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1.
Front Psychol ; 15: 1283980, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577121

RESUMEN

Consciousness has intrigued philosophers and scholars for millennia and has been the topic of considerable scientific investigation in recent decades. Despite its importance, there is no unifying definition of the term, nor are there widely accepted measures of consciousness. Indeed, it is likely that consciousness-by its very nature-eludes measurement. It is, however, possible to measure how consciousness manifests as a lived experience. Yet here, too, holistic measures are lacking. This investigation describes the development and validation of the Awareness Atlas, a measure of the manifestation of consciousness. The scale was informed by heart-based contemplative practices and the resulting lived experience with a focus on the impacts of manifestation of consciousness on daily life. Four hundred forty-nine individuals from the USA, Canada, India, and Europe participated in psychometric testing of the scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used for validation, demonstrating excellent validity in measuring manifestation of consciousness. The final model fit exceeded all required thresholds, indicating an excellent fitted model with a single dimensionality to measure the manifestation of consciousness comprised of four subscales: Relationship to Others; Listening to the Heart; Connection with Higher Self; and Acceptance and Letting Go. Number of years meditating and practicing Heartfulness meditation were positively related to the total and subscale scores. Test-retest reliability was excellent for the total scale, and good to excellent for the four subscales. Findings demonstrate that the Awareness Atlas is a well-constructed tool that will be useful in examining changes in manifestation of consciousness with various experiences (e.g., meditation, life-altering conditions).

2.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12559, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529216

RESUMEN

The aim of this analysis was to explore mortality outcomes for kidney transplant candidates receiving older living donor kidneys (age ≥60 years) versus younger deceased donors or remaining on dialysis. From 2000 to 2019, all patients on dialysis listed for their first kidney-alone transplant were included in a retrospective cohort analysis of UK transplant registry data. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, with survival analysis conducted by intention-to-treat principle. Time-to-death from listing was modelled using nonproportional hazard Cox regression models with transplantation handled as a time-dependent covariate. A total of 32,978 waitlisted kidney failure patients formed the primary study cohort, of whom 18,796 (58.5%) received a kidney transplant (1,557 older living donor kidneys and 18,062 standard criteria donor kidneys). Older living donor kidney transplantation constituted only 17.0% of all living donor kidney transplant activity (overall cohort; n = 9,140). Recipients of older living donor kidneys had reduced all-cause mortality compared to receiving SCD kidneys (HR 0.904, 95% CI 0.845-0.967, p = 0.003) and much lower all-cause mortality versus remaining on the waiting list (HR 0.160, 95% CI 0.149-0.172, p < 0.001). Older living kidney donors should be actively explored to expand the living donor kidney pool and are an excellent treatment option for waitlisted kidney transplant candidates.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico , Trasplante de Riñón , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Donadores Vivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Donantes de Tejidos , Riñón , Supervivencia de Injerto
3.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656231214125, 2024 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38193166

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of helmet therapy for deformational plagiocephaly in patients with shunted hydrocephalus. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Institutional, tertiary-care hospital. PATIENTS: All patients at St. Louis Children's Hospital between 2014 and 2021 with shunted hydrocephalus who underwent helmet therapy for deformational plagiocephaly. INTERVENTIONS: Helmet therapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cranial vault asymmetry (CVA), cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI), and cephalic index (CI) were measured before and after completion of helmet therapy. RESULTS: There were 37 patients with shunted hydrocephalus and documented deformational plagiocephaly. Twelve were managed with helmet therapy. Average age at helmeting initiation and time between shunt placement and helmeting initiation was 5.8 and 4.6 months, respectively. Average CVA, CVAI, and CI at helmeting initiation and termination was 11.6, 7.98, and 85.2, and 6.95, 4.49, and 83.7, respectively. Average duration of helmeting was 3.7 months. CVA and CVAI were significantly lower after helmeting (P = .0028 and .0021) and 11/12 patients had overall improvement in plagiocephaly. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet therapy appears to be a safe and efficacious management strategy for deformational plagiocephaly in patients with shunted hydrocephalus. Despite the occasional need for additional fittings and surveillance beyond the normal schedule, in all cases appropriately fitting helmets were achieved and no major adverse events occurred. This cohort represents a proof of principle for the safety and efficacy of helmet therapy in patients with shunted hydrocephalus. Further work in larger prospective cohorts is needed to confirm these initial findings.

4.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656231226070, 2024 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38196266

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether neighborhood disadvantage impacts length of follow-up, interventions, and outcomes for patients with cleft palate. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Cleft Palate Craniofacial Institute Database at St. Louis Children's Hospital. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Patients with cleft palate following in St. Louis Children's Hospital Cleft Palate Multidisciplinary Team Clinic. INTERVENTIONS: Primary palatoplasty between 2012-2017. Patients were divided into quartiles across area deprivation index (ADI) and social vulnerability index (SVI), two validated, composite metrics of neighborhood disadvantage, to examine whether living in neighborhoods from different deprivation quartiles impacts outcomes of interest. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Follow-up through age 5, surgeries and surgical complications, speech, developmental, and behavioral outcomes. RESULTS: 205 patients were included. 39% of patients belonged to the most deprived ADI quartile, while 15% belonged to the most vulnerable SVI quartile. There were no differences between ADI or SVI quartiles in number of operations received (p ≥ 0.40). Patients in the most deprived ADI quartile were significantly more likely to have speech/language concerns (OR 2.32, 95% CI [1.20-4.89], p = 0.01). Being in a more vulnerable SVI quartile was associated with developmental delay (OR 2.29, 95% CI [1.04-5.15], p = 0.04). ADI and SVI quartile did not impact risk of loss to follow-up in the isolated and combined cleft lip and palate subgroups (p ≥ 0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood disadvantage impacts speech and developmental outcomes in patients with cleft palate despite comparable length of follow-up in multidisciplinary team clinic.

5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
6.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 61(1): 61-67, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912430

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A palatal fistula is an adverse outcome of cleft palate repair. It is unknown if a palatal fistula will influence velopharyngeal closure, even after repair of the fistula. This study determines the effect of a soft palate fistula on the risk of developing velopharyngeal insufficiency. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients who underwent primary cleft palate repair between 2000 and 2015, with complete records at 4 years of age. Fistulae involving the secondary palate following primary palatoplasty were classified as the soft or hard palate. A forced-entry multivariate logistic regression model was built to detect predictors of velopharyngeal dysfunction. RESULTS: Records of 329 patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 8.7 years. A palatal fistula was identified in 89/329 patients (27%) and 29/329 patients (9%) underwent an independent fistula repair. Of the patients with fistula, 44% were located in the hard palate only and 56% had soft palate involvement. Compared to patients without a fistula, rates of velopharyngeal dysfunction were significantly higher in patients with a fistula involving the soft palate (OR 3.875, CI: 1.964-7.648, P < .001) but not in patients with a hard palate fistula (OR 1.140, CI: 0.497-2.613, P = .757). Veau class, age at primary repair, and syndromic status were not significant predictors of VPI (0.128≤P ≤ .975). CONCLUSIONS: A palatal fistula involving the soft palate is a significant predictor for development of velopharyngeal dysfunction after primary palatoplasty. Surgical intervention, at the time of fistula repair, to add vascularized tissue may be indicated to prophylactically decrease the risk of velopharyngeal dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Fisura del Paladar , Fístula , Insuficiencia Velofaríngea , Humanos , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Fístula/etiología , Paladar Duro/cirugía , Paladar Blando/cirugía , Insuficiencia Velofaríngea/etiología , Insuficiencia Velofaríngea/cirugía
7.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 61(1): 138-143, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128842

RESUMEN

To describe the process of developing a craniosynostosis decision aid.We conducted a mixed-methods exploratory study between August 2019 and March 2020 to develop a decision aid about surgical treatment for single suture craniosynostosis.A single tertiary care academic children's hospital.The decision aid development team consisted of surgeons, research fellows, a clinical nurse practitioner, clinical researchers with expertise in decision science, and a university-affiliated design school. Qualitative interviews (N = 5) were performed with families, clinicians (N = 2), and a helmeting orthotist to provide feedback on decision aid content, format, and usability.After cycles of revisions and iterations, 3 related decision aids were designed and approved by the marketing arm of our institution. Distinct booklets were created to enable focused discussion of treatment options for the 3 major types of single suture craniosynostosis (sagittal, metopic, unicoronal).Three decision aids representing the 3 most common forms of single suture craniosynostosis were developed. Clinicians found the decision aids could help facilitate discussions about families' treatment preferences, goals, and concerns.We developed a customizable decision aid for single suture craniosynostosis treatment options. This tool lays the foundation for shared decision-making by assessing family preferences and providing clear, concise, and credible information regarding surgical treatment. Future research can evaluate this tool's impact on patient-clinician discussions about families' goals and preferences for treatment.


Asunto(s)
Craneosinostosis , Niño , Humanos , Craneosinostosis/cirugía , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión
8.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 14(6): 100793, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Indian context, infertility is often a silent struggle. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in the country, the majority of couples do not share their struggles with family or friends due to social stigma, thus increasing their psychological vulnerability. Heartfulness meditation has shown to decrease stress, anxiety, loneliness and improve sleep along with quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The current retrospective series evaluated the effectiveness of Heartfulness-based integrative therapy on infertility outcomes. METHODS: The program consisted of a 5- day onsite lifestyle modification workshop and online follow up meditation sessions. RESULTS: 54 couples with infertility participated in the program with a mean age of 30.74 years (SD 5.04) for females and 34.03 years (SD 4.54) for males. 15 couples presented with male infertility, 16 couples presented with female infertility and in 5 couples both partners had infertility problems. Further, 18 couples had unexplained infertility. 24 couples conceived with 18 natural conceptions, five via assisted reproductive technology and one spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSION: The program was beneficial in the cohort who utilized it as prescribed resulting in conception of 24 out of 54 couples. Future research investigating the causal relationship of Heartfulness meditation on fertility outcomes in a randomized control study could solidify this treatment method to be used independently or as an adjuvant therapy with assisted reproductive technologies.

9.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656231207469, 2023 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844605

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of a cleft-specific multi-site learning health network registry to describe variations in cleft outcomes by cleft phenotypes, ages, and treatment centers. Observed variations were assessed for coherence with prior study findings. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of prospectively collected data from 2019-2022. SETTING: Six cleft treatment centers collected data systematically during routine clinic appointments according to a standardized protocol. PARTICIPANTS: 714 English-speaking children and adolescents with non-syndromic cleft lip/palate. INTERVENTION: Routine multidisciplinary care and systematic outcomes measurement by cleft teams. OUTCOME MEASURES: Speech outcomes included articulatory accuracy measured by Percent Consonants Correct (PCC), velopharyngeal function measured by Velopharyngeal Competence (VPC) Rating Scale (VPC-R), intelligibility measured by caregiver-reported Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS), and two CLEFT-Q™ surveys, in which patients rate their own speech function and level of speech distress. RESULTS: 12year-olds exhibited high median PCC scores (91-100%), high frequency of velopharyngeal competency (62.50-100%), and high median Speech Function (80-91) relative to younger peers parsed by phenotype. Patients with bilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate reported low PCC scores (51-91%) relative to peers at some ages and low frequency of velopharyngeal competency (26.67%) at 5 years. ICS scores ranged from 3.93-5.0 for all ages and phenotypes. Speech Function and Speech Distress were similar across phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This exploration of speech outcomes demonstrates the current ability of the cleft-specific registry to support cleft research efforts as a source of "real-world" data. Further work is focused on developing robust methodology for hypothesis-driven research and causal inference.

10.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656231205974, 2023 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37801491

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Optimal Outcomes Reporting was recently introduced to categorize outcomes after cleft palate repair. We seek to propose an expanded version of Optimal Outcomes Reporting and to determine if correlation exists between the expanded outcomes and persistence with team care follow-up through age 9. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cleft team at large pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with isolated nonsyndromic cleft palate (n = 83) born from 2001-2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients who continued to present at age 5 or greater were assessed for optimal outcomes. Optimal outcomes were: surgery - no fistula or velopharyngeal insufficiency; otolaryngology - no obstructive sleep apnea or signs of chronic middle ear disease; audiology - no hearing loss; speech-language pathology - no assessed need for speech therapy. RESULTS: Of the 83 patients identified, 41 were assessed for optimal outcomes. Optimal outcome in any discipline was not associated with follow-up through age 9 (0.112 ≤ p ≤ 0.999). For all disciplines, the group with suboptimal outcomes had a higher proportion of patients from geographic areas in the most disadvantaged quartile of social vulnerability index, with the strongest association in the group with suboptimal speech outcome (OR 6.75, 95% CI 0.841-81.1). CONCLUSIONS: Optimal outcomes and retention in team clinic were not statistically significantly associated, but clinically relevant associations were found between patients in the most disadvantaged quartile of social vulnerability and their outcomes. A patient-centered approach, including caregiver education about long-term care for patients with cleft palate, would allow for enhanced resource utilization to improve retention for patients of concern.

11.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 152(4): 842-850, 2023 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768860

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) is the incomplete separation of the nasal and oral cavities during speech sound production that can persist following primary palatoplasty. Surgical technique used in management of VPD (palatal re-repair versus pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty) is often dictated by the preoperative velar closing ratio and closure pattern. Recently, buccal flaps have increased in popularity in management of VPD. Here, the authors investigate the effectiveness of buccal myomucosal flaps in the treatment of VPD. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing secondary palatoplasty with buccal flaps at a single center between 2016 and 2021. Preoperative and postoperative speech outcomes were compared. Speech assessments included perceptual examinations, graded on a four-point scale of hypernasality, and speech videofluoroscopy, from which the velar closing ratio was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients underwent buccal myomucosal flap procedures for VPD at a median of 7.1 years after primary palatoplasty. Patients had significantly increased velar closing postoperatively (95% versus 50%; P < 0.001) and improved speech scores ( P < 0.001). Three patients (12%) had continued hypernasality postoperatively. There were no occurrences of obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of VPD with buccal myomucosal flaps leads to improved speech outcomes without the risk of obstructive sleep apnea. Traditionally, palatal re-repair techniques have been used for smaller preoperative velopharyngeal gaps; however, the addition of buccal flaps allows for anatomical velar muscle correction for patients with a larger preoperative velopharyngeal gap. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.

12.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2023 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37772883

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For patients with cleft lip/palate, adolescence is a time of maxillofacial growth and complex psychosocial stressors. The personal significance of facial differences may change, making patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) invaluable. In this study, we use several scales from CLEFT-Q™ and FACE-Q™ to explore how aesthetic outcomes differ by age and by sex among patients with unilateral cleft lip/palate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multi-center, cross-sectional study that prospectively collected CLEFT-Q™ and FACE-Q™ data across six cleft treatment centers during clinical appointments from 2019-2022. Subjects were aged 8-22y with unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate who had not undergone tertiary operative care (maxillary advancement or septorhinoplasty) at the time of survey response. Data cross-sections were prepared by age (8-10y, 11-13y, 14y+), by sex, and by age and sex together. RESULTS: Older age groups reported poorer aesthetic outcomes and worse appearance-related distress compared to younger groups. Although male and female subjects reported similar aesthetic outcomes, female subjects reported more appearance-related distress. When considered simultaneously, age and sex appear to have an intersectional impact on perceived aesthetic outcome and appearance-related distress during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory project suggests that patients with cleft lip/palate may perceive worsening of facial aesthetic throughout the course of adolescence, the exact pattern of which may be dependent on sex. Future work will evaluate this hypothesis using longitudinal cohorts. It will be important to investigate psychosocial factors that may impact these outcomes, and also to quantify the impact of tertiary operative care on these outcomes.

13.
Transpl Int ; 36: 11421, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37727380

RESUMEN

Survival outcomes for kidney transplant candidates based on expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney type is unknown. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of prospectively collected registry data of all waitlisted kidney failure patients receiving dialysis in the United Kingdom. All patients listed for their first kidney-alone transplant between 2000-2019 were included. Treatment types included; living donor; standard criteria donor (SCD); ECD60 (deceased donor aged ≥60 years); ECD50-59 (deceased donor aged 50-59 years with two from the following three; hypertension; raised creatinine and/or death from stroke) or remains on dialysis. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, with time-to-death from listing analyzed using time-dependent non-proportional Cox regression models. The study cohort comprised 47,917 waitlisted kidney failure patients, of whom 34,558 (72.1%) received kidney transplantation. ECD kidneys (n = 7,356) were stratified as ECD60 (n = 7,009) or ECD50-59 (n = 347). Compared to SCD, both ECD60 (Hazard Ratio 1.126, 95% CI 1.093-1.161) and ECD50-59 (Hazard Ratio 1.228, 95% CI 1.113-1.356) kidney recipients have higher all-cause mortality. However, compared to dialysis, both ECD60 (Hazard Ratio 0.194, 95% CI 0.187-0.201) and ECD50-59 (Hazard Ratio 0.218, 95% CI 0.197-0.241) kidney recipients have lower all-cause mortality. ECD kidneys, regardless of definition, provide equivalent and superior survival benefits in comparison to remaining waitlisted.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Renal , Datos de Salud Recolectados Rutinariamente , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Donadores Vivos , Riñón , Reino Unido
14.
J Craniofac Surg ; 34(8): 2422-2425, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37610006

RESUMEN

Although perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia (HPP) was once a disease with a universally poor prognosis, it has now become a rare but treatable condition with the advent of enzyme replacement therapy with asfotase alfa. As a result, a greater population of patients with perinatal HPP are presenting with abnormal head shape and craniosynostosis. The authors present here 3 cases of perinatal lethal HPP, 1 treated with traditional open cranial vault remodeling and 2 treated utilizing distraction osteogenesis techniques. All patients demonstrated outcomes comparable to those previously reported with traditional observation or open cranial vault repair. Thorough consideration and discussion between the surgical team and patient's family is needed to determine a treatment plan that best addresses the goals of patient and family in light of recent advances in medical treatment in this rare patient population in which surgical interventions were previously nearly impossible. This article further supports the safety and efficacy of surgical intervention and explores the utility of distraction osteogenesis to address craniosynostosis in this patient population.


Asunto(s)
Craneosinostosis , Hipofosfatasia , Osteogénesis por Distracción , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Hipofosfatasia/cirugía , Hipofosfatasia/inducido químicamente , Fosfatasa Alcalina , Craneosinostosis/cirugía , Terapia de Reemplazo Enzimático/métodos
15.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; : 10556656231190043, 2023 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37488963

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Apply thematic analysis of online discussion boards to characterize families' experiences and concerns regarding craniosynostosis diagnoses to aid physicians in tailoring care to families. DESIGN: Grounded theory-based qualitative analysis. SETTING: Discussion boards related to craniosynostosis identified via Google and Yahoo. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Posts about craniosynostosis between 2017-2022. INTERVENTIONS: Thematic analysis was performed using three rounds of coding. Post features including author type and use of technical language were examined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Overarching themes emerging from analysis of posts, with forums analyzed until sufficient thematic repetition was observed. RESULTS: 366 posts from 4 websites by 290 unique users were included. Parents of patients with craniosynostosis wrote 59% of posts while patients wrote 4%. Five selective codes were identified: 1) Building Community, 2) Diagnosis/Evaluation, 3) Treatment, 4) Outcomes, and 5) Emotional Concerns. Building Community was the most assigned code (85% of posts). 71% of parents' posts expressing emotional concerns expressed negative emotions, commonly regarding anxiety about diagnosis (71%), frustration about doctors' responses (21%), or negative reactions to online search results (17%). 88% of patients' posts expressed positive emotions, discussing positive long-term outcomes. Concerns that may guide physicians included anxiety about delayed diagnosis, difficulty distinguishing postpartum head shape changes from craniosynostosis, and difficulty finding a care team. CONCLUSIONS: Online discussion boards allow families of patients with craniosynostosis to share experiences and find community. Improving communication between surgeons, pediatricians, and families about timing of evaluation and revising online information about this condition may ameliorate some anxiety associated with this diagnosis.

16.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 32(4): 455-463, 2023 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37486865

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have compared perioperative parameters and early postoperative morphology between endoscope-assisted strip craniectomy with orthotic therapy (endoscopic repair) and cranial vault remodeling (open repair). To extend these results, the authors evaluated school-age anthropometric outcomes after these techniques across three institutions. METHODS: School-aged children (age range 4-18 years) with previously corrected isolated sagittal craniosynostosis were enrolled. Upon inclusion, 3D photographs and patient-reported outcomes were obtained, and the cephalic index and head circumference z-scores were calculated. Analyses of covariance models controlling for baseline differences and a priori covariates were performed. RESULTS: Eighty-one participants (median [range] age 7 [4-15] years) were included. The mean (95% CI) school-age cephalic index was significantly higher in the endoscopic cohort, though within the normal range for both groups (endoscopic 78% [77%-79%] vs open 76% [74%-77%], p = 0.027). The mean change in the cephalic index from preoperation to school age was significantly greater in the endoscopic group (9% [7%-11%] vs open 3% [1%-5%], p < 0.001). Compared to preoperative measurements, mean school-age head circumference z-scores decreased significantly more in the open cohort (-1.6 [-2.2 to -1.0] vs endoscopic -0.3 [-0.8 to -0.2], p = 0.002). Patient-reported levels of stigma were within the normal limits for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic and open repair techniques effectively normalize school-age anthropometric outcomes. However, endoscopic repair produces a clinically meaningful and significantly greater improvement in the school-age cephalic index, with maintenance of head growth. These findings demonstrate the importance of early referral by pediatricians and inform treatment decisions.


Asunto(s)
Craneosinostosis , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Adolescente , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estudios Retrospectivos , Craneosinostosis/cirugía , Cráneo/cirugía , Craneotomía/métodos , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente
17.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 32(3): 277-284, 2023 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37347639

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: A literature gap exists comparing whole head shape outcome following correction of sagittal craniosynostosis. The objective of this multicenter study was to provide an analysis of long-term results following three different endoscopic strip craniectomy techniques for correction of sagittal craniosynostosis: 1) spring-assisted strip craniectomy, 2) wide-strip craniectomy with biparietal and bitemporal barrel-stave wedge osteotomies plus helmet orthosis, and 3) narrow-strip craniectomy plus orthosis without barrel staves. METHODS: Pre- and postoperative 3D stereophotogrammetric images were collected from patients who underwent craniosynostosis surgery. Procedures were divided among institutions as follows: spring-assisted strip craniectomies were performed at Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist Hospital; narrow-strip craniectomies were performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital by one craniofacial surgeon; and wide-vertex craniectomies were performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital prior to 2010, and then continued at Children's Medical Center Dallas. Pre- and postoperative 3D whole-head composite images were generated for each procedure to visually represent outcomes at final follow-up and compared with age-matched normal controls. RESULTS: Patients in the spring-assisted strip craniectomy group showed normalization of frontal bossing and skull height compared with age-matched controls, whereas patients undergoing wide-strip craniectomy showed greater correction of occipital protrusion. Patients in the narrow-strip craniectomy cohort had intermediate results between these outcomes. Nested aggregate head shapes showed good correction of head shapes from all techniques. CONCLUSIONS: This large, retrospective, multicenter study illustrated whole head shape outcomes from three different craniectomy procedures. Although each procedure showed some differences in loci of primary correction, all three surgical methods demonstrated good correction of primary scaphocephalic deformity.


Asunto(s)
Craneosinostosis , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Craneosinostosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Craneosinostosis/cirugía , Craneotomía/métodos , Osteotomía/métodos
18.
Cureus ; 15(4): e37800, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37214059

RESUMEN

Introduction Bloodstream infection (BSI) and subsequent sepsis are life-threatening medical conditions. The onset of antimicrobial resistance and subsequent multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) significantly increase healthcare-associated expenditure with adverse clinical outcomes. The present study was undertaken to identify the trends of BSI in community settings in secondary care hospitals (smaller private hospitals and district hospitals) in the state of Madhya Pradesh in Central India with the support of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and National Health Mission, Madhya Pradesh. Methodology The present study was a prospective, longitudinal observational chart review type of study. The study was carried out at 10 secondary care hospitals (eight smaller private hospitals and two government district hospitals) nominated by the State Government as part of the ICMR Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance and Research Network (AMRSN). The hospitals were nominated depending on the availability of a microbiology laboratory and a full-time microbiologist. Result A total of 6202 blood samples were received from patients with suspected BSI, out of which 693 samples were positive for aerobic culture. Among these, 621 (89.6%) showed bacterial growth and 72 (10.3%) grew Candida species (spp). Out of the 621 bacterial growth samples, Gram-negative bacteria were 406 (65.3%) and Gram-positive bacteria were 215 (34.6%). Among the Gram-negative isolates (406), the predominant isolate was Escherichia coli (115; 28.3%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (109; 26.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (61; 15%), Salmonella spp. (52; 12.8%), Acinetobacter spp. (47; 11.6%) and the other Enterobacter spp. (22; 5.4%). Among the Gram-positive isolates (215), the predominant isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (178; 82.8%) followed by Enterococcus spp. (37; 17.2%). Among the Escherichia coli, third-generation cephalosporin resistance was identified in 77.6%, piperacillin-tazobactam resistance in 45.2%, carbapenem resistance in 23.5% and colistin resistance in 16.5% of cases. Among the Klebsiella pneumoniae, third-generation cephalosporin resistance was identified in 80.7%, piperacillin-tazobactam resistance in 72.8%, carbapenem resistance in 63.3% and colistin resistance in 14% of cases. Among the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftazidime resistance was identified in 61.2%, piperacillin-tazobactam resistance in 55%, carbapenem resistance in 32.8%, and colistin resistance in 38.3% of cases. Among the Acinetobacter spp., piperacillin-tazobactam resistance was identified in 72.7%, carbapenem resistance in 72.3%, and colistin resistance in 9.3% cases. While analyzing the antibiogram for Staphylococcus aureus isolates, methicillin resistance (MRSA) was seen in 70.3% of cases, followed by vancomycin resistance (VRSA) in 8% of cases and linezolid resistance in 8.1%. Among the Enterococcus spp. isolates, linezolid resistance was found in 13.5%, vancomycin resistance (VRE) in 21.6%, and teicoplanin resistance in 29.7% of cases. Conclusion In conclusion, the first-ever study to identify the risk of high-end antibiotics causing significant drug resistance in secondary and tertiary care settings has highlighted the urgent need for more randomized control studies and proactive measures from healthcare authorities and serves as a beacon for future research efforts and underscores the importance of implementing antibiograms to combat the growing threat of antibiotic resistance.

19.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2023 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37189233

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: Premature fusion of the lambdoid suture is the most uncommon single suture synostosis. It presents with a classic "windswept" appearance, with a trapezoid-shaped head and significant skull asymmetry notable for an ipsilateral mastoid bulge and contralateral frontal bossing. Due to the rarity of lambdoid synostosis, little is known about optimal techniques for its treatment. In particular, the proximity of the lambdoid suture to critical intracranial structures such as the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses represents a potential for significant intraoperative bleeding. Prior work has shown that parietal asymmetry persists after repair in these cases. Here, we present a technique for the treatment of unilateral lambdoid craniosynostosis along with two representative cases.This calvarial vault remodeling technique requires the removal of both ipsilateral and contralateral parietal bones. These are moved across hemispheres and re-inset on opposite sides to help correct the parietal asymmetry. Obliquely orientated barrel stave osteotomies are performed to provide a safe mechanism for correction of occipital flattening. Our early results show improvement in correction of volume asymmetry one year post-operatively relative to patients treated with prior calvarial vault remodeling techniques. We believe the technique presented here corrects the windswept appearance in patients with lambdoid craniosynostosis while also reducing the potential for complications. Further work will be necessary to confirm this technique's long-term efficacy in a larger cohort.

20.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 32(3): 257-266, 2023 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37243552

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The authors utilized the area deprivation index (ADI), a validated composite measure of socioeconomic disadvantage, and the social vulnerability index (SVI) to examine whether differences in neighborhood deprivation impact interventions and outcomes among patients with craniosynostosis. METHODS: Patients who underwent craniosynostosis repair between 2012 and 2017 were included. The authors collected data about demographic characteristics, comorbidities, follow-up visits, interventions, complications, desire for revision, and speech, developmental, and behavioral outcomes. National percentiles for ADI and SVI were determined using zip and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) codes. ADI and SVI were analyzed by tertile. Firth logistic regressions and Spearman correlations were used to assess associations between ADI/SVI tertile and outcomes/interventions that differed on univariate analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine these associations in patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. Differences in length of follow-up among the nonsyndromic patients in the different deprivation groups were assessed with multivariate Cox regressions. RESULTS: In total, 195 patients were included, with 37% of patients in the most disadvantaged ADI tertile and 20% of patients in the most vulnerable SVI tertile. Patients in more disadvantaged ADI tertiles were less likely to have physician-reported desire (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.61, p < 0.01) or parent-reported desire (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.04-0.52, p < 0.01) for revision, independent of sex and insurance status. In the nonsyndromic subgroup, inclusion in a more disadvantaged ADI tertile was associated with increased odds of speech/language concerns (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.41-22.62, p < 0.01). There were no differences in interventions received or outcomes among SVI tertiles (p ≥ 0.24). Neither ADI nor SVI tertile was associated with risk of loss to follow-up among nonsyndromic patients (p ≥ 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Patients from the most disadvantaged neighborhoods may be at risk for poor speech outcomes and different standards of assessment for revision. Neighborhood measures of disadvantage represent a valuable tool to improve patient-centered care by allowing for modification of treatment protocols to meet the unique needs of patients and their families.


Asunto(s)
Craneosinostosis , Vulnerabilidad Social , Humanos , Cognición , Craneosinostosis/cirugía , Cobertura del Seguro , Padres , Estudios Retrospectivos
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