mullite RPCs, containing the hollow struts and strut defects. The Young's modulus calculated from actual 3-D structures was lower than that from Gibson-Ashby theory. In addition, the surface defects preceded triangular tips to generate the area of stress concentration, leading to the fracture behavior first occurred at the strut defects. With the formation of dense strut in mullite RPCs, the stress uniformly distributed in the whole solid skeleton, thus significantly improving the damage resistance of mullite RPCs.

17.
JAMA ; 322(17): 1714-1715, 2019 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688881
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1057-1061, 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751324

RESUMEN

Obesity negatively affects children's health because of its associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors, type 2 diabetes, asthma, fatty liver disease, victimization stemming from social stigma and bullying, and poor mental health (e.g., anxiety and depression) (1). Children who have overweight or obesity in early childhood are approximately four times as likely to have overweight or obesity in young adulthood as their normal weight peers (2). Obesity prevalence is especially high among children from low-income families (3). In 2010, the overall upward trend in obesity prevalence turned downward among children aged 2-4 years enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); prevalence decreased significantly in all racial/ethnic groups and in 34 of the 56 WIC state or territory agencies during 2010-2014 (4). A more recent study among young children enrolled in WIC reported that the overall obesity prevalence decreased from 15.9% in 2010 to 13.9% in 2016 and statistically significant decreases were observed in all age, sex, and racial/ethnic subgroups (3). However, this study did not provide obesity trends at the state level. In collaboration with USDA, CDC used data from the WIC Participant and Program Characteristics (WIC PC) to update state-specific trends through 2016. During 2010-2016, modest but statistically significant decreases in obesity prevalence among children aged 2-4 years enrolled in WIC occurred in 41 (73%) of 56 WIC state or territory agencies. Comprehensive approaches that create positive changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity for young children from all income levels,* strengthen nutrition education and breastfeeding support among young children enrolled in WIC, and encourage redemptions of healthy foods in WIC food packages could help maintain or accelerate these declining trends.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Alimentaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Clin Lab ; 65(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625364

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assay (T-SPOT.TB) has the theoretical possibility of discriminating TB from most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections, but there are limited reports on the use of T-SPOT.TB for diseases due to NTM in high TB burden country. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of T-SPOT.TB in patients with NTM pulmonary disease. METHODS: Clinical parameters and laboratory characteristics of patients with NTM pulmonary disease between July 2011 and Jan 2017 were investigated retrospectively and comprehensively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 127 patients with NTM pulmonary disease were retrospectively reviewed. Seven NTM species were isolated from 115 patients, and the most common species were M. intracellulare (48.7%, 56/115) and M. abscessus (34.8%, 40/115). NTM isolates were mainly prevalent in people aged 50 years or older (73.0%). The overall positive rate of T-SPOT.TB test was 29.6% (24/81). In patients infected with NTM sharing the RD1 region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. TB), 50% (3/6) were positive in the T-SPOT.TB test, whereas 28.0% (21/75) was positive in the group with NTM not sharing the RD1 region of M. TB. No significant difference was detected in the positive rate of T-SPOT.TB between definite (28.3%, 15/53) and probable disease (32.1%, 9/28). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated a relatively high positive rate of T-SPOT.TB test in patients infected with NTM not sharing the RD1 region of M. TB. Thus, T-SPOT.TB test displays a limited ability in differentiating TB infection from NTM disease in a high TB burden country.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos de Liberación de Interferón gamma/métodos , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/aislamiento & purificación , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/sangre , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/microbiología , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/clasificación , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/fisiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tuberculosis/sangre , Tuberculosis/microbiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/sangre , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572691

RESUMEN

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most common and severe form of central nervous system tuberculosis. Due to the non-specific clinical presentation and lack of efficient diagnosis methods, it is difficult to discriminate TBM from other frequent types of meningitis, especially viral meningitis (VM). In order to identify the potential biomarkers for discriminating TBM and VM and to reveal the different pathophysiological processes between TBM and VM, a genome-wide miRNA screening of PBMCs from TBM, VM, and healthy controls (HCs) using microarray assay was performed (12 samples). Twenty-eight differentially expressed miRNAs were identified between TBM and VM, and 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified between TBM and HCs. The 6 overlapping miRNAs detected in both TBM vs. VM and TBM vs. HCs were verified by qPCR analysis and showed a 100% consistent expression patterns with that in microarray test. Statistically significant differences of 4 miRNAs (miR-126-3p, miR-130a-3p, miR-151a-3p, and miR-199a-5p) were further confirmed in TBM compared with VM and HCs in independent PBMCs sample set (n = 96, P < 0.01). Three of which were also showed significantly different between TBM and VM in CSF samples (n = 70, P < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of these 4 miRNAs in PBMCs were more than 0.70 in discriminating TBM from VM. Combination of these 4 miRNAs could achieve better discriminative capacity [AUC = 0.893 (0.788-0.957)], with a sensitivity of 90.6% (75.0-98.0%), and a specificity of 86.7% (69.3-96.2%). Additional validation was performed to evaluate the diagnostic panel in another independent sample set (n = 49), which yielded a sensitivity of 81.8% (9/11), and specificity of 90.0% (9/10) in distinguishing TBM and VM, and a sensitivity of 81.8% (9/11), and a specificity of 84.6% (11/13) in discriminating TBM from other non-TBM patients. This study uncovered the miRNA profiles of TBM and VM patients, which can facilitate better understanding of the pathogenesis involved in these two diseases and identified 4 novel miRNAs in distinguishing TBM and VM.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Leucocitos Mononucleares/patología , Meningitis Viral/diagnóstico , MicroARNs/sangre , Tuberculosis Meníngea/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Masculino , Meningitis Viral/patología , Análisis por Micromatrices , Persona de Mediana Edad , Curva ROC , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tuberculosis Meníngea/patología , Adulto Joven
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