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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950850

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a public health emergency of international concern and later characterized it as a pandemic. Since then, the virus has also rapidly spread among Latin American, Caribbean and African countries. The first aim of this study was to identify new emerging COVID-19 clusters over time and in space in Latin American, Caribbean, and African regions [mostly low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)], using a prospective space-time scan measurement approach. The second aim was to assess the impact of real-time population mobility patterns between January 21st to May 18th, under the implemented government interventions, measurements and policy restrictions, on COVID-19 spread, among those regions and globally. An optimal assessment of monitoring and detection tools as well as population mobility patterns could help countries to better plan and prepare their strategies against the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: We created a global COVID-19 database merging WHO daily case reports with other measures such as population density, country income levels for January 21st to May 15th, 2020. A score of government policy interventions was created ranging from "light", "intermediate", and "high", to "very high" interventions. Prospective space-time scan statistic methods were applied in five time periods between January to May 2020 and a regression mixed model analysis was used. METHODS: We created a global COVID-19 database merging WHO daily case reports with other measures such as population density, country income levels for January 21st to May 15th, 2020. A score of government policy interventions was created ranging from "light", "intermediate", and "high", to "very high" interventions. Prospective space-time scan statistic methods were applied in five time periods between January to May 2020 and a regression mixed model analysis was used. RESULTS: We found that COVID-19 emerging clusters within these five periods of time grew from 7 emerging clusters to 28 by mid-May. We also detected various increasing and decreasing relative risk estimates of COVID-19 spread among Latin American, Caribbean and African countries within the period of analysis. Globally, population mobility to parks and similar leisure areas during at least a minimum of implemented intermediate-level control policies (when compared to low-level control policies) was related with accelerated COVID-19 spread. Results that were almost consistent when the regional stratified analysis was applied. Also globally, population mobility due to working reasons during high and very high implemented control policies, when compared to low- level control policies, was related with positive COVID-19 spread. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective space-time scan is an approach that LMICs could use to detect emerging clusters in a timely manner and implement specific control policies and interventions to slow down COVID-19 transmission. In addition, real time population mobility obtained from crowdsourced digital data could be useful for current and future targeted public health and mitigation policies at a global and regional level.

2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783496

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study aimed at evaluating the age, sex, and country-income patterns in aortic aneurysm disease burden, analysing trends in mortality and years of life lost (YLLs), as well as their causal drivers and risk factors, using the 2017 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2017). METHODS AND RESULTS: We described the temporal, global, and regional (195 countries) patterns of aortic aneurysm (thoracic and abdominal) mortality, YLLs, their drivers [sociodemographic index (SDI), healthcare access and quality index (HAQ index)] and risk factors using the GBD 1990-2017. Correlation and mixed multilevel modelling between aortic aneurysm mortality, YLLs, HAQ index and other variables were applied. From 1990 to 2017, a global declining trend in age-standardized aortic aneurysm mortality was found [2.88 deaths/100 000 (95% uncertainty intervals, UI 2.79 to 3.03) in 1990 and 2.19 deaths/100 000 (95% UI 2.09 to 2.28) in 2017]. Among high-income countries (HICs) a consistent declining Spearman's correlation between age-standardised aortic aneurysm mortality, SDI (HICs; 1990 rho: 0.57, P ≤ 0.001; 2017 rho: 0.41, P = 0.001) and HAQ index was observed (HICs; 1990 rho: 0.50, P <0.001; 2016 rho: 0.35, P = 0.006); in comparison with low- and middle-income countries where correlation trends were weak and mixed. At a global level, higher HAQ index was related with lower aortic aneurysm mortality and YLLs [mortality, coef: -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.06, -0.04; YLLs, coef: -0.94, 95% CI: -1.17, -0.71]. CONCLUSIONS: Age-standardized aortic aneurysm mortality declined globally between 1990 and 2017. Globally, age-standardized aortic aneurysm mortality and YLLs were related to changes in SDI and HAQ index levels, while country-level income-related variations were also observed.

3.
Trends Parasitol ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775559

RESUMEN

Satellite remote sensing provides a wealth of information about environmental factors that influence malaria transmission cycles and human populations at risk. Long-term observations facilitate analysis of climate-malaria relationships, and high-resolution data can be used to assess the effects of agriculture, urbanization, deforestation, and water management on malaria. New sources of very-high-resolution satellite imagery and synthetic aperture radar data will increase the precision and frequency of observations. Cloud computing platforms for remote sensing data combined with analysis-ready datasets and high-level data products have made satellite remote sensing more accessible to nonspecialists. Further collaboration between the malaria and remote sensing communities is needed to develop and implement useful geospatial data products that will support global efforts toward malaria control, elimination, and eradication.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116326, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412447

RESUMEN

On March 12th, 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. The collective impact of environmental and ecosystem factors, as well as biodiversity, on the spread of COVID-19 and its mortality evolution remain empirically unknown, particularly in regions with a wide ecosystem range. The aim of our study is to assess how those factors impact on the COVID-19 spread and mortality by country. This study compiled a global database merging WHO daily case reports with other publicly available measures from January 21st to May 18th, 2020. We applied spatio-temporal models to identify the influence of biodiversity, temperature, and precipitation and fitted generalized linear mixed models to identify the effects of environmental variables. Additionally, we used count time series to characterize the association between COVID-19 spread and air quality factors. All analyses were adjusted by social demographic, country-income level, and government policy intervention confounders, among 160 countries, globally. Our results reveal a statistically meaningful association between COVID-19 infection and several factors of interest at country and city levels such as the national biodiversity index, air quality, and pollutants elements (PM10, PM2.5, and O3). Particularly, there is a significant relationship of loss of biodiversity, high level of air pollutants, and diminished air quality with COVID-19 infection spread and mortality. Our findings provide an empirical foundation for future studies on the relationship between air quality variables, a country's biodiversity, and COVID-19 transmission and mortality. The relationships measured in this study can be valuable when governments plan environmental and health policies, as alternative strategy to respond to new COVID-19 outbreaks and prevent future crises.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Biodiversidad , Ciudades , Ecosistema , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20453, 2020 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235211

RESUMEN

Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity research in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) is limited. We investigated sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity prevalence and sociodemographic, bio-clinical and lifestyle factors in LMICs settings. For the purposes of this study, the 10/66 Dementia Research Group follow-up wave information from individuals aged 65 and over in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico, Puerto Rico, China, was employed and analysed (n = 8.694). Based on indirect population formulas, we calculated body fat percentage (%BF) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Sarcopenia prevalence ranged from 12.4% (Dominican Republic) to 24.6% (rural Peru); sarcopenic obesity prevalence ranged from 3.0% (rural China) to 10.2% (rural Peru). Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sarcopenia were higher for men 2.82 (2.22-3.57) and those with higher %BF 1.08 (1.07-1.09), whereas higher number of assets was associated with a decreased likelihood 0.93 (0.87-1.00). OR of sarcopenic obesity were higher for men 2.17 (1.70-2.76), those reporting moderate alcohol drinking 1.76 (1.21-2.57), and those with increased number of limiting impairments 1.54 (1.11-2.14). We observed heterogeneity in the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in the 10/66 settings. We also found a variety of factors to be associated with those. Our results reveal the need for more research among the older population of LMICs.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066022

RESUMEN

Border regions have been implicated as important hot spots of malaria transmission, particularly in Latin America, where free movement rights mean that residents can cross borders using just a national ID. Additionally, rural livelihoods largely depend on short-term migrants traveling across borders via the Amazon's river networks to work in extractive industries, such as logging. As a result, there is likely considerable spillover across country borders, particularly along the border between Peru and Ecuador. This border region exhibits a steep gradient of transmission intensity, with Peru having a much higher incidence of malaria than Ecuador. In this paper, we integrate 13 years of weekly malaria surveillance data collected at the district level in Peru and the canton level in Ecuador, and leverage hierarchical Bayesian spatiotemporal regression models to identify the degree to which malaria transmission in Ecuador is influenced by transmission in Peru. We find that increased case incidence in Peruvian districts that border the Ecuadorian Amazon is associated with increased incidence in Ecuador. Our results highlight the importance of coordinated malaria control across borders.

7.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 98, 2020 08 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864350

RESUMEN

Background: In Peru, anemia has been a persistent health problem that is known to lead to irreversible cognitive and developmental deficits in children. The Peruvian government has recently made anemia a primary health concern by passing legislation in 2017 that makes anemia an intersectoral priority. This new legislation fortifies previous programs while creating new programs that target specific age groups. Objectives: Evaluate the effectiveness of government programs in Madre de Dios, Peru to reduce anemia prevalence and increase hemoglobin levels among children ages 2-11 years old. Methods: Propensity scores are used to match 688 children enrolled in 2018, after the legislation, and 2,140 children enrolled in previous studies our team conducted in the region between 2014 and 2017, based on sex, age (years), intervention status (prior/post), community income, presence of a health post in the community (yes/no), community type (indigenous, non-indigenous rural, non-indigenous urban) and road access (fraction of the number of months out of the year with road access). A pseudo matched case-control analysis to evaluate changes in anemia prevalence and hemoglobin was conducted using t-tests and multivariate models. Program effectiveness is evaluated overall, by age groups (2-4, 5-7 and 8-11 years old), and community type (indigenous vs. urban). Findings: The adjusted odds ratio indicated lower odds of anemia (OR = 0.31, 95%CI 0.17-0.54) for children exposed to the anemia prevention programs vs. those not exposed. The effect was not significantly different across age groups; however, the intervention effects significantly differed by community type among children 8-11 years old, with urban children less likely to benefit from anemia interventions (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.38-1.25) compared to indigenous children (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.56). Conclusion: Government programs to reduce anemia in Madre de Dios were found to be associated with reduced anemia prevalence in the study communities. However, the lack of program monitoring precludes the attribution of anemia decline to specific interventions or program components. In addition, regional anemia prevalence remains high according to the 2019 Demographic and Health Survey, suggesting impaired population impact. Program monitoring and evaluation is a key component of health interventions to improve program implementation effectiveness.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 828, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612624

RESUMEN

The Wheat Initiative (WI) and the WI Expert Working Group (EWG) for Agronomy (www.wheatinitiative.org) were formed with a collective goal to "coordinate global wheat research efforts to increase wheat production, quality, and sustainability to advance food security and safety under changing climate conditions." The Agronomy EWG is responsive to the WI's research need, "A knowledge exchange strategy to ensure uptake of innovations on farm and to update scientists on changing field realities." The Agronomy EWG aims to consolidate global expertise for agronomy with a focus on wheat production systems. The overarching approach is to develop and adopt a systems-agronomy framework relevant to any wheat production system. It first establishes the scale of current yield gaps, identifies defensible benchmarks, and takes a holistic approach to understand and overcome exploitable yield gaps to complement genetic increases in potential yield. New opportunities to increase productivity will be sought by exploiting future Genotype × Environment × Management synergies in different wheat systems. To identify research gaps and opportunities for collaboration among different wheat producing regions, the EWG compiled a comprehensive database of currently funded wheat agronomy research (n = 782) in countries representing a large proportion of the wheat grown in the world. The yield gap analysis and research database positions the EWG to influence priorities for wheat agronomy research in member countries that would facilitate collaborations, minimize duplication, and maximize the global impact on wheat production systems. This paper outlines a vision for a global WI agronomic research strategy and discusses activities to date. The focus of the WI-EWG is to transform the agronomic research approach in wheat cropping systems, which will be applicable to other crop species.

9.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 372, 2020 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709250

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem in rural low-resource areas of Latin America, Africa and Asia, where the associated conditions of nuerocysticercosis (NCC) and porcine cysticercosis cause substantial health and economic harms. An accurate and validated transmission model for T. solium would serve as an important new tool for control and elimination, as it would allow for comparison of available intervention strategies, and prioritization of the most effective strategies for control and elimination efforts. METHODS: We developed a spatially-explicit agent-based model (ABM) for T. solium ("CystiAgent") that differs from prior T. solium models by including a spatial framework and behavioral parameters such as pig roaming, open human defecation, and human travel. In this article, we introduce the structure and function of the model, describe the data sources used to parameterize the model, and apply sensitivity analyses (Latin hypercube sampling-partial rank correlation coefficient (LHS-PRCC)) to evaluate model parameters. RESULTS: LHS-PRCC analysis of CystiAgent found that the parameters with the greatest impact on model uncertainty were the roaming range of pigs, the infectious duration of human taeniasis, use of latrines, and the set of "tuning" parameters defining the probabilities of infection in humans and pigs given exposure to T. solium. CONCLUSIONS: CystiAgent is a novel ABM that has the ability to model spatial and behavioral features of T. solium transmission not available in other models. There is a small set of impactful model parameters that contribute uncertainty to the model and may impact the accuracy of model projections. Field and laboratory studies to better understand these key components of transmission may help reduce uncertainty, while current applications of CystiAgent may consider calibration of these parameters to improve model performance. These results will ultimately allow for improved interpretation of model validation results, and usage of the model to compare available control and elimination strategies for T. solium.

10.
Geohealth ; 4(5): e2019GH000222, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490301

RESUMEN

Children living near artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) are at risk of exposure to mercury, a neurotoxicant. It is not certain whether such exposures are harming development, as they occur in underresourced contexts entwined with other stressors, such as malnutrition and enteric infection. This study sought to investigate the association between hair-mercury levels and visual-motor, cognitive, and physical development among children living near ASGM in the Peruvian Amazon. Total hair-mercury levels were measured in 164 children ages 5-12 living in Madre de Dios, Peru. Primary outcomes included Visual-Motor Integration assessed via the Beery-VMI Developmental Test, General Cognitive Ability assessed via the Batería-III Woodcock-Munoz (Spanish-language Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities), and Physical Health assessed via anthropometry/hemoglobin counts. Mean (SD) hair-mercury level was 2.06 (2.43) µg/g. Fifty-four children (32.9%) had hair-mercury levels above the World Health Organization reference level of 2.0 µg/g. After controlling for sex, child age, maternal education, and family socioeconomic status, each one unit increase in log hair-mercury level was associated with a 1.01 unit decrease in Visual-Motor Integration (95%CI: -2.06, 0.05, p = 0.061), a 2.59 unit decrease in General Cognitive Ability (95%CI: -4.52, -0.66, p = 0.012), and a 2.43 unit decrease in Physical Health (95%CI: -5.34, 0.49, p = 0.096). After adjustment for covariates, children with hair-mercury levels exceeding the World Health Organization reference level scored 4.68 IQ points lower in Cognitive Ability than their peers. Mercury exposures related to ASGM may be harming child development in the Peruvian Amazon. Children in this region may benefit from intervention to reach their full developmental potential.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467625

RESUMEN

Human exposure to mercury is a leading public health problem. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major source of global mercury emissions. Although occupational mercury exposure to miners (via mercury vapor inhalation) is known, chronic mercury exposure to nearby residents that are not miners (via mercury-contaminated fish consumption) is poorly characterized. We conducted a population-based mercury exposure assessment in 23 communities (19 rural, 4 urban) around the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve, which is bordered on the east by heavy ASGM activity. We measured total mercury in hair (N = 2083) and blood (N = 476) from March-June 2015 and performed follow-up measurements (N = 723 hair and N = 290 blood) from February-April 2016. Mercury exposure risk was highest in communities classified as indigenous, or native, regardless of proximity to mining activity. Residence in a native community (vs. non-native) was associated with mercury levels 1.9 times higher in hair (median native 3.5 ppm vs. median non-native 1.4 ppm total mercury) and 1.6 times higher in blood (median native 7.4 ng/mL vs median non-native 3.2 ng/mL total mercury). Unexpectedly, proximity to mining was not associated with exposure risk. These findings challenge common assumptions about mercury exposure patterns and emphasize the importance of population-representative studies to identify high risk sub-populations.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(1): 286-296, 2020 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825606

RESUMEN

Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a significant contributor of mercury (Hg) contamination and deforestation across the globe. In the Colorado River watershed in Madre de Dios, Peru, mining and deforestation have increased exponentially since the 1980s, resulting in major socioeconomic shifts in the region and two national state of emergency (2016 and 2019) in response to concerns for wide-scale mercury poisoning by these activities. This research employed a watershed-scale soil particle detachment model and environmental field sampling to estimate the role of land cover change and soil erosion on river transport of Hg in a heavily ASGM-impacted watershed. The model estimated that observed decreases in forest cover increased soil mobilization by a factor of two in the Colorado River watershed during the 18 year period and by 4-fold in the Puquiri subwatershed (the area of most concentrated ASGM activity). If deforestation continues to increase at its current exponential rate through 2030, the annual mobilization of soil and Hg may increase by an additional 20-25% relative to 2014 levels. While, the estimated total mass of Hg transported by rivers is substantially less than the estimated tons of Hg used with ASGM in Peru, this research shows that deforestation associated with ASGM is an additional mechanism for mobilizing naturally occurring and anthropogenic Hg from terrestrial landscapes to aquatic environments in the region, potentially leading to bioaccumulation in fish and exposure to communities downstream.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Minería , Perú , Suelo
13.
Environ Res ; 183: 108720, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mercury exposure related to artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has raised environmental and public health concerns globally. Exposure to mercury, a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in fish, is especially of concern to women of childbearing age (WCBA) and children in high-fish consuming populations. In Madre de Dios (MDD), Peru, an Amazon region with naturally occurring mercury and high ASGM activity, there is significant exposure concern among the mainly riverine, fish-consuming communities. The objective of this study was to conduct the first assessment of mercury exposure in a population-based sample of MDD, identify factors associated with elevated levels and compare the relationship between fish consumption and hair total mercury (H-THg) among persons living in ASGM affected and non-ASGM affected watersheds. METHODS: Hair samples and household demographic surveys, including a module on fish consumption, were collected from 723 participants across 46 communities within 10 km of the Interoceanic Highway in MDD, who were previously enrolled in the first population-based study in MDD spanning areas affected and unaffected by ASGM. H-THg concentration (natural log transformed) was evaluated for association with independent demographic variables through multilevel multivariate regression models accounting for clustering among households and communities. Samples from canned fish available at local stores were also tested for total mercury. RESULTS: Fish consumption (diversity and total consumed) varied spatially along the highway. 269 participants (37.2%) had elevated H-THg (>2.2 µg/g; median 1.60 µg/g; mean 2.24 µg/g), including 42.7% of WCBA and 20.0% of children under 5. Overall, H-THg was higher among people living in ASGM-affected areas. H-THg concentrations were strongly associated with fish consumption; however, in the multivariate models, household consumption of high trophic level fish was associated with elevated H-THg only in communities located in the ASGM-impacted watersheds. Similarly, the relationship between living in a household engaged in economic activities of fishing or Brazil nut harvesting was associated with higher H-THg, but only among households in the ASGM-affected area. In the non-ASGM affected areas, we observed a positive relationship between household daily fruit consumption and H-THg that was not observed in ASGM-affected areas. CONCLUSION: Diet, residential location, and occupation are strong predictors of mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru. Canned fish may represent a previously overlooked source of dietary Hg exposure in the region. In accordance with the Minamata Convention on Mercury, the significant environmental health concern of mercury exposure in ASGM areas demands policy and programmatic attention.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Dietética , Peces , Contaminación de Alimentos , Mercurio , Adulto , Animales , Niño , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Minería , Perú , Alimentos Marinos
14.
J Geophys Res Biogeosci ; 124(7): 1887-1904, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598447

RESUMEN

With the addition of nitrogen (N), agricultural soils are the main anthropogenic source of N2O, but high spatial and temporal variabilities make N2O emissions difficult to characterize at the field scale. This study used flux-gradient measurements to continuously monitor N2O emissions at two agricultural fields under different management regimes in the inland Pacific Northwest of Washington State, USA. Automated 16-chamber arrays were also deployed at each site; chamber monitoring results aided the interpretation of the flux gradient results. The cumulative emissions over the six-month (1 April-30 September) monitoring period were 2.4 ± 0.7 and 2.1 ± 2 kg N2O-N/ha at the no-till and conventional till sites, respectively. At both sites, maximum N2O emissions occurred following the first rainfall event after N fertilization, and both sites had monthlong emission pulses. The no-till site had a larger N2O emission factor than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Tier 1 emission factor of 1% of the N input, while the conventional-till site's emission factor was close to 1% of the N input. However, these emission factors are likely conservative. We estimate that the global warming potential of the N2O emissions at these sites is larger than that of the no-till conversion carbon uptake. We recommend the use of chambers to investigate spatiotemporal controls as a complementary method to micrometeorological monitoring, especially in systems with high variability. Continued monitoring coupled with the use of models is necessary to investigate how changing management and environmental conditions will affect N2O emissions.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 1046-1054, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412442

RESUMEN

Road development has been a major driver of the transition from traditional to calorie-dense processed 'Western' diets in lower and middle-income countries. The paving of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) facilitated rapid development to the Madre de Dios (MDD) region in the Peruvian Amazon. As traditional foods such as Brazil nuts and fish are known to be rich in the essential micronutrient selenium, people further along the nutrition transition to a Western diet may have lower selenium (Se) intake. To test this hypothesis, in 2014 the Investigacion de Migracion, Ambiente, y Salud (IMAS Study) (Migration, Environment, and Health Study) collected household surveys from 310 households in 46 communities along the IOH and nails for Se analysis from 418 adults. Principal component analysis of 25 commonly consumed food items identified a factor resembling Western diet, which was used to calculate household Western diet weighted sum factor scores (WSFS). WSFS means were interpolated into a 10 km buffer around the IOH using inverse distance weighting. Western diet adoption was higher in urban compared to rural areas (p < 0.0001), and geographic variation was observed between mining and agricultural areas. Mean nail Se was 730 ng/g, SD 198 ng/g (range: 200-1390 ng/g). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models assessed the association between food consumption and nail Se. Household chicken consumption was positively associated with Se in rural areas only. Urban/rural status modified the effect of western diet adoption on nail Se, and Se was inversely associated with WSFS in urban areas only. Conclusion: In urban, but not rural, areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, adoption of a Western diet is inversely associated with selenium intake. As the essential micronutrient selenium is a vital part of antioxidant proteins, lower intake could compound the chronic health effects that may result from transition to a calorie-dense diet.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Occidental/estadística & datos numéricos , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Selenio/metabolismo , Adulto , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minería , Estado Nutricional , Perú , Población Rural , Oligoelementos
16.
Clin Med Insights Cardiol ; 13: 1179546819854059, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285655

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate 1-year follow-up results in an all "comers" population treated with a new cobalt chromium bare-metal stent (BMS) design. Since August 2016 to March 2017, 201 (9.7% of screening population) consecutive patients undergoing coronary stent implantation in 11 centers in Argentina were prospectively included in our registry. The inclusion criteria were multiple-vessel disease and/or unprotected left main disease, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with at least one severe (⩾70%) stenosis in any of major epicardial vessel. In-stent restenosis, protected left main stenosis, or impossibility to receive dual-antiplatelet therapy was an exclusion criterion. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were the primary endpoint and included cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target lesion revascularization (TLR); also, all components of the primary endpoint were separately analyzed. Completeness of revascularization was analyzed as post hoc data using residual SYNTAX or ERACI risk scores. Demographic characteristics showed that 6.5% of patients were very elderly, 22.5% have diabetes, 47% have multiple-vessel disease, 67% have ACS, and 32% have ST elevation MI. At a mean of 376 ± 18.1 days of follow-up, MACE was observed in 10.4% of patients: death + MI + cardiovascular accident (CVA) in 3% (6 of 201) and cardiac death + MI + CVA in 1.5% (3 of 201). Residual ERACI score ⩽5 was associated with 98% of event-free survival (P < .04). In conclusion, this prospective, multicenter, and observational all-comers registry with this novel BMS design showed a low incidence of adverse events at 1 year mainly due to coronary restenosis.

17.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 12: 1756284819858039, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258620

RESUMEN

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is correlated with low-grade inflammation and dietary habits. Until today, there have been limited epidemiologic data assessing the role of diet's inflammatory potential on NAFLD. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between an anti-inflammatory diet, as reflected by the Dietary Anti-Inflammation Index (D-AII), and NAFLD among cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free adults. Methods: ATTICA is a prospective, population-based study that recruited 3042 adults without pre-existing CVD from the Greek population (Whites; age ⩾18 years; 1514 men and 1528 women). D-AII was calculated using a standard procedure. The baseline study captured various sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics as well as hepatic markers. These were used to calculate four NAFLD assessment indices: triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), and NAFLD Fatty Liver Score (NAFLD-FLS). Specific cutoffs were applied to capture NAFLD. Results: D-AII showed a significant inverse association with NAFLD, applying the four indices with NAFLD cutoffs [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI); TyG (0.95, 0.93-0.98); HSI (0.89, 0.86-0.92); FLI (0.88, 0.85-0.91); NAFLD-FLS (0.89, 0.86-0.92)], after adjusting for various confounders. Participants in the highest D-AII tertile had lower odds of having NAFLD, compared with those in the lowest D-AII tertile [(OR, 95% CI); TyG (0.33, 0.24-0.47); HSI (0.13, 0.08-0.23); FLI (0.05, 0.02-0.11); NAFLD-FLS (0.13, 0.07-0.23)]. Anti-inflammatory nutrition was related to lower odds of NAFLD among daily alcohol drinkers and individuals with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Anti-inflammatory diet is an important predictor of NAFLD among adults without pre-existing CVD. Adherence to a high anti-inflammatory diet seems to contribute to NAFLD prevention.

18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 352, 2019 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of free-range pigs, and identify areas where T. solium transmission could occur via contact with human feces. We did this by using GPS trackers to log the movement of 108 pigs in three villages of northern Peru. Pigs were tracked for approximately six days each and tracking was repeated in the rainy and dry seasons. Maps of pig ranges were analyzed for size, distance from home, land type and contact with human defecation sites, which were assessed in a community-wide defecation survey. RESULTS: Consistent with prior GPS studies and spatial analyses, we found that the majority of pigs remained close to home during the tracking period and had contact with human feces in their home areas: pigs spent a median of 79% (IQR: 61-90%) of their active roaming time within 50 m of their homes and a median of 60% of their contact with open defecation within 100 m of home. Extended away-from-home roaming was predominately observed during the rainy season; overall, home range areas were 61% larger during the rainy season compared to the dry season (95% CI: 41-73%). Both home range size and contact with open defecation sites showed substantial variation between villages, and contact with open defecation sites was more frequent among pigs with larger home ranges and pigs living in higher density areas of their village. CONCLUSIONS: Our study builds upon prior work showing that pigs predominately roam and have contact with human feces within 50-100 m of the home, and that T. solium transmission is most likely to occur in these concentrated areas of contact. This finding, therefore, supports control strategies that target treatment resources to these areas of increased transmission. Our finding of a seasonal trend in roaming ranges may be useful for control programs relying on pig interventions, and in the field of transmission modeling, which require precise estimates of pig behavior and risk.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Estaciones del Año , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Animales , Conducta Animal , Cisticercosis/epidemiología , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimiento , Perú/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Análisis Espacial , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Taenia solium/aislamiento & purificación
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795575

RESUMEN

Background: Poor nutritional status combined with mercury exposure can generate adverse child health outcomes. Diet is a mediator of mercury exposure and evidence suggests that nutritional status modifies aspects of mercury toxicity. However, health impacts beyond the nervous system are poorly understood. This study evaluates antibody responses to six vaccines from the expanded program on immunization (EPI), including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B, measles, pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria in children with variable hair mercury and malnutrition indicators. Methods: An observational cohort study (n = 98) was conducted in native and non-native communities in Madre de Dios, Peru, a region with elevated mercury exposure from artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Adaptive immune responses in young (3⁻48 months) and older children (4⁻8 year olds) were evaluated by vaccine type (live attenuated, protein subunits, toxoids) to account for differences in response by antigen, and measured by total IgG concentration and antibody (IgG) concentrations of each EPI vaccine. Mercury was measured from hair samples and malnutrition determined using anthropometry and hemoglobin levels in blood. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations with each antibody type. Results: Changes in child antibodies and protection levels were associated with malnutrition indicators, mercury exposure, and their interaction. Malnutrition was associated with decreased measles and diphtheria-specific IgG. A one-unit decrease in hemoglobin was associated with a 0.17 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.04⁻0.30) decline in measles-specific IgG in younger children and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.01⁻6.25) higher odds of being unprotected against diphtheria in older children. Associations between mercury exposure and immune responses were also dependent on child age. In younger children, one-unit increase in log10 child hair mercury content was associated with 0.68 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.18⁻1.17) higher pertussis and 0.79 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.18⁻1.70) higher diphtheria-specific IgG levels. In older children, child hair mercury content exceeding 1.2 µg/g was associated with 73.7 higher odds (95% CI: 2.7⁻1984.3) of being a non-responder against measles and hair mercury content exceeding 2.0 µg/g with 0.32 IU/mL (95% CI: 0.10⁻0.69) lower measles-specific antibodies. Log10 hair mercury significantly interacted with weight-for-height z-score, indicating a multiplicative effect of higher mercury and lower nutrition on measles response. Specifically, among older children with poor nutrition (WHZ = -1), log10 measles antibody is reduced from 1.40 to 0.43 for low (<1.2 µg/g) vs. high mercury exposure, whereas for children with good nutritional status (WHZ = 1), log10 measles antibody is minimally changed for low vs. high mercury exposure (0.72 vs. 0.81, respectively). Conclusions: Child immune response to EPI vaccines may be attenuated in regions with elevated mercury exposure risk and exacerbated by concurrent malnutrition.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Oro , Programas de Inmunización , Mercurio/toxicidad , Minería , Estado Nutricional , Vacunas/inmunología , Anciano , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Mercurio/análisis , Perú , Vacunas/administración & dosificación
20.
Acta Trop ; 197: 104909, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703339

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite relatively successful control campaigns, malaria remains a relevant public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon. Several studies suggest that malaria persistence in the area can be connected with a high prevalence of asymptomatic infections, which were subsequently shown to be connected with work-related exposure in areas of hyperendemic transmission. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the infection reservoir represented by asymptomatic carriers in the northern Peruvian Amazon, combined with circular human movement to and from hyperendemic working areas, can capture the observed hypoendemic malaria transmission. METHODS: We designed a set of agent-based models that represent local-scale malaria transmission in a typical riverine community in the northern Peruvian Amazon. The models include asymptomatic individuals as well as a full representation of human movements within the community and between the community and external hyperendemic working places. Several theoretical scenarios are explored to verify if and how malaria clinical immunity prevalence and human work-related movements influence the malaria morbidity registered in the community. RESULTS: Agent-based simulations suggest that malaria incidence observed through passive case detection can be reproduced as exclusively generated by the asymptomatic infection reservoir. Scenarios analysis also show that, even if asymptomatic infections are completely eliminated, human movements to and from hyperendemic working areas generate a flow of imported cases that is enough to permit the persistence of transmission in the community. Simulation results were verified over a wide range of clinical immunity prevalence values and over a wide range of percentages of people working in remote hyperendemic areas. This context of unstable malaria transmission is observed to be vulnerable to severe outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic malaria infection and occupational circular human movement to hyperendemic transmission areas are designated by agent-based models as possible exclusive causes of residual hypoendemic malaria transmission observed in the Peruvian Amazon. Control strategies are proposed to decrease asymptomatic infection prevalence and to block transmission from asymptomatic individuals to the malaria susceptible population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/parasitología , Malaria/transmisión , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Migrantes , Humanos , Incidencia , Malaria/epidemiología , Modelos Biológicos , Enfermedades Profesionales/parasitología , Perú/epidemiología , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalencia
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