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5.
Biol Reprod ; 102(3): 588-597, 2020 03 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621831

RESUMEN

The Sertoli cell (Sc) has been described as a quiescent cell once the animal has reached sexual maturity. Syrian hamster is an animal that displays testicular regression due to short photoperiod, during which process germ cells and Sc are removed through apoptosis. The aim of this work was to investigate histochemically whether the spontaneous testicular recrudescence processes after exposure to a short photoperiod lead to an increase in Sc proliferative activity in order to restore the normal population. Three spontaneous recrudescence groups were established: initial (IR), advanced (AR), and total (TR) recrudescence, which were compared with animal undergoing the regression process (mild: MRg, strong: SRg, and total: TRg) and animals in long photoperiod (Controls). Histological sections were submitted to histochemical techniques for detecting apoptotic and proliferative Sc with bright-field and fluorescence microscopy. For each group, the proliferative Sc index (PScI) and apoptotic Sc index (AScI), and the total number of Sc were obtained. The results revealed the existence of Vimentin+/TUNEL+ as well as Vimentin+/PCNA+ cells. The PScI was significantly higher in TRg and IR than in the other groups. The AScI was only significantly higher in MRg and SRg with respect to the other groups. The total number of Sc increased among TRg, IR, and AR, reaching values similar to those of the Controls. In conclusion, the increase in Sc proliferation from final regression and recrudescence, accompanied by a similar rate of apoptosis to the Control group, is the cause of the restoration of the Sc population during spontaneous recrudescence.

7.
Cuad Bioet ; 30(99): 149-156, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206295

RESUMEN

First, the mutual interiority that exists in every human action between its ethical and technical dimension is analyzed, more specifically in relation to health practice. It is established that by means of technical or ethical habits, or applying certain deliberative guidelines, alone it is not possible to discern between the goodness or not of a certain action. For this to be possible, it is necessary to adopt a personal perspective, both as regards oneself and when judging the actions of others. Secondly, then, the virtue of prudence is essential to choose the most best path in a specific context. This ethical habit is greatly influenced by the overall ethical character of the person and by their deliberative capacity and knowledge of ethical principles. With regard to the second, it is necessary to follow the usual ways by which the person makes decisions and considers a certain action as good or bad. Therefore, it cannot be pretend using technical decision-making methods health professionals will deliberate and make ethical decisions. In conclusion, it is necessary that the prudence of professionals be based both on the personal ethical character and on an analysis of ethical cases in consonance with the natural way in which human reason acts.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Toma de Decisiones/ética , Humanos , Virtudes
8.
Cuad Bioet ; 30(98): 11-17, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742449
9.
Andrologia ; 51(1): e13148, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246471

RESUMEN

Lectin histochemistry was used to characterise glycoconjugates and cellular apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium and interstitium of hamster testis during spontaneous recrudescence. An increase in the LTA lectin affinity was observed in spermatids in the Golgi phase. An increase in labelling of PNA and Con-A lectin in acrosome of spermatids (acrosome phase) as well as increased labelling with Con-A in spermatids (cap phase) was observed. Spermatocytes showed decreased affinity with PNA and AAA lectins and an increase in positivity for LTA and GNA lectins. Spermatogonia showed a slight decrease in positivity to WGA and an increase in labelling with Con-A and a decreased affinity for the AAA lectin. At the end of recrudescence, all these germinal cells showed a similar pattern to the control. The Sertoli cells showed a gradual decrease in labelling with the GNA lectin and the Leydig cells an increase in labelling with Con-A and GNA. Particularly unusual was the observation of apoptotic spermatocytes and spermatids positive for PNA, GNA, AAA and Con-A, together with spermatocytes positive to LTA. In conclusion, the normal lectin pattern is recovered during testis recrudescence and germ cell apoptotic activity is low, as is observed by specific lectins for germ cells in apoptosis.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/fisiología , Glicoconjugados/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Fotoperiodo , Testículo/metabolismo , Acrosoma/metabolismo , Animales , Cricetinae , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Recurrencia , Epitelio Seminífero/metabolismo , Espermátides/metabolismo
10.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 53(5): 1041-1051, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782059

RESUMEN

Syrian hamsters are photoperiodic rodents in which reproduction, including testicular function, is stimulated by long photoperiod exposure and curtailed by exposure to a short photoperiod. The objectives of this study were to characterize the testis histomorphometrically and to determine the role of the proliferation and apoptosis phenomena in the recovery of the seminiferous epithelium during spontaneous recrudescence after exposure to short photoperiod. The study was performed using conventional light microscopy, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling staining, image analysis software, and transmission electron microscopy in three recrudescence groups: initial recrudescence (IR), advanced recrudescence (AR) and total recrudescence (TR). The results morphometrically pointed to the gradual recovery of the testicular and tubular volumes, as well as of the seminiferous epithelium. Among the IR and AR groups, the increase in testicular and tubular volumes was accompanied by an increase in tubular diameter and length, with an increase in interstitial volume. From AR to TR, there was an increase in the tubular and total volumes, but, in this case, with a gradual increase in tubular diameter. Recovery of the seminiferous epithelium was accompanied by changes in apoptosis and proliferation activities. The first decreased halfway through the process, and the second remained higher than the control levels throughout the recrudescence stage. Alterations in the spermatozoa were ultrastructurally observed, which indicated that spermiogenesis was not yet completely normal. In conclusion, spontaneous testicular recrudescence in Syrian hamster comprises two histomorphometrical phases: the first related to an increase in tubular length and diameter and interstitial volume and the second depending principally on the gradual increase in tubular diameter. The restoration of the seminiferous epithelium is due to apoptosis reaching normal values in the AR group accompanied by higher proliferative activity than that observed in the Control group.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/fisiología , Mesocricetus/fisiología , Fotoperiodo , Epitelio Seminífero/anatomía & histología , Espermatogénesis/fisiología , Animales , Etiquetado Corte-Fin in Situ , Masculino , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula en Proliferación/análisis , Recurrencia , Espermatozoides/ultraestructura
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1748: 49-60, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453564

RESUMEN

Sertoli cells, the testicular somatic cells of the seminiferous epithelium, are vital for the survival of the epithelium. They undergo proliferation and apoptosis during fetal, neonatal, and prepubertal development. Apoptosis is increased in certain situations such as exposure to many substances, for example, toxics, or short photoperiod in the non-breeding season of some mammals. Therefore, it has always been considered that Sertoli cells that reach adulthood are quiescent cells, that is to say, nonproliferative, do not die, are terminally differentiated, and whose numbers remain constant. Recently, a degree of both proliferation and apoptosis has been observed in normal adult conditions, suggesting that consideration of this cell as quiescent may be subject to change. All this make it necessary to use histochemical techniques to demonstrate whether Sertoli cells are undergoing proliferation or apoptosis in histological sections and to allow the qualitative and quantitative study of these. In this chapter, we present two double-staining techniques that can be used for identifying Sertoli cells in proliferation or apoptosis by fluorescence microscopy. In both, the Sertoli cells are identified by an immunohistochemistry for vimentin followed by an immunohistochemistry for PCNA or a TUNEL histochemistry.


Asunto(s)
Microscopía Confocal/métodos , Microscopía Fluorescente/métodos , Células de Sertoli/citología , Células de Sertoli/patología , Animales , Apoptosis , Diferenciación Celular , Proliferación Celular , Masculino , Mesocricetus
14.
Cuad. bioét ; 28(92): 111-124, ene.-abr. 2017. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-161264

RESUMEN

En este artículo se realiza un estudio del uso del término "preembrión" desde su origen en junio del año 1979 hasta el final del año 2014 tanto en la literatura científica como la bioética. Se compara su evolución en el tiempo con otros términos usados corrientemente en la embriología. Así mismo, se estudia cuáles son las revistas en las que más aparece este término, su índice de impacto dentro de las revistas de su ámbito y cuáles son los autores que más lo emplean. El término "preembrión" surge en la literatura científica en 1979, permaneciendo durante unos 6 años sin volver a aparecer en la bibliografía científica. Después, tras un aumento de artículos que abarca la década de los años 90 empieza a decrecer su uso sin haber llegado a desaparecer del todo. Este estudio pone además en evidencia que el uso de la palabra "preembrión" no se ha incrementado con el paso del tiempo; al contrario, cada vez es menos utilizada en la literatura biomédica. Esto no sucede con otros términos que denominan al embrión antes de la implantación, que no han cesado de aumentar durante estos años, tanto referido a la especie humana y a otras especies animales. Así mismo, esta palabra tiene un uso hipertrofiado en seres humanos sin un motivo aparente, lo cual avalaría el carácter artificial de este término. Por último, el término «preembrión» aparece muy poco en revistas del área de biología de la reproducción pero sí lo hace en las de obstetricia y ginecología, donde se publican muchos artículos sobre reproducción asistida. En conclusión, en vez de sustituir a clásicos términos embriológicos, la palabra "preembriór" parece no afectar el uso de ellos y en las discusiones actuales sobre la condición humana del embrión ya no es utilizado este término


In this article, we present a review about the use of the term "preembryo" in the scientific literature as well as Bioethics from its origin, back in June 1979, to the end of the year 2014. We analyze their evolution along the time comparing with other terms commonly used in embryology. Also, we show the relevant journals in which this term appears, (offering the impact index within their specific field), and the authors who use it the most. The term «preembryo» arose in the scientific literature in 1979, remaining for about 6 years without reappearing in the scientific literature. Then, after an increase of articles, that covers the 90’s decade, began to decrease its use without having disappeared altogether. Our study also shows that the use of the word preembryo» has not increased with the passage of time; on the contrary, it is becoming less used in the biomedical literature. This does not occur with other terms that name the embryo before implantation, which have not ceased to increase during these years, both referring to the human species and other animal species. Finally, the term "pre-embryo" appears very little in journals related to the reproduction biology area, but it does so in obstetrics and gynecology, where many articles on assisted reproduction are published. Our findings suggest that, instead of replacing classical embryological terms, the word "preembryo" does not seem to affect the use of them. Likewise, this word has a hypertrophied use in humans without an apparent reason, which would support the artificial nature of this term. Finally, the term "pre-embryo" appears very little in journals of reproduction biology area, but it does so in obstetrics and gynecology, where many articles on assisted reproduction are published. In conclusion, instead of substituting classical embryological terms, the word "pre-embryo" does not seem to affect the use of them and in the current discussions about the human condition of the embryo this term is no longer used


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Blastocisto , Terminología como Asunto , Cigoto , Embriología/ética , Bioética , Investigaciones con Embriones/ética , Análisis Estadístico
15.
Cuad Bioet ; 28(92): 111-124, 2017.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342438

RESUMEN

In this article, we present a review about the use of the term ″preembryo″ in the scientific literature as well as Bioethics from its origin, back in June 1979, to the end of the year 2014. We analyze their evolution along the time comparing with other terms commonly used in embryology. Also, we show the relevant journals in which this term appears, (offering the impact index within their specific field), and the authors who use it the most. The term ″preembryo″ arose in the scientific literature in 1979, remaining for about 6 years without reappearing in the scientific literature. Then, after an increase of articles, that covers the 90's decade, began to decrease its use without having disappeared altogether. Our study also shows that the use of the word ″preembryo″ has not increased with the passage of time; on the contrary, it is becoming less used in the biomedical literature. This does not occur with other terms that name the embryo before implantation, which have not ceased to increase during these years, both referring to the human species and other animal species. Finally, the term ″pre-embryo″ appears very little in journals related to the reproduction biology area, but it does so in obstetrics and gynecology, where many articles on assisted reproduction are published. Our findings suggest that, instead of replacing classical embryological terms, the word ″preembryo″ does not seem to affect the use of them. Likewise, this word has a hypertrophied use in humans without an apparent reason, which would support the artificial nature of this term. Finally, the term ″pre-embryo″ appears very little in journals of reproduction biology area, but it does so in obstetrics and gynecology, where many articles on assisted reproduction are published. In conclusion, instead of substituting classical embryological terms, the word ″pre-embryo″ does not seem to affect the use of them and in the current discussions about the human condition of the embryo this term is no longer used.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Embriología/ética , Terminología como Asunto , Implantación del Embrión , Femenino , Ginecología , Humanos , Obstetricia , Embarazo , Reproducción
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1560: 133-144, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155150

RESUMEN

Lectin histochemistry is commonly used to characterize the pattern of glycoconjugates in cells and tissues. Recent studies show that alterations in these glycoconjugates are associated with the entry of cells into apoptosis. A widely used technique for the detection of apoptotic cell death is TUNEL. In this chapter, we study the sensitivity of both techniques to identify apoptotic cells in the testis of photo-inhibited Syrian hamster.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Epitelio Seminífero/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores , Cricetinae , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Glicoconjugados , Etiquetado Corte-Fin in Situ/métodos , Masculino , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Testículo/citología , Testículo/metabolismo
19.
Cuad Bioet ; 27(90): 249-54, 2016.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27637198

RESUMEN

The informed consent (IC) is a process based on dialogue between the professional and the patient in which he freely decides on possible interventions in their health. This is applicable to caesarean delivery and if it meets a number of conditions will help to improve the process of ″humanization″ of birth. The overall objective of this study is to analyze preliminarily in several hospitals in the Region of Murcia the IC in caesarean delivery. To this end, we have revised the documents of IC and we studied who, where, when and how the IC process is done. The results show that all hospitals are based on the same document, and although the documents take into account all the elements of a IC, do not indicate the date of their design or subsequent revisions. It does not contemplate the risks and complications that caesarean section can have on the newborn, mother, and mother-child relationship later. It is noted that the document of IC normally is delivers by gynecologist in the consultation, when intervention is programmed, although it are sometimes nurses, who after admission to the hospital give it to sign the patient. In urgent caesarean sections, there are some hospitals that in life-threatening situation, do not offer the document of IC to women. In others, it is offered hastily by the gynecologist or midwife. In conclusion, the IC is a process which used correctly, favors the relationship between women and health professionals in the intervention of cesarean section. Although this process and the documents of IC examined in our study, have presented many positive aspects, the humanization of caesarean could be increased improving with the preparation and updating of these documents and coordinating the various professionals.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea/ética , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Formularios de Consentimiento/ética , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente/ética , España
20.
Cuad. bioét ; 27(90): 249-254, mayo-ago. 2016.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-155657

RESUMEN

El consentimiento informado (CI) es un proceso basado en el diálogo entre el profesional y el paciente en el que éste decide libremente sobre las posibles intervenciones en su salud. Éste es aplicable al nacimiento por cesárea y siempre que cumpla una serie de condiciones ayudará a la mejora del proceso de 'humanización' del nacimiento. El objetivo general de este estudio es analizar de forma preliminar el CI de las cesáreas en varios hospitales de la Región de Murcia. Para ello hemos revisado los documentos de CI y hemos analizado quién, dónde, cuándo y cómo se realiza el proceso del CI. Los resultados muestran que todos los hospitales parten de un mismo documento y, aunque los documentos tienen en cuenta todos los elementos de un CI, no indican la fecha de su diseño ni las revisiones posteriores. Tampoco contemplan los riesgos y complicaciones que la cesárea puede tener en el recién nacido, la madre y la posterior relación madre-hijo. Se observa que el documento de CI normalmente lo ofrece el ginecólogo en la consulta, cuando la intervención es programada, aunque en ocasiones es el personal de enfermería quien después del ingreso en el hospital se lo da a firmar a la paciente. En cesáreas urgentes hay algunos hospitales que se acogen a la situación de riesgo vital y no ofrecen el CI a la mujer. En otros se ofrece haciéndolo el ginecólogo o la matrona de forma apresurada. En conclusión, el CI es un proceso que empleado de forma correcta favorece la relación entre la mujer y los profesionales sanitarios en la intervención de la cesárea. Aunque este proceso y los documentos utilizados en él, presentan en nuestro estudio, muchos aspectos positivos, la humanización de la cesárea podría incrementarse mejorando tanto la confección y actualización de estos documentos como coordinando a los diversos profesionales que participan en este proceso de CI


The informed consent (IC) is a process based on dialogue between the professional and the patient in which he freely decides on possible interventions in their health. This is applicable to caesarean delivery and if it meets a number of conditions will help to improve the process of 'humanization' of birth. The overall objective of this study is to analyze preliminarily in several hospitals in the Region of Murcia the IC in caesarean delivery. To this end, we have revised the documents of IC and we studied who, where, when and how the IC process is done. The results show that all hospitals are based on the same document, and although the documents take into account all the elements of a IC, do not indicate the date of their design or subsequent revisions. It does not contemplate the risks and complications that caesarean section can have on the newborn, mother, and mother-child relationship later. It is noted that the document of IC normally is delivers by gynecologist in the consultation, when intervention is programmed, although it are sometimes nurses, who after admission to the hospital give it to sign the patient. In urgent caesarean sections, there are some hospitals that in life-threatening situation, do not offer the document of IC to women. In others, it is offered hastily by the gynecologist or midwife. In conclusion, the IC is a process which used correctly, favors the relationship between women and health professionals in the intervention of cesarean section. Although this process and the documents of IC examined in our study, have presented many positive aspects, the humanization of caesarean could be increased improving with the preparation and updating of these documents and coordinating the various professionals


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Cesárea/ética , Parto Humanizado , Humanización de la Atención , Formularios de Consentimiento/ética
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