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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 410-416, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333122

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 from Venezuelan migrants living in Colombia. METHODS: This study sequenced SARS-CoV-2 from 30 clinical specimens collected from Venezuelan migrants. Genomes were compared with the Wuhan reference genome to identify polymorphisms, reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and perform comparative genomic analyses. Geographic, sociodemographic and clinical data were also studied across genotypes. RESULTS: This study demonstrated the presence of six distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating among Venezuelan migrants, as well as a close relationship between SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences obtained from individuals living in the Venezuelan-Colombian border regions of La Guajira (Colombia) and Zulia (Venezuela). Three clusters (C-1, C-2 and C-3) were well supported by phylogenomic inference, supporting the hypothesis of three potential transmission routes across the Colombian-Venezuelan border. These genomes included point mutations previously associated with increased infectivity. A mutation (L18F) in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein that has been associated with compromised binding of neutralizing antibodies was found in 2 of 30 (6.6%) genomes. A statistically significant association was identified with symptomatology for cluster C2. CONCLUSION: The close phylogenetic relationships between SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Venezuelan migrants and from people living at the Venezuela-Colombian border support the importance of human movements for the spread of COVID-19 and for emerging virus variants.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Colombia/epidemiología , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of Mucorales associated infections, now termed COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), have been reported. Despite an increase in fatality reports, no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis have been described in the literature to date. CASE: A 56-year-old male with a recent COVID-19 diagnosis developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis after 22 days of treatment with dexamethasone. Cultures and histopathological assessment of tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient survived after treatment with amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Along with the COVID-19 pandemic, the inappropriate use of steroids, in addition to concurrent risk factors, such as diabetes, has led to an increase in the occurrence of these devastating mycoses, leading to the development of severe presentations and complications, as observed in many cases. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in order to avoid dissemination and fatal outcomes.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451962

RESUMEN

Current efforts to understand the epidemiology, transmission dynamics and emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants worldwide has enabled the scientific community to generate critical information aimed at implementing disease surveillance and control measures, as well as to reduce the social, economic and health impact of the pandemic. Herein, we applied an epidemic model coupled with genomic analysis to assess the SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Colombia. This epidemic model allowed to identify the geographical distribution, Rt dynamics and predict the course of the pandemic considering current implementation of countermeasures. The analysis of the incidence rate per 100,000 inhabitants carried out across different regions of Colombia allowed visualizing the changes in the geographic distribution of cases. The cumulative incidence during the timeframe March 2020 to March 2021 revealed that Bogotá (8063.0), Quindío (5482.71), Amazonas (5055.68), Antioquia (4922.35) and Tolima (4724.41) were the departments with the highest incidence rate. The highest median Rt during the first period evaluated was 2.13 and 1.09 in the second period; with this model, we identified improving opportunities in health decision making related to controlling the pandemic, diagnostic testing capacity, case registration and reporting, among others. Genomic analysis revealed 52 circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Colombia detected from 774 genomes sequenced throughout the first year of the pandemic. The genomes grouped into four main clusters and exhibited 19 polymorphisms. Our results provide essential information on the spread of the pandemic countrywide despite implementation of early containment measures. In addition, we aim to provide deeper phylogenetic insights to better understand the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in light of the latent emergence of novel variants and how these may potentially influence transmissibility and infectivity.

4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359353

RESUMEN

The emergence and rapid proliferation of Coronavirus Disease-2019, throughout the past year, has put an unprecedented strain on the global schema of health infrastructure and health economy. The time-sensitive agenda of identifying the virus in humans and delivering a vaccine to the public constituted an effort to flatten the statistical curve of viral spread as it grew exponentially. At the forefront of this effort was an exigency of developing rapid and accurate diagnostic strategies. These have emerged in various forms over the past year-each with strengths and weaknesses. To date, they fall into three categories: (1) those isolating and replicating viral RNA in patient samples from the respiratory tract (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests; NAATs), (2) those detecting the presence of viral proteins (Rapid Antigen Tests; RATs) and serology-based exams identifying antibodies to the virus in whole blood and serum. The latter vary in their detection of immunoglobulins of known prevalence in early-stage and late-stage infection. With this review, we delineate the categories of testing measures developed to date, analyze the efficacy of collecting patient specimens from diverse regions of the respiratory tract, and present the up and coming technologies which have made pathogen identification easier and more accessible to the public.

5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 550-556, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101086

RESUMEN

Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a perceptual disorder embracing a spectrum of self-experienced paroxysmal body image illusions including most commonly distortions of shape (metamorphopsia), size (macropsia or micropsia), distance (pelopsia or teleopsia), movement, and color among other visual and somesthetic distortions. Depersonalization, derealization, and auditory hallucinations have also been described. Recent reports suggest that infectious diseases are the predominant etiology for AIWS, especially among children. This article reviews current understanding regarding the association between infection and development of AIWS.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3463, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103497

RESUMEN

Numerous reports document the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but there is limited information on its introduction before the identification of a local case. This may lead to incorrect assumptions when modeling viral origins and transmission. Here, we utilize a sample pooling strategy to screen for previously undetected SARS-CoV-2 in de-identified, respiratory pathogen-negative nasopharyngeal specimens from 3,040 patients across the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. The patients had been previously evaluated for respiratory symptoms or influenza-like illness during the first 10 weeks of 2020. We identify SARS-CoV-2 RNA from specimens collected as early as 25 January 2020, and complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from multiple pools of samples collected between late February and early March, documenting an increase prior to the later surge. Our results provide evidence of sporadic SARS-CoV-2 infections a full month before both the first officially documented case and emergence of New York as a COVID-19 epicenter in March 2020.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virología , New York/epidemiología , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5481-5486, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963565

RESUMEN

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections continue, there is a substantial need for cost-effective and large-scale testing that utilizes specimens that can be readily collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in various community settings. Although multiple diagnostic methods utilize nasopharyngeal specimens, saliva specimens represent an attractive alternative as they can rapidly and safely be collected from different populations. While saliva has been described as an acceptable clinical matrix for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, evaluations of analytic performance across platforms for this specimen type are limited. Here, we used a novel sensitive RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based assay (Agena MassARRAY®) to detect SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimens. The platform demonstrated high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when compared to matched patient upper respiratory specimens. We also evaluated the analytical sensitivity of the platform and determined the limit of detection of the assay to be 1562.5 copies/ml. Furthermore, across the five individual target components of this assay, there was a range in analytic sensitivities for each target with the N2 target being the most sensitive. Overall, this system also demonstrated comparable performance when compared to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva by the cobas® 6800/8800 SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR Test (Roche). Together, we demonstrate that saliva represents an appropriate matrix for SARS-CoV-2 detection on the novel Agena system as well as on a conventional real-time RT-PCR assay. We conclude that the MassARRAY® system is a sensitive and reliable platform for SARS-CoV-2 detection in saliva, offering scalable throughput in a large variety of clinical laboratory settings.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/normas , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/normas , ARN Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/virología , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/normas , Benchmarking , COVID-19/virología , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/instrumentación , Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/instrumentación , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Nasofaringe/virología , Manejo de Especímenes/normas , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/instrumentación , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos
11.
J Infect Dis ; 223(11): 1842-1854, 2021 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients manifest with pulmonary symptoms reflected by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), excessive inflammation, and thromboembolism. The mechanisms mediating these processes remain unclear. METHODS: We performed multicolor staining for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins and lineage markers to define viral tropism and lung pathobiology in 5 autopsy cases. RESULTS: Lung parenchyma showed severe DAD with thromboemboli. Viral infection was found in an extensive range of cells including pneumocyte type II, ciliated, goblet, club-like, and endothelial cells. More than 90% of infiltrating immune cells were positive for viral proteins including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells, B cells, and T cells. Most but not all infected cells were angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) positive. The numbers of infected and ACE2-positive cells are associated with extensive tissue damage. Infected tissues exhibited high levels of inflammatory cells including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, and NK cells, and low levels of B cells but abundant T cells consisting of mainly T helper cells, few cytotoxic T cells, and no regulatory T cells. Robust interleukin-6 expression was present in most cells, with or without infection. CONCLUSIONS: In fatal COVID-19 lungs, there are broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms, extensive infiltrated innate immune cells, and activation and depletion of adaptive immune cells, contributing to severe tissue damage, thromboemboli, excess inflammation, and compromised immune responses.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/patología , Pulmón/patología , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Tropismo Viral , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Innata , Pulmón/citología , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alveolos Pulmonares/inmunología , Alveolos Pulmonares/patología , Alveolos Pulmonares/virología , Tropismo Viral/inmunología
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009327, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857136

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced health authorities across the world to take important decisions to curtail its spread. Genomic epidemiology has emerged as a valuable tool to understand introductions and spread of the virus in a specific geographic location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the sequences of 59 SARS-CoV-2 samples from inhabitants of the Colombian Amazonas department. The viral genomes were distributed in two robust clusters within the distinct GISAID clades GH and G. Spatial-temporal analyses revealed two independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 in the region, one around April 1, 2020 associated with a local transmission, and one around April 2, 2020 associated with other South American genomes (Uruguay and Brazil). We also identified ten lineages circulating in the Amazonas department including the P.1 variant of concern (VOC). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first genomic epidemiology investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in one of the territories with the highest report of indigenous communities of the country. Such findings are essential to decipher viral transmission, inform on global spread and to direct implementation of infection prevention and control measures for these vulnerable populations, especially, due to the recent circulation of one of the variants of concern (P.1) associated with major transmissibility and possible reinfections.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/transmisión , Colombia/epidemiología , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Análisis Espacial , Factores de Tiempo
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0009003, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no specific literature available on the determinants for therapeutic failure (TF) with meglumine antimoniate (MA) in Northwestern-Argentina. This study aimed to identify epidemiological, clinical, and treatment-related factors that could be involved in TF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a case-control study. Cases were represented by patients who showed TF after administration of the first course of MA treatment, whereas, controls were determined as patients who evolved towards healing after the first MA cycle received. Crude Odds Ratios and their corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, and risk factors were then tested by multivariate analysis using logistic binary regression. Three hundred and eighty-four patients with a presumptive diagnosis of ACL were recruited, and 153 with a positive diagnosis were selected. We included in the study 71 patients, who underwent specific treatment with MA, presented complete data on response to treatment, and had a minimum post-treatment follow-up of 6 months in cutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 months in mucosal leishmaniasis. Of these, 34 (47.9%) presented TF. In the initial analysis, TF was significantly associated with the geographical area of disease acquisition (p = 0.036), the presence of mucosal lesions (p = 0.042), the presence of concomitant skin and mucosal lesions (p = 0.002), and lesion age ≥ 6 months (p = 0.018). Risk factors influencing TF in the final multivariate model included the geographical area where the disease was acquired (adjusted Odd Ratio 8.062; 95% CI 1.914-33.959; p = 0.004), and lesion age ≥ 6 months (adjusted Odd Ratio 10.037; 95% CI 1.383-72.843; p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest the existence of some risk factors linked to TF in Northwestern-Argentina, which deserve further investigation. Herein we recorded a high percentage of TF and we described clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with TF that could be taken into account improving the clinical management of patients.


Asunto(s)
Antiprotozoarios/uso terapéutico , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/tratamiento farmacológico , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
14.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(15): 1825-1833, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988342

RESUMEN

The repurposing or repositioning of previously-approved drugs has become an accepted strategy for the expansion of the pharmacopeia for neglected diseases. Accordingly, amiodarone, an inexpensive and extensively- used class III antiarrhythmic has been proposed as a treatment for Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis. Amiodarone has a potent trypanocidal and leishmanicidal action, mainly acting through the disruption of parasite intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, which is a recognized target of different drugs that have activity against trypanosomatids. Amiodarone collapses the mitochondrial electrochemical potential (Δφm) and induces the rapid alkalinization of parasite acidocalcisomes, driving a large increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Amiodarone also inhibits oxidosqualene cyclase activity, a key enzyme in the ergosterol synthesis pathway that is essential for trypanosomatid survival. In combination, these three effects lead to parasite death. Dronedarone, a drug synthesized to minimize some of the adverse effects of amiodarone, displays trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activity through the same mechanisms, but curiously, being more potent on Leishmaniasis than its predecessor. In vitro studies suggest that other recently-synthesized benzofuran derivatives can act through the same mechanisms, and produce similar effects on different trypanosomatid species. Recently, the combination of amiodarone and itraconazole has been used successfully to treat 121 dogs naturally-infected by T. cruzi, strongly supporting the potential therapeutic use of this combination against human trypanosomatid infections.

15.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740967

RESUMEN

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory disease primarily affecting infants and young children, whose etiology remains uncertain. Observational studies of the overlap between KD outbreaks and seasonal peaks of arboviral infections, suggest the possible role of these pathogens as triggers of KD. In Venezuela, regions with the highest reported arboviral infections simultaneously have the highest incidence of KD. One proposed explanation for this association involves the role of proinflammatory mediators, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor as mediators of coronary endothelial damage. The promotion of inflammation and tissue destruction by these cytokines is thought to contribute to the coronary endothelial damage experienced in KD. The utilization of overlapping KD and arboviral infection trends contribute to the comprehension of KD etiology, with improvements in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

16.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 797-799, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720233

RESUMEN

There is concern that the global burden of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection might yield an increased occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). It is currently unknown whether concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection and GBS are pathophysiologically related, what biomarkers are useful for diagnosis, and what is the optimal treatment given the medical comorbidities, complications, and simultaneous infection. We report a patient who developed severe GBS following SARS-CoV-2 infection at the peak of the initial COVID-19 surge (April 2020) in New York City and discuss diagnostic and management issues and complications that may warrant special consideration in similar patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicaciones , Hiponatremia/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Enfermedad Aguda , Anciano , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Enoxaparina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/patología , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virología , Humanos , Hiponatremia/patología , Hiponatremia/terapia , Hiponatremia/virología , Ciudad de Nueva York , Pandemias , Plasmaféresis , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/virología , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pathogens ; 9(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708840

RESUMEN

Since its emergence in Wuhan (China) on December 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread worldwide. After its arrival in South America in February 2020, the virus has expanded throughout the region, infecting over 900,000 individuals with approximately 41,000 reported deaths to date. In response to the rapidly growing number of cases, a number of different primer-probe sets have been developed. However, despite being highly specific, most of these primer-probe sets are known to exhibit variable sensitivity. Currently, there are more than 300 SARS-CoV2 whole genome sequences deposited in databases from Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, Uruguay, Peru, and Argentina. To test how regional viral diversity may impact oligo binding sites and affect test performance, we reviewed all available primer-probe sets targeting the E, N, and RdRp genes against available South American SARS-CoV-2 genomes checking for nucleotide variations in annealing sites. Results from this in silico analysis showed no nucleotide variations on the E-gene target region, in contrast to the N and RdRp genes which showed massive nucleotide variations within oligo binding sites. In lines with previous data, our results suggest that the E-gene stands as the most conserved and reliable target when considering single-gene target testing for molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in South America.

19.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(2): 106037, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479893

RESUMEN

Ivermectin (IVM) is a robust antiparasitic drug with an excellent tolerance and safety profile. Historically it has been the drug of choice for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis global elimination programs. IVM is an oral insecticide and is a standard treatment against intestinal helminths and ectoparasites. The current humanitarian crisis in Venezuela is a regional public health threat that requires immediate action. The public health system in Venezuela has crumbled because of a 70% shortage of medicines in public hospitals, low vaccination campaigns, and the mass exodus of medical personnel. Herein we discuss the repurposing of IVM to attenuate the burden imposed by the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in Venezuela, including soil-transmitted helminths, ectoparasites and, possibly, vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. In addition, novel experimental evidence has shown that IVM is active and efficacious in vitro against Chagas disease, Leishmaniases, arboviruses, and SARS-CoV-2. In crisis-hit Venezuela, all these infectious diseases are public health emergencies that have long been ignored and require immediate attention. The versatility of IVM could serve as a powerful tool to tackle the multiple overlapping endemic and emergent diseases that currently affect Venezuela. The repurposing of this multipurpose drug would be a timely therapeutic approach to help mitigate the tremendous burden of NTDs nationwide.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Parasitarias/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Venezuela
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