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Sci Adv ; 6(24): eaba3831, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582854


Archaeologists contend that it was our aptitude for symbolic, technological, and social behaviors that was central to Homo sapiens rapidly expanding across the majority of Earth's continents during the Late Pleistocene. This expansion included movement into extreme environments and appears to have resulted in the displacement of numerous archaic human populations across the Old World. Tropical rainforests are thought to have been particularly challenging and, until recently, impenetrable by early H. sapiens. Here, we describe evidence for bow-and-arrow hunting toolkits alongside a complex symbolic repertoire from 48,000 years before present at the Sri Lankan site of Fa-Hien Lena-the earliest bow-and-arrow technology outside of Africa. As one of the oldest H. sapiens rainforest sites outside of Africa, this exceptional assemblage provides the first detailed insights into how our species met the extreme adaptive challenges that were encountered in Asia during global expansion.

Microbiology (Reading) ; 161(Pt 4): 819-28, 2015 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25635275


Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a potent hepatotoxin, and increasing evidence suggests that it might also induce kidney injury. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and possible apoptotic effects of MC-LR on a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293) and human kidney adenocarcinoma cell line (ACHN). Cells were exposed for 24 h to pure MC-LR (1.0-200 µM) and the cytotoxic effects were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulphorhodamine B (SRB) cell viability assays. Cell viability in both cell lines was significantly decreased after treatment with MC-LR at 50 µM for 24 h (P<0.001). Moreover, MC-LR-treated ACHN and HEK-293 cells exhibited a marked dose-dependent loss of confluence as judged by phase-contrast microscopy. Similarly, fluorescence microscopic observations following acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining confirmed that both cell types were undergoing apoptosis after treatment with MC-LR for 24 h. Expression of three apoptosis-related genes, Bax, Survivin and p53, was analysed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. Both Bax and p53 functioned as promoters of MC-LR-mediated apoptosis in ACHN and HEK-293 cells. The Survivin gene acted as a suppressor of apoptosis at lower MC-LR concentration (1 µM) and the gene was upregulated at higher MC-LR concentration (10 µM) (P<0.001). Significant increases of caspase 3 (P<0.0001) and caspase 9 (P<0.0001) activity were detected in both cell lines after exposure to MC-LR for 24 h, indicating the MC-LR induces cytotoxicity and a marked apoptosis in both ACHN and HEK-293 kidney cell lines.

Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Microcistinas/farmacología , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Caspasa 9/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Neoplasias Renales/genética , Neoplasias Renales/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinas