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1.
Heart ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620556

RESUMEN

Right ventricular (RV) size and function are important predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with various conditions. However, non-invasive assessment of the RV is a challenging task due to its complex anatomy and location in the chest. Although conventional echocardiography is widely used, its limitations in RV assessment are well recognised. New techniques such as three-dimensional and speckle tracking echocardiography have overcome the limitations of conventional echocardiography allowing a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of RV geometry and function without geometric assumptions. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and CT provide accurate assessment of RV geometry and function, too. In addition, tissue characterisation imaging for myocardial scar and fat using CMR and CT provides important information regarding the RV that has clinical applications for diagnosis and prognosis in a broad range of cardiac conditions. Limitations also exist for these two advanced modalities including availability and patient suitability for CMR and need for contrast and radiation exposure for CT. Hybrid imaging, which is able to integrate anatomical information (usually obtained by CT or CMR) with physiological and molecular data (usually obtained with positron emission tomography), can provide optimal in vivo evaluation of Rv functional impairment. This review summarises the clinically useful applications of advanced echocardiography techniques, CMR and CT for comprehensive assessment of RV size, function and mechanics.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624310

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate aortic distensibility and pulse waveform patterns associated with the ascending aortic aneurysm, and to analyze the postoperative and mid-term hemodynamic changes induced by prosthetic replacement of the ascending aorta. METHODS: Central blood pressure waves were recorded at the carotid artery level by means of a validated transcutaneous arterial tonometer in 30 patients undergoing prosthetic replacement of ascending aortic aneurysm and in 30 control patients. Measurements were obtained the day before surgery and 5 to 7 days and 16 to 20 months after surgery. RESULTS: The ascending aortic aneurysm was associated with a less steep slope of early systolic phase of the pressure curve (pulsus tardus) compared with a control group (0.54 ± 0.18 mm Hg/ms vs 0.69 ± 0.26 mm Hg/ms; P = .011). Replacing the ascending aorta with a noncompliant vascular prosthesis steepened the pulse pressure slope during the early systolic phase in the postoperative period (0.77 ± .29 mm Hg/ms), providing values comparable with those of the control group in the mid-term (0.67 ± .20 mm Hg/ms). No change in aortic stiffness was found either postoperatively or in the mid-term after ascending aorta surgical replacement (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity: preoperative, 9.0 ± 2.6 m/s; postoperative, 9.0 ± 2.9 m/s; mid-term postoperative, 9.3 ± 2.8 m/s). CONCLUSIONS: This study does not confirm the assumption that substitution of the viscoelastic ascending aorta with a rigid prosthesis can cause serious hemodynamic alterations downstream, because we did not observe a worsening of global aortic distensibility after insertion of a rigid prosthetic aorta. The ascending aortic aneurysm is associated with a pulsus tardus.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639102

RESUMEN

Both arterial blood pressure (BP) average levels and short-term BP variability (BPV) relate to hypertension-mediated organ damage, in particular increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Endothelial dysfunction possibly mediates such damage. The authors aimed at further investigating such role in hypertensive patients. In 189 recently diagnosed, untreated hypertensive patients the authors evaluated, in a cross-sectional design, the relationships of BP average levels and short-term systolic (S) BPV (standard deviation of awake SBP or of 24-hour-weighted SBP) with IMT and PWV, and how much these relationships are explained by endothelial function parameters-brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and digital reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Multivariable models assessed the strength of these relationships to derive a plausible pathogenetic sequence. Both average SBP values and our measures of SBPV were significantly related to IMT (24-hour mean SBP: r = .156, P = .034; 24-hour-weighted SBPV: r = .157, P = .033) and to PWV (24-hour mean SBP: r = .179, P = .015; 24-hour-weighted SBPV: r = .175; P = .018), but only poorly related to FMD or RHI (P > .05 for all). At univariable regression analysis, FMD and RHI were both related to IMT, (P < .001), but not to PWV. When FMD and RHI were added to average SBP and SBPV parameters in a multivariable model, both significantly (P < .005) contributed to predict IMT, but not PWV. Thus, endothelial dysfunction relates to IMT independently of BP parameters, but appears to play a minor role in the association between BP variability-related variables and arterial stiffening.

4.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649639

RESUMEN

: Managing hypertension in syncope patients requires the accurate balancing of hypotensive and cardiovascular risks. On the basis of the available literature, this study analyses the complex inter-relationship between these clinical problems and presents an algorithm strategy to guide hypertension management in patients affected by syncope episodes. A SBP target of 120 mmHg is recommended in patients with a low syncope risk and a high cardiovascular risk. In patients with a high syncope risk and a low cardiovascular risk, and in older (70+) frail individuals, a less intensive treatment is advisable, targeting SBP of 140 mmHg. SBP values up to 160 mmHg can be tolerated in severe frailty or disability.Patients with hypertension and syncope may benefit from team-based care by a 'Blood Pressure Team' including experts on hypertension and syncope and a geriatrician. The team should carry out a multidimensional assessment to balance syncope and cardiovascular risk and develop therapeutic strategies customized to individuals' frailty and functional status.

5.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52467

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La hipertensión arterial es una causa modificable muy prevalente de enfermedades cardiovasculares, accidentes cerebrovasculares y muerte. Medir con exactitud la presión arterial es fundamental, dado que un error de medición de 5 mmHg puede ser motivo para clasificar incorrectamente como hipertensas a 84 millones de personas en todo el mundo. En la presente declaración de posición se resumen los procedimientos para optimizar el desempeño del observador al medir la presión arterial en el consultorio, con atención especial a los entornos de ingresos bajos o medianos, donde esta medición se ve complicada por limitaciones de recursos y tiempo, sobrecarga de trabajo y falta de suministro eléctrico. Es posible reducir al mínimo muchos errores de medición con una preparación adecuada de los pacientes y el uso de técnicas estandarizadas. Para simplificar la medición y prevenir errores del observador, deben usarse tensiómetros semiautomáticos o automáticos de manguito validados, en lugar del método por auscultación. Pueden ayudar también la distribución de tareas, la creación de un área específica de medición y el uso de aparatos semiautomáticos o de carga solar. Es fundamental garantizar la capacitación inicial y periódica de los integrantes del equipo de salud. Debe considerarse la implementación de programas de certificación de bajo costo y fácilmente accesibles con el objetivo de mejorar la medición de la presión arterial.


[ABSTRACT]. High blood pressure (BP) is a highly prevalent modifiable cause of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death. Accurate BP measurement is critical, given that a 5-mmHg measurement error may lead to incorrect hypertension status classification in 84 million individuals worldwide. This position statement summarizes procedures for optimizing observer performance in clinic BP measurement, with special attention given to low-to-middle-income settings, where resource limitations, heavy workloads, time constraints, and lack of electrical power make measurement more challenging. Many measurement errors can be minimized by appropriate patient preparation and standardized techniques. Validated semi-automated/automated upper arm cuff devices should be used instead of auscultation to simplify measurement and prevent observer error. Task sharing, creating a dedicated measurement workstation, and using semi-automated or solar-charged devices may help. Ensuring observer training, and periodic re-training, is critical. Low-cost, easily accessible certification programs should be considered to facilitate best BP measurement practice.


[RESUMO]. A hipertensão é uma causa altamente prevalente de doença cardiovascular, acidente vascular cerebral e morte. A medição precisa da pressão arterial (PA) é um aspecto crítico, uma vez que erros de mensuração da ordem de 5 mmHg podem levar a uma classificação incorreta do status de hipertensão em 84 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O presente posicionamento resume os procedimentos para otimizar o desempenho do observador (o indivíduo responsável pela mensuração da PA) na mensuração clínica da PA, com atenção especial para contextos de baixa a média renda, onde recursos limitados, cargas de trabalho pesadas, restrições de tempo e falta de energia elétrica tornam mais desafiadora a tarefa de medir a PA. Muitos erros de mensuração podem ser minimizados pela preparação adequada do paciente e pelo uso de técnicas padronizadas. Para simplificar a mensuração e evitar erros do observador, devem-se utilizar dispositivos semiautomatizados ou automatizados validados, com manguito para braço, ao invés de auscultação. O compartilhamento de tarefas, a criação de uma estação de trabalho dedicada à mensuração e o uso de dispositivos semiautomatizados ou com carga solar podem ajudar. É essencial que seja assegurado o treinamento e retreinamento periódico do observador. Programas de certificação de baixo custo e de fácil acesso devem ser considerados para facilitar a adoção das melhores práticas na mensuração da PA.


Asunto(s)
Presión Arterial , Equipos de Medición , Consenso , Salud Global , Hipertensión , Oscilometría , Presión Arterial , Equipos de Medición , Consenso , Salud Global , Hipertensión , Oscilometría , Presión Arterial , Equipos de Medición , Salud Global , Hipertensión , Oscilometría
6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320926305, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479128

RESUMEN

AIMS: Remodelling of the cardiovascular system (including heart and vasculature) is a dynamic process influenced by multiple physiological and pathological factors. We sought to understand whether remodelling in response to a stimulus, exercise training, altered with healthy ageing. METHODS: A total of 237 untrained healthy male and female subjects volunteering for their first time marathon were recruited. At baseline and after 6 months of unsupervised training, race completers underwent tests including 1.5T cardiac magnetic resonance, brachial and non-invasive central blood pressure assessment. For analysis, runners were divided by age into under or over 35 years (U35, O35). RESULTS: Injury and completion rates were similar among the groups; 138 runners (U35: n = 71, women 49%; O35: n = 67, women 51%) completed the race. On average, U35 were faster by 37 minutes (12%). Training induced a small increase in left ventricular mass in both groups (3 g/m2, P < 0.001), but U35 also increased ventricular cavity sizes (left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV)i +3%; left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV)i +8%; right ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV)i +4%; right ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV)i +5%; P < 0.01 for all). Systemic aortic compliance fell in the whole sample by 7% (P = 0.020) and, especially in O35, also systemic vascular resistance (-4% in the whole sample, P = 0.04) and blood pressure (systolic/diastolic, whole sample: brachial -4/-3 mmHg, central -4/-2 mmHg, all P < 0.001; O35: brachial -6/-3 mmHg, central -6/-4 mmHg, all P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Medium-term, unsupervised physical training in healthy sedentary individuals induces measurable remodelling of both heart and vasculature. This amount is age dependent, with predominant cardiac remodelling when younger and predominantly vascular remodelling when older.

9.
Echocardiography ; 2020 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596833

RESUMEN

Doppler echocardiography assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressures at rest and during exercise is the most widely used imaging technique to assess LV diastolic function in clinical practice. However, a sizable number of patients evaluated for suspected LV diastolic function show an inconsistency between the various parameters included in the flowchart recommended by current Doppler echocardiography guidelines and results in an undetermined LV diastolic function. Current three-dimensional echocardiography technology allows obtaining accurate measurements of the left atrial volumes and functions that have been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of the algorithms recommended for assessing both LV diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Moreover, current software packages used to quantify LV size and function provide also volume-time curves showing the dynamic LV volume change throughout the cardiac cycle. Examining the diastolic part of these curves allows the measurement of several indices of LV filling that have been reported to be useful to differentiate patients with normal LV diastolic function from patients with different degrees of diastolic dysfunction. Finally, several software packages allow to obtain also myocardial deformation parameters from the three-dimensional datasets of both the left atrium and the LV providing additional functional parameters that may be useful to improve the diagnostic yield of three-dimensional echocardiography for the LV diastolic dysfunction. This review summarizes the current applications of three-dimensional echocardiography to assess LV diastolic function.

10.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516294

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although it is known that increased visit-to-visit or home day-by-day variability of blood pressure (BP), independently of its average value, results in an increased risk of cardiovascular events, the prognostic value of in-hospital day-by-day BP variability in secondary cardiovascular prevention has not yet been established. METHODS: We studied 1440 consecutive cardiac patients during a cardiovascular rehabilitation program of about 12 days after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve surgery. We measured auscultatory BP at the patient bed in each rehabilitation day twice, in the morning and the afternoon. We correlated SBP variability assessed as standard deviation (SBP-SD) and coefficient of variation (SBP-CoV) of the daily measures with overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality and major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events (MACCEs) after a mean follow-up of 49 months by Cox hazard analysis. RESULTS: In our patients (age 68 ±â€Š11years, 61% hypertensive patients) the ranges of SBP-SD tertiles were: 4.1-9.1, 9.2-11.5 and 11.6-24.5 mmHg. Fifty-five percent of the patients underwent CABG, 33% underwent valve surgery, 12% both CABG and valve surgery. In CABG patients, the highest SBP-SD tertile showed the highest overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality and MACCEs (P < 0.01). Results remained significant after multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, mean SBP, BMI, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes. No association between SBP-SD and mortality or MACCEs was found in valve surgery patients. CONCLUSION: In-hospital day-by-day SBP variability predicts mortality and MACCEs in CABG patients, possibly representing a target during rehabilitation and treatment in secondary cardiovascular prevention.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(13): e016237, 2020 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578469

RESUMEN

Background Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is considered a strong risk factor for hypertension in the general population. This disturbance is common in end-stage kidney disease patients on long-term hemodialysis and improves early on after renal transplantation. Whether SDB may be a risk factor for hypertension in renal transplant patients is unclear. Methods and Results We investigated the long-term evolution of simultaneous polysomnographic and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring recordings in a cohort of 221 renal transplant patients. Overall, 404 paired recordings were made over a median follow-up of 35 months. A longitudinal data analysis was performed by the mixed linear model. The apnea-hypopnea index increased from a median baseline value of 1.8 (interquartile range, 0.6-5.0) to a median final value of 3.6 (interquartile range, 1.7-10.4; P=0.009). Repeated categorical measurements of the apnea-hypopnea index were directly associated with simultaneous 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic ambulatory BP monitoring (adjusted analyses; P ranging from 0.002-0.01). In a sensitivity analysis restricted to 139 patients with at least 2 visits, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic BP significantly increased across visits (P<0.05) in patients with worsening SDB (n=40), whereas the same BP metrics did not change in patients (n=99) with stable apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions In renal transplant patients, worsening SDB associates with a parallel increase in average 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime systolic BP. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that the link between SDB and hypertension is causal in nature. Clinical trials are, however, needed to definitively test this hypothesis.

12.
Trials ; 21(1): 515, 2020 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to test the feasibility and titration methods used to achieve specific blood pressure (BP) control targets in hypertensive patients of rural China. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, open-label trial was conducted in Rongcheng, China. We enrolled 105 hypertensive participants aged over 60 years, and who had no history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three systolic-BP target groups: standard: 140 to < 150 mmHg; moderately intensive: 130 to < 140 mmHg; and intensive: < 130 mmHg. The patients were followed for 6 months. DISCUSSION: The optimal target for systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering is still uncertain worldwide and such information is critically needed, especially in China. However, in China the rates of awareness, treatment and control are only 46.9%, 40.7%, and 15.3%, respectively. It is challenging to achieve BP control in the real world and it is very important to develop population-specific BP-control protocols that fully consider the population's characteristics, such as age, sex, socio-economic status, compliance with medication, education level, and lifestyle. This randomized trial showed the feasibility and safety of the titration protocol to achieve desirable SBP targets (< 150, < 140, and < 130 mmHg) in a sample of rural, Chinese hypertensive patients. The three BP target groups had similar baseline characteristics. After 6 months of treatment, the mean SBP measured at an office visit was 137.2 mmHg, 131.1 mmHg, and 124.2 mmHg, respectively, in the three groups. Home BP and central aortic BP measurements were also obtained. At 6 months, home BP measurements (2 h after drug administration) showed a mean SBP of 130.9 mmHg in the standard group, 124.9 mmHg in the moderately intensive group, and 119.7 mmHg in the intensive group. No serious adverse events were recorded over the 6-month study period. Rates of adverse events, including dry cough, palpitations, and arthralgia, were low and showed no significant differences between the three groups. This trial provided real-world experience and laid the foundation for a future, large-scale, BP target study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Feasibility Study of the Intensive Systolic Blood Pressure Control; ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02817503. Registered retrospectively on 29 June 2016.

13.
J Card Fail ; 2020 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428671

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heart failure with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF) represents a heterogeneous category where phenotype, as well as prognostic assessment, remains still debated. The present study explores a specific HFmrEF subset, namely those who recovered from a reduced EF (rec-HFmrEF) and, particularly, it focuses on the possible additive prognostic role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data of 4,535 HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) and 1,176 rec-HFmrEF outpatients from the Metabolic Exercise combined with Cardiac and Kidney Indexes (MECKI) database. The end-point was cardiovascular death at 5 years. The median follow-up was 1,343 days (25th-75th range, 627-2,403 days). Cardiovascular death occurred in 552 HFrEF and 61 rec-HFmrEF patients. The multivariate analysis confirmed an independent role of the MECKI score's variables in HFrEF (C-index=0.744) whereas, in the rec-HFmrEF group, only age and peak oxygen uptake (pVO2) remained associated to the end-point (C-index=0.745). A pVO2 ≤55% of predicted and a ventilatory efficiency ≥31 resulted as the most accurate cut-off values in the outcome prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Present data support the CPET and, particularly, the pVO2, as a useful tool in the rec-HFmrEF prognostic assessment. Peak VO2≤55% predicted and ventilatory efficiency ≥31 might help to identify a high risk rec-HFmrEF subgroup.

14.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360652

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of diabetes mellitus (DM) in heart failure (HF) patients is undefined, since DM is outweighed by several DM-related variables when confounders are considered. We determined the prognostic role of DM, treatment, and glycemic control in a real-life HF population. METHODS: 3927 HF patients included in the Metabolic Exercise Cardiac Kidney Index (MECKI) score database were evaluated with a median follow-up of 3.66 years (IQR 1.70-6.67). Data analysis considered survival between DM (n = 897) vs. non-DM (n = 3030) patients, and, in diabetics, between insulin (n = 304), oral antidiabetics (n = 479), and dietary only (n = 88) treatments. The role of glycemic control was evaluated grouping DM patients according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c): <7% (n = 266), 7.1-8% (n = 133), >8% (n = 149). All analyses were performed also adjusting for ejection fraction, renal function, hemoglobin, sodium, exercise peak oxygen uptake, and ventilation/carbon dioxide relationship slope. Study primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, urgent heart transplantation, or left ventricular assist device implantation. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular and all causes death. RESULTS: For all endpoints, upon adjustment for confounders, DM status and insulin treatment or dietary regimen were not significantly associated with adverse long-term prognosis compared to non-DM and oral antidiabetic treated patients, respectively. A worse prognosis was observed in HbA1c >8% patients (Log-Rank p < 0.001), even after correction for confounding factors. All results were replicated by hazard ratio analysis. CONCLUSION: In HF patients, DM, insulin treatment and dietary regimen are not adverse outcome predictors. The only condition related to long-term prognosis, considering potential confounders, is poor glycemic control.

15.
Europace ; 22(6): 847-853, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449908

RESUMEN

Either central or peripheral baroreceptor reflex abnormalities and/or alterations in neurohumoral mechanisms play a pivotal role in the genesis of neurally mediated syncope. Thus, improving our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms underlying specific forms of neurally mediated syncope (more properly termed 'neurohumoral syncope') might allow the development of new therapies that are effective in this specific subgroup. A low-adenosine phenotype of neurohumoral syncope has recently been identified. Patients who suffer syncope without prodromes and have a normal heart display a purinergic profile which is the opposite of that observed in vasovagal syncope patients and is characterized by very low-adenosine plasma level values, low expression of A2A receptors and the predominance of the TC variant in the single nucleotide c.1364 C>T polymorphism of the A2A receptor gene. The typical mechanism of syncope is an idiopathic paroxysmal atrioventricular block or sinus bradycardia, most often followed by sinus arrest. Since patients with low plasma adenosine levels are highly susceptible to endogenous adenosine, chronic treatment of these patients with theophylline, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, is expected to prevent syncopal recurrences. This hypothesis is supported by results from series of cases and from observational controlled studies.

16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353143

RESUMEN

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the third most common cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of both AS and arterial hypertension increases with age, and the conditions therefore often co-exist. Co-existence of AS and arterial hypertension is associated with higher global left ventricular (LV) pressure overload, more abnormal LV geometry and function, and more adverse cardiovascular outcome. Arterial hypertension may also influence grading of AS, leading to underestimation of the true AS severity. Current guidelines suggest re-assessing patients once arterial hypertension is controlled. Management of arterial hypertension in AS has historically been associated with prudence and concerns, mainly related to potential adverse consequences of drug-induced peripheral vasodilatation combined with reduced stroke volume due to the fixed LV outflow obstruction. Current evidence suggests that patients should be treated with antihypertensive drugs blocking the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, adding further drug classes when required, to achieve similar target blood pressure values as in hypertensive patients without AS. The introduction of trans-catheter aortic valve implantation has revolutionized the management of patients with AS, but requires proper blood pressure management during and following valve replacement. The purpose of this document is to review the recent evidence and provide practical expert advice on management of hypertension in patients with AS.

18.
J Hypertens ; 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371768

RESUMEN

: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hyponatremia, and many disorders have been associated with it. Baroreflex failure is a rare disorder characterized by extreme blood pressure (BP) fluctuations, most frequently caused by neck or head trauma and irradiation. We report a case of a 48-year-old patient referred to our department for asymptomatic hyponatremia and volatile hypertension. His past medical history included nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with surgery and bilateral neck radiation. Following the diagnostic algorithm for hyponatremia, the diagnosis of SIADH was made. Ambulatory BP monitoring revealed highly variable BP; extensive autonomic nervous system function testing suggested baroreflex-cardiovagal failure. We propose the hypothesis that not only labile hypertension because of baroreflex failure but also hyponatremia can develop as a late consequence of neck trauma and irradiation.

19.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384746

RESUMEN

Adenosine is a nucleoside that impacts the cardiovascular system via the activation of its membrane receptors, named A1R, A2AR, A2BR and A3R. Adenosine is released during hypoxia, ischemia, beta-adrenergic stimulation or inflammation and impacts heart rhythm and produces strong vasodilation in the systemic, coronary or pulmonary vascular system. This review summarizes the main role of adenosine on the cardiovascular system in several diseases and conditions. Adenosine release participates directly in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation and neurohumoral syncope. Adenosine has a key role in the adaptive response in pulmonary hypertension and heart failure, with the most relevant effects being slowing of heart rhythm, coronary vasodilation and decreasing blood pressure. In other conditions, such as altitude or apnea-induced hypoxia, obstructive sleep apnea, or systemic hypertension, the adenosinergic system activation appears in a context of an adaptive response. Due to its short half-life, adenosine allows very rapid adaptation of the cardiovascular system. Finally, the effects of adenosine on the cardiovascular system are sometimes beneficial and other times harmful. Future research should aim to develop modulating agents of adenosine receptors to slow down or conversely amplify the adenosinergic response according to the occurrence of different pathologic conditions.

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