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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-23, 2020 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423515

RESUMEN

N95 respirators are the personal protective equipment most often used to control exposures to infections transmitted via the airborne route. Supplies of N95 respirators can become depleted during pandemics or when otherwise in high demand. In this paper, we offer strategies for optimizing supplies of N95 respirators in healthcare settings while maximizing the level of protection offered to healthcare personnel when there is limited supply in the United States during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The strategies are intended for use by professionals who manage respiratory protection programs, occupational health services, and infection prevention programs in healthcare facilities to protect healthcare personnel from job-related risks of exposure to infectious respiratory illnesses. Consultation with federal, state, and local public health officials is also important. We use the framework of surge capacity and the occupational health and safety hierarchy of controls approach to discuss specific engineering control, administrative control, and personal protective equipment measures that may help in optimizing N95 respirator supplies.

2.
Health Secur ; 18(2): 69-74, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196387

RESUMEN

During a severe pandemic, especially one causing respiratory illness, many people may require mechanical ventilation. Depending on the extent of the outbreak, there may be insufficient capacity to provide ventilator support to all of those in need. As part of a larger conceptual framework for determining need for and allocation of ventilators during a public health emergency, this article focuses on the strategies to assist state and local planners to allocate stockpiled ventilators to healthcare facilities during a pandemic, accounting for critical factors in facilities' ability to make use of additional ventilators. These strategies include actions both in the pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic stages. As a part of pandemic preparedness, public health officials should identify and query healthcare facilities in their jurisdiction that currently care for critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation to determine existing inventory of these devices and facilities' ability to absorb additional ventilators. Facilities must have sufficient staff, space, equipment, and supplies to utilize allocated ventilators adequately. At the time of an event, jurisdictions will need to verify and update information on facilities' capacity prior to making allocation decisions. Allocation of scarce life-saving resources during a pandemic should consider ethical principles to inform state and local plans for allocation of ventilators. In addition to ethical principles, decisions should be informed by assessment of need, determination of facilities' ability to use additional ventilators, and facilities' capacity to ensure access to ventilators for vulnerable populations (eg, rural, inner city, and uninsured and underinsured individuals) or high-risk populations that may be more susceptible to illness.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres , Urgencias Médicas , Pandemias , Asignación de Recursos , Ventiladores Mecánicos/provisión & distribución , Toma de Decisiones , Brotes de Enfermedades , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(6): 5121-5139, 2020 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191628

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease, often resulting in death or permanent neurological deficits. EMMPRIN/CD147 is a plasma membrane protein that induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which contribute to secondary damage after stroke by disrupting the blood brain barrier (BBB) and facilitating peripheral leukocyte infiltration into the brain. RESULTS: CD147 surface expression increased significantly after stroke on infiltrating leukocytes, astrocytes and endothelial cells, but not on resident microglia. Inhibition of CD147 reduced MMP levels, decreased ischemic damage, and improved functional, cognitive and histological outcomes after experimental ischemic stroke in both young and aged mice. In stroke patients, high levels of serum CD147 24 hours after stroke predicted poor functional outcome at 12 months. Brain CD147 levels were correlated with MMP-9 and secondary hemorrhage in post-mortem samples from stroke patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute inhibition of CD147 decreases levels of MMP-9, limits tissue loss, and improves long-term cognitive outcomes following experimental stroke in aged mice. High serum CD147 correlates with poor outcomes in stroke patients. This study identifies CD147 as a novel, clinically relevant target in ischemic stroke.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195896

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe the pharmaceutical management of sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade medications administered to children in ICUs. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis using data extracted from the national database Health Facts. SETTING: One hundred sixty-one ICUs in the United States with pediatric admissions. PATIENTS: Children in ICUs receiving medications from 2009 to 2016. EXPOSURE/INTERVENTION: Frequency and duration of administration of sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade medications. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 66,443 patients with a median age of 1.3 years (interquartile range, 0-14.5), 63.3% (n = 42,070) received nonopioid analgesic, opioid analgesic, sedative, and/or neuromuscular blockade medications consisting of 83 different agents. Opioid and nonopioid analgesics were dispensed to 58.4% (n = 38,776), of which nonopioid analgesics were prescribed to 67.4% (n = 26,149). Median duration of opioid analgesic administration was 32 hours (interquartile range, 7-92). Sedatives were dispensed to 39.8% (n = 26,441) for a median duration of 23 hours (interquartile range, 3-84), of which benzodiazepines were most common (73.4%; n = 19,426). Neuromuscular-blocking agents were dispensed to 17.3% (n = 11,517) for a median duration of 2 hours (interquartile range, 1-15). Younger age was associated with longer durations in all medication classes. A greater proportion of operative patients received these medication classes for a longer duration than nonoperative patients. A greater proportion of patients with musculoskeletal and hematologic/oncologic diseases received these medication classes. CONCLUSIONS: Analgesic, sedative, and neuromuscular-blocking medications were prescribed to 63.3% of children in ICUs. The durations of opioid analgesic and sedative medication administration found in this study can be associated with known complications, including tolerance and withdrawal. Several medications dispensed to pediatric patients in this analysis are in conflict with Food and Drug Administration warnings, suggesting that there is potential risk in current sedation and analgesia practice that could be reduced with practice changes to improve efficacy and minimize risks.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5): 140-146, 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027631

RESUMEN

On December 31, 2019, Chinese health officials reported a cluster of cases of acute respiratory illness in persons associated with the Hunan seafood and animal market in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, in central China. On January 7, 2020, Chinese health officials confirmed that a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was associated with this initial cluster (1). As of February 4, 2020, a total of 20,471 confirmed cases, including 2,788 (13.6%) with severe illness,* and 425 deaths (2.1%) had been reported by the National Health Commission of China (2). Cases have also been reported in 26 locations outside of mainland China, including documentation of some person-to-person transmission and one death (2). As of February 4, 11 cases had been reported in the United States. On January 30, the World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General declared that the 2019-nCoV outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.† On January 31, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary declared a U.S. public health emergency to respond to 2019-nCoV.§ Also on January 31, the president of the United States signed a "Proclamation on Suspension of Entry as Immigrants and Nonimmigrants of Persons who Pose a Risk of Transmitting 2019 Novel Coronavirus," which limits entry into the United States of persons who traveled to mainland China to U.S. citizens and lawful permanent residents and their families (3). CDC, multiple other federal agencies, state and local health departments, and other partners are implementing aggressive measures to slow transmission of 2019-nCoV in the United States (4,5). These measures require the identification of cases and their contacts in the United States and the appropriate assessment and care of travelers arriving from mainland China to the United States. These measures are being implemented in anticipation of additional 2019-nCoV cases in the United States. Although these measures might not prevent the eventual establishment of ongoing, widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare health care systems and the general public to be ready if widespread transmission with substantial associated illness occurs; and 3) better characterize 2019-nCoV infection to guide public health recommendations and the development of medical countermeasures including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely. As more is learned about this novel virus and this outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action by CDC and state and local health departments.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Adulto , Anciano , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Laboratorios , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Práctica de Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Educ Prim Care ; : 1-8, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106783

RESUMEN

Introduction: Previous research has highlighted the benefits of receiving care in a postgraduate GP training practice including improved patient satisfaction, more appropriate secondary care usage, cancer diagnosis, and antibiotic prescribing. Whilst the influence of being registered in a postgraduate GP training practice on patient outcomes is modest relative to other factors such as deprivation, disease burden, demography, and ethnicity, the reasons for this benefit is not clear.Aim: This study explores how GP trainers perceive engagement with clinical education influences patient care.Methods: Socio-cultural theories were used as a framework for guiding the research. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 GP educators. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis involved thematic analysis.Results: GP educators identified four overarching themes that, for them, seemed to explain how clinical education mediates its influence on patient care. These included: influencing through (i) educational leadership; (ii) learners; (iii) the educational process; and (iv) educational standards.Discussion: Findings suggest that GP trainees have a significant effect on the learning environment, professional development of GP trainers, and patient care. The nature of the relationship between GP trainers and trainees appears far more bilateral than acknowledged in the apprenticeship model.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 382(10): 929-936, 2020 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004427

RESUMEN

An outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. We report the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the patient's initial mild symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia on day 9 of illness. This case highlights the importance of close coordination between clinicians and public health authorities at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as the need for rapid dissemination of clinical information related to the care of patients with this emerging infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis Químico de la Sangre , China , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Radiografía Torácica , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Viaje , Estados Unidos
8.
Age Ageing ; 49(2): 277-282, 2020 02 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: we project incidence and prevalence of stroke in the UK and associated costs to society to 2035. We include future costs of health care, social care, unpaid care and lost productivity, drawing on recent estimates that there are almost 1 million people living with stroke and the current cost of their care is £26 billion. METHODS: we developed a model to produce projections, building on earlier work to estimate the costs of stroke care by age, gender and other characteristics. Our cell-based simulation model uses the 2014-based Office for National Statistics population projections; future trends in incidence and prevalence rates of stroke derived from an expert consultation exercise; and data from the Office for Budget Responsibility on expected future changes in productivity and average earnings. RESULTS: between 2015 and 2035, the number of strokes in the UK per year is projected to increase by 60% and the number of stroke survivors is projected to more than double. Under current patterns of care, the societal cost is projected to almost treble in constant prices over the period. The greatest increase is projected to be in social care costs-both public and private-which we anticipate will rise by as much as 250% between 2015 and 2035. CONCLUSION: the costs of stroke care in the UK are expected to rise rapidly over the next two decades unless measures to prevent strokes and to reduce the disabling effects of strokes can be successfully developed and implemented.

9.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(3): 334-342, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629813

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intensive combinations of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDS) achieve similar clinical benefits more cheaply than high-cost biologics such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) whose illness has failed to respond to methotrexate and another DMARD. METHODS: We used within-trial cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses from health and social care and 2 societal perspectives. Participants were recruited into an open-label, 12-month, pragmatic, randomized, multicenter, 2-arm, noninferiority trial in 24 rheumatology clinics in England and Wales. Costs were linked with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ; primary outcome) and quality-adjusted life years derived from 2 measures (Short-Form 36 health survey and EuroQol 5-domain 3-level instrument). RESULTS: In total, 205 participants were recruited, 104 in the csDMARD arm and 101 in the TNFi arm. Participants in the csDMARD arm with poor response at 6 months were offered TNFi; 46 participants (44%) switched. Relevant cost and outcome data were available for 93% of participants at 6-month follow-up and for 91-92% of participants at 12-month follow-up. The csDMARD arm had significantly lower total costs from all perspectives (6-month health and social care adjusted mean difference -£3,615 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -4,104, -3,182]; 12-month health and social care adjusted mean difference -£1,930 [95% CI -2,599, -1,301]). The HAQ score showed benefit to the csDMARD arm at 12 months (-0.16 [95% CI -0.32, -0.01]); other outcomes/follow-ups showed no differences. CONCLUSION: Starting treatment with csDMARDs, rather than TNFi, achieves similar outcomes at significantly lower costs. Patients with active RA and who meet the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria for expensive biologics can be treated with combinations of intensive csDMARDs in a cost-effective manner.

10.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(1): 80-85, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722757

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Presenteeism, or working while ill, by healthcare personnel (HCP) experiencing influenza-like illness (ILI) puts patients and coworkers at risk. However, hospital policies and practices may not consistently facilitate HCP staying home when ill. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods survey in March 2018 of Emerging Infections Network infectious diseases physicians, describing institutional experiences with and policies for HCP working with ILI. RESULTS: Of 715 physicians, 367 (51%) responded. Of 367, 135 (37%) were unaware of institutional policies. Of the remaining 232 respondents, 206 (89%) reported institutional policies regarding work restrictions for HCP with influenza or ILI, but only 145 (63%) said these were communicated at least annually. More than half of respondents (124, 53%) reported that adherence to work restrictions was not monitored or enforced. Work restrictions were most often not perceived to be enforced for physicians-in-training and attending physicians. Nearly all (223, 96%) reported that their facility tracked laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI) in patients; 85 (37%) reported tracking ILI. For employees, 109 (47%) reported tracking of LCI and 53 (23%) reported tracking ILI. For independent physicians, not employed by the facility, 30 (13%) reported tracking LCI and 11 (5%) ILI. CONCLUSION: More than one-third of respondents were unaware of whether their institutions had policies to prevent HCP with ILI from working; among those with knowledge of institutional policies, dissemination, monitoring, and enforcement of these policies was highly variable. Improving communication about work-restriction policies, as well as monitoring and enforcement, may help prevent the spread of infections from HCP to patients.

11.
Age Ageing ; 49(2): 270-276, 2020 02 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: there are around 100,000 new stroke cases and over a million people living with its consequences annually in the UK. This has large impacts on health and social care, unpaid carers and lost productivity. We aimed to estimate associated costs. METHODS: we estimated 2014/2015 annual mean cost per person and aggregate UK cost of stroke for individuals aged ≥40 from a societal perspective. Health and social care costs in the first and subsequent years after stroke were estimated from discrete event simulation modelling, with probability of progression and length of receipt of different health and social care services obtained from routine registry and audit data. Unpaid care hours and lost productivity were obtained from trial data. UK unit costs were applied to estimate mean costs. Epidemiological estimates of stroke incidence and prevalence were then applied to estimate aggregate costs for the UK. RESULTS: mean cost of new-onset stroke is £45,409 (95% CI 42,054-48,763) in the first year after stroke and £24,778 (20,234-29,322) in subsequent years. Aggregate societal cost of stroke is £26 billion per year, including £8.6 billion for NHS and social care. The largest component of total cost was unpaid care (61%) and, given high survival, £20.6 billion related to ongoing care. CONCLUSION: the estimated aggregate cost of stroke substantially exceeds previous UK estimates. Since most of the cost is attributed to unpaid care, interventions aimed at rehabilitation and reducing new and recurrent stroke are likely to yield substantial benefits to carers and cost savings to society.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Asunto(s)
Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/patología , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/química , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Vitamina E/análisis , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fumar Cigarrillos , Aceite de Coco/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Limoneno/análisis , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 985-989, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671085

RESUMEN

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, state and local health departments, and other public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a national outbreak of electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of October 22, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and the U.S. Virgin Islands have reported 1,604 cases of EVALI to CDC, including 34 (2.1%) EVALI-associated deaths in 24 states. Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, this report updates data on patient characteristics and substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2) and describes characteristics of EVALI-associated deaths. The median age of EVALI patients who survived was 23 years, and the median age of EVALI patients who died was 45 years. Among 867 (54%) EVALI patients with available data on use of specific e-cigarette, or vaping, products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset, 86% reported any use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products, 64% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, and 52% reported use of both. Exclusive use of THC-containing products was reported by 34% of patients and exclusive use of nicotine-containing products by 11%, and for 2% of patients, no use of either THC- or nicotine-containing products was reported. Among 19 EVALI patients who died and for whom substance use data were available, 84% reported any use of THC-containing products, including 63% who reported exclusive use of THC-containing products; 37% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, including 16% who reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. To date, no single compound or ingredient used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products has emerged as the cause of EVALI, and there might be more than one cause. Because most patients reported using THC-containing products before symptom onset, CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC. In addition, because the specific compound or ingredient causing lung injury is not yet known, and while the investigation continues, persons should consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Dronabinol/toxicidad , Femenino , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Transplant Proc ; 51(10): 3227-3233, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732207

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease are at increased risk for psychiatric and cognitive pathologies. Despite this, there is little standardization of the psychosocial and/or psychiatric evaluation of renal transplant candidates. The purpose of this study is to report the frequency of psychiatric and cognitive pathologies and corresponding psychiatric recommendations in a sample of patients actively listed for kidney transplant. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 104 patients listed for kidney transplant who underwent semistructured psychiatric assessments as part of a novel clinical protocol. Transplant psychiatry routinely administers brief screeners of cognitive functioning and health literacy, also collected from patients' charts. RESULTS: There were a number of primary psychiatric disorders, including active substance abuse. Even using a conservative cutoff, 52.4% of patients' charts indicated evidence of cognitive impairment, and 28.9% indicated limited health literacy. In addition, there were numerous additional recommendations made within every category (educational, psychotherapeutic/psychiatric, cognitive, cessation of substance use, substance abuse treatment, and mobilizing support for transplant). With the exclusion of the recommendation for more education regarding the transplant process, most patients had at least 1 to 3 recommendations (n = 72, 69.2%). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a number of concerning psychosocial and psychiatric factors in patients who were evaluated and listed for kidney transplantation that can adversely impact transplant outcomes. The findings provide support for more in-depth and ongoing psychiatric assessments as standard clinical protocol for kidney transplant candidates.

16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 860-864, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581168

RESUMEN

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), also called vapes, e-hookas, vape pens, tank systems, mods, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), are electronic devices that produce an aerosol by heating a liquid typically containing nicotine, flavorings, and other additives; users inhale this aerosol into their lungs (1). E-cigarettes also can be used to deliver tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis (1). Use of e-cigarettes is commonly called vaping. Lung injury associated with e-cigarette use, or vaping, has recently been reported in most states (2-4). CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and others are investigating this outbreak. This report provides data on patterns of the outbreak and characteristics of patients, including sex, age, and selected substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products reported to CDC as part of this ongoing multistate investigation. As of September 24, 2019, 46 state health departments and one territorial health department had reported 805 patients with cases of lung injury associated with use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products to CDC. Sixty-nine percent of patients were males, and the median age was 23 years (range = 13-72 years). To date, 12 deaths have been confirmed in 10 states. Among 514 patients with information on substances used in e-cigarettes, or vaping products, in the 30 days preceding symptom onset, 76.9% reported using THC-containing products, and 56.8% reported using nicotine-containing products; 36.0% reported exclusive use of THC-containing products, and 16.0% reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. The specific chemical exposure(s) causing the outbreak is currently unknown. While this investigation is ongoing, CDC recommends that persons consider refraining from using e-cigarette, or vaping, products, particularly those containing THC. CDC will continue to work in collaboration with FDA and state and local partners to investigate cases and advise and alert the public on the investigation as additional information becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Dronabinol/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 919-927, 2019 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633675

RESUMEN

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical partners are investigating a multistate outbreak of lung injury associated with the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, products. In late August, CDC released recommendations for health care providers regarding e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI) based on limited data from the first reported cases (1,2). This report summarizes national surveillance data describing clinical features of more recently reported cases and interim recommendations based on these data for U.S. health care providers caring for patients with suspected or known EVALI. It provides interim guidance for 1) initial clinical evaluation; 2) suggested criteria for hospital admission and treatment; 3) patient follow-up; 4) special considerations for groups at high risk; and 5) clinical and public health recommendations. Health care providers evaluating patients suspected to have EVALI should ask about the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products in a nonjudgmental and thorough manner. Patients suspected to have EVALI should have a chest radiograph (CXR), and hospital admission is recommended for patients who have decreased blood oxygen (O2) saturation (<95%) on room air or who are in respiratory distress. Health care providers should consider empiric use of a combination of antibiotics, antivirals, or steroids based upon clinical context. Evidence-based tobacco product cessation strategies, including behavioral counseling, are recommended to help patients discontinue use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products. To reduce the risk of recurrence, patients who have been treated for EVALI should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products. CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). At present, CDC recommends persons consider refraining from using e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain nicotine. Irrespective of the ongoing investigation, e-cigarette, or vaping, products should never be used by youths, young adults, or women who are pregnant. Persons who do not currently use tobacco products should not start using e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Lesión Pulmonar/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Br J Psychiatry ; 215(6): 712-719, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk. AIMS: We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis. METHOD: This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months. RESULTS: Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol). CONCLUSIONS: Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.

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