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1.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002907, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509529

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the association between preexisting vitamin D deficiency and incident tuberculosis (TB). We assessed the impact of baseline vitamins D levels on TB disease risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between baseline vitamin D and incident TB in a prospective cohort of 6,751 HIV-negative household contacts of TB patients enrolled between September 1, 2009, and August 29, 2012, in Lima, Peru. We screened for TB disease at 2, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. We defined cases as household contacts who developed TB disease at least 15 days after enrollment of the index patient. For each case, we randomly selected four controls from among contacts who did not develop TB disease, matching on gender and year of age. We also conducted a one-stage individual-participant data (IPD) meta-analysis searching PubMed and Embase to identify prospective studies of vitamin D and TB disease until June 8, 2019. We included studies that assessed vitamin D before TB diagnosis. In the primary analysis, we defined vitamin D deficiency as 25-(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, insufficiency as 50-75 nmol/L, and sufficiency as >75nmol/L. We estimated the association between baseline vitamin D status and incident TB using conditional logistic regression in the Lima cohort and generalized linear mixed models in the meta-analysis. We further defined severe vitamin D deficiency as 25-(OH)D < 25 nmol/L and performed stratified analyses by HIV status in the IPD meta-analysis. In the Lima cohort, we analyzed 180 cases and 709 matched controls. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TB risk among participants with baseline vitamin D deficiency compared to sufficient vitamin D was 1.63 (95% CI 0.75-3.52; p = 0.22). We included seven published studies in the meta-analysis and analyzed 3,544 participants. In the pooled analysis, the aOR was 1.48 (95% CI 1.04-2.10; p = 0.03). The aOR for severe vitamin D deficiency was 2.05 (95% CI 0.87-4.87; p trend for decreasing 25-(OH)D levels from sufficient vitamin D to severe deficiency = 0.02). Among 1,576 HIV-positive patients, vitamin D deficiency conferred a 2-fold (aOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.22-3.90; p = 0.01) increased risk of TB, and the aOR for severe vitamin D deficiency compared to sufficient vitamin D was 4.28 (95% CI 0.85-21.45; p = 0.08). Our Lima cohort study is limited by the short duration of follow-up, and the IPD meta-analysis is limited by the number of possible confounding covariates available across all studies. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest vitamin D predicts TB disease risk in a dose-dependent manner and that the risk of TB disease is highest among HIV-positive individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency. Randomized control trials are needed to evaluate the possible role of vitamin D supplementation on reducing TB disease risk.

2.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(9): 979-983, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256295

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Presacral masses associated with anorectal malformations (ARM) are most frequently dermoid or teratomas. Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT), in isolation, is a different condition. There are limited data comparing the two. The aim of this study was to compare presacral masses associated with ARM and isolated SCTs. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed from 1979 to 2018. Patients with presacral masses and associated ARM (n = 39) were identified and compared to patients with isolated SCTs (n = 32). RESULTS: Those with presacral mass and ARM had a lower proportion of immature and mixed teratomas by pathology and a longer time to mass resection. They had higher percentages of sacral anomalies (76% versus 9%), tethered cord (50% versus 6%), and other anomalies (51% versus 9%). For long-term bowel function, patients with presacral mass and ARM were more likely to be fecally incontinent and require enemas (59% versus 11%). Regarding isolated SCTs, 4% recurred with a time to recurrence of 7 months. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to patients with isolated SCT, patients with presacral mass and ARM had lower grade tumors. In addition, they had a higher proportion of sacral defects and other congenital defects, as well as worse bowel function outcomes.

3.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(9): 985-987, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256297

RESUMEN

AIM OF THE STUDY: Misdiagnosing a cloaca as a disorder of sex development may lead to inappropriate testing, treatment, and negative emotional consequences to families. We were impressed by the fact that a significant number of patients suffering from a cloaca were referred to us with the diagnosis of a "disorder of sex development" previously referred as "ambiguous genitalia" or "intersex". On re-evaluation, none of them truly had a disorder of sex differentiation. This prompted us to conduct the following retrospective review to try to find the cause of the misdiagnosis and the way to prevent it. METHODS: A retrospective review of our colorectal database was performed to identify the total number of patients with cloacas and the number initially diagnosed as "ambiguous genitalia, intersex"/disorder of sex development. The external appearance of their genitalia and unnecessary testing or treatment received were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 605 patients with cloacas were identified. Of these, 77 (12.7%) were referred to us with the diagnosis of "ambiguous genitalia" and 13 of them (17%) went on to receive an intervention that was not indicated: karyotyping (10), steroids (3), and ovarian biopsy (1). The karyotype result in all patients was XX. The misdiagnosis was triggered by the external appearance of the perineum, simulating a case of virilization with a hypertrophic clitoris, but was simply prominent labial skin. Careful examination of the perineal structure allowed us to determine that it consisted of folded skin with no evidence of corpora. CONCLUSION: Patients born with a cloaca are at risk for mismanagement from being erroneously labeled as disorders of sex development. The diagnosis of a cloacal anomaly is a clinical one. The practitioner must distinguish between phallus-like clitoral hypertrophy and a normal clitoris with prominent labial skin.

4.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(9): 1009-1012, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256299

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is frequently used for constipation and fecal incontinence in the adult literature. The purpose of this study is to perform a systemic review of the literature for SNS for constipation and fecal incontinence in children with emphasis in anorectal malformations. METHODS: Systematic literature review was conducted to include all SNS studies in patients < 19 years of age. Studies were separated into those for (1) constipation, (2) bowel and bladder dysfunction, and (3) anorectal malformations. RESULTS: 28 articles were included in the review: (1) 12 constipation (269 patients) and (2) 16 bowel and bladder dysfunction (441 patients). Some studies overlapped groups, as they included some patients with anorectal malformations (4 articles and 29 patients). Constipation studies included slow transit and retention constipation and showed varying degrees of improvement. For bowel and bladder dysfunction, studies also reported varying degrees of improvement using different measures (number of bowel movements per day, transit times, and soiling improvement). There was no specific description of the results in anorectal malformation (ARM) cases and also information regarding specific ARM type, sacral ratio, or presence of tethered cord. CONCLUSIONS: SNS for constipation and urinary problems seems to be promising. Data are limited and heterogeneous, and SNS cannot be definitively encouraged or discouraged in patients with ARM, based on current studies. Future studies should include more objective measurements of bowel outcomes and specify outcomes related to patients with anorectal malformations including information regarding their specific malformation, sacral ratio, and presence of tethered cord. Complications' rate is considerable high.

5.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(9): 963-966, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256298

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Distal vaginal atresia is a rare condition and treatment approaches are varied, usually driven by symptoms. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed to identify patients with distal vaginal atresia without anorectal malformation. Data collected included age and symptoms at presentation, type and number of operations, and associated anomalies. RESULTS: Eight patients were identified. Four presented at birth with a hydrocolpos and four presented with hematometrocolpos after 12 years of age. Number of operations per patient ranged from one to seven with an average of three. The vaginal reconstruction was achieved by perineal vaginal mobilization in four patients and abdomino-perineal approach in four patients. One patient, with a proximal vagina approximately 7 cm from the perineum, required partial vaginal replacement with colon. In addition, she had hematometrocolpos with an acute inflammation at the time of reconstruction despite menstrual suppression and drainage which may have contributed to the difficulty in mobilizing the vagina. In five patients, distal vaginal atresia was an isolated anomaly. In the other three cases, associated anomalies included: mild hydronephrosis that improved after hydrocolpos decompression (2), cardiac anomaly (2), and vertebral anomaly (1). CONCLUSION: In this series, a distended upper vagina/uterus was a common presentation and the time of reconstruction was driven by the presence of symptoms. Drainage of the hydrocolpos/hydrometrocolpos with menstrual suppression in post-pubertal patients, followed by further work-up, and planned reconstruction is a good surgical strategy.

6.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(9): 953-961, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270673

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Despite medical advances, individuals with anorectal malformations (ARM) experience significant medical and psychosocial challenges due to their complex conditions. This study aimed to obtain the perspectives of adults with ARM throughout their lifetime regarding their medical, school/vocational, and psychosocial functioning. METHODS: A 40-item survey was administered electronically to members of an international ARM Facebook group (56% response rate; n = 125). Survey items included demographics, medical diagnosis/treatment, school/workplace accommodations, mental health diagnosis/treatment, and life perspectives. RESULTS: Majority of respondents were female (73%), aged 25-34 years (31%), Caucasian (92%), US residents (60%), and attended public school (86%). 53% of respondents are currently employed. 32% of respondents received school-based accommodations and 24% at work. 58% of respondents had a mental health diagnosis, with depression (82%) and anxiety (81%) being the most common. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that adults with ARM experience ongoing difficulties related to schooling, employment, and mental health, in addition to medical complications. It is becoming increasingly clear that improving patients' physical well-being is not enough; psychosocial concerns must also be addressed directly. Thus, it is important for clinicians to be aware of and partner with psychosocial providers to support these challenges associated with ARM, to maximize patients' overall health and well-being.

7.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(9): 1005-1008, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278478

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The literature about ectopic ureters in anorectal malformations is limited. Repair of an anorectal malformation may require dissection near the normal or abnormal insertion of the ureters. Knowledge of the presence and location of ectopic ureters may prevent intraoperative injury. We aim to describe the incidence and location of ectopic ureters in patients with anorectal malformations and to characterize associated renal anomalies. METHODS: This is an IRB-approved retrospective study of patients with anorectal malformations and ectopic ureters identified in our colorectal database. RESULTS: Of 2283 patients with anorectal malformation, 79 (3.5%) had ectopic ureter(s). Of those, 29% had bilateral ectopic ureters. Nearly all (87%) of bilateral ectopic ureters occurred in females. Ectopic ureters most commonly inserted into the bladder neck (33%), vagina (15%), or urethra (13%). Renal dysfunction was noted in a high proportion of patients. The majority (59%) of ectopic ureters were associated with dysfunction of the ipsilateral kidney. Interestingly, 29% of patients with unilateral ureteral ectopia had an abnormal contralateral kidney. Only 22 patients (28%) had two normal kidneys, and 5 (6%) had documented renal failure with 2 (2.5%) requiring renal transplant. This compares to a transplant rate of 0.6% among anorectal malformation patients without ectopic ureter. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ectopic ureter is 3.5% among anorectal malformation patients. Cloaca and recto-bladder neck fistula are the types of anorectal malformation with higher incidence. Ureteral ectopia seems to confer an increased risk of renal failure. Identifying ectopic ureters is important for surgical planning and monitoring renal function vigilantly.

8.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 28(3): 131-134, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171146

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Attempting to decrease iatrogenic injuries and preventable harm, safety initiatives have become a priority in surgery. For adult hepatobiliary surgery, it has become common to study and consider "error traps" or common pitfalls that exist for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.1-4 Extending this work to children, we have attempted to apply some of these initiatives by identifying error traps common to the care of patients born with anorectal malformations (ARM). METHODS: Five error traps were identified based on a retrospective analysis of operative records and radiographic studies from 398 re operative ARM cases performed by the authors. Once identified, the authors constructed a specific safety plan for each trap to promote a culture that will hopefully prevent ARM iatrogenic injuries. RESULTS: The identified error traps are: 1) creation of a colostomy too distal in the sigmoid colon, 2) inaccurate distal colostogram and definition of the patient's preoperative anatomy 3) absence of a Foley catheter during the repair of an ARM in males and the hazards of separating the anterior rectal wall from the genito-urinary (GU) tract 4) mismanagement of a post-operative anal stricture following an ARM reconstructive procedure 5) limited or unstructured follow up of these patients. For each of the five traps the authors present suggestions for their avoidance. CONCLUSION: The repair on an anorectal malformation is an elective procedure and while not completely avoidable, there should be little tolerance for iatrogenic injury and preventable harm. A culture of safety should be followed, beginning with a recognition of the common error traps associated with ARM procedures.

9.
J Pediatr Surg ; 54(8): 1660-1663, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036369

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There are limited data on neoappendicostomy complications owing to small patient populations. This study compares appendicostomy and neoappendicostomy procedures with an emphasis on major postoperative complications requiring either a surgical or interventional radiology procedure. METHOD: A single-institution retrospective review included all patients with complete medical charts in the Cincinnati Children's Colorectal Database who underwent either an appendicostomy or neoappendicostomy from August 2005 through December 2016. Demographics, details of the procedure, and major postoperative complications were evaluated. RESULTS: 261 patients (appendicostomy n = 208, neoappendicostomy n = 53) with a median follow up time of 2.5 years resulted in 84 patients (appendicostomy n = 60, neoappendicostomy n = 24) experiencing a total of 118 complications requiring surgical or radiologic intervention with a significant difference between the groups (29% vs 45%, RR = 1.79 (95% CI: 1.24-2.60), p < 0.01). Skin level stricture was the most common complication (20% appendicostomies vs 30% neoappendicostomies, p = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Appendicostomies and neoappendicostomies can be an effective way to manage fecal incontinence; however, 32% of our patients experienced a complication that required either a surgical or interventional radiology procedure. Patients need to be informed of the possible complications that are associated with appendicostomy and neoappendicostomy construction. TYPE OF STUDY: Single institution retrospective review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

10.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2019 Mar 08.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857913

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infant mortality is an indicator of child health, and an explanatory variable to reflect the socioeconomic development of a country. We aimed to examine the changes and trends of infant mortality in the European Union (EU) and its 28 member states in the 1994-2015 period. METHODS: We extracted data of deaths in children aged less than one year between 1994 and 2015 from the Eurostat database. We analysed secular variation in the EU overall, by country and by geographical region using joinpoint regression analysis. We conducted additional analyses to examine neonatal and early neonatal mortality trends. RESULTS: Infant mortality in the EU has declined significantly from 8,3 to 3,6 per 1,000 live births (annual percent change=-3,8%; 95% confidence interval, -4,1 to -3,6). Among EU countries, we found the highest mortality rates throughout the study period in Romania and Bulgaria, and the lowest rates in Scandinavian countries (Finland, Sweden). There were significant decreasing trends in every country of the EU, which were most pronounced in former Soviet Baltic states and Eastern European countries, and least pronounced in Western European countries. Mortality rates have increased significantly in Greece in the last years, and plateaued in the United Kingdom and Ireland. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, which are based on official data, provide consistent evidence that infant mortality has declined steadily in the EU and its member states in the past decades, most markedly in Eastern European countries and former Soviet Baltic states. However, rates have risen or levelled off in some western countries in the past few years.

12.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 37(7): 441-447, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553619

RESUMEN

Descriptive epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica infection in an area of Castellón (Spain) between 2006 and 2013 from Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated in the area and confirmed by the Spanish national reference laboratory. There were a total of 144 cases. The estimated incidence was 9.7 cases per 105 person-year. The age group most affected was 0-4 years (rate 110.3 per 105 p-y), with a maximum in infants aged 6 to 11 months of age (190.4 per 105 p-y). The average duration of the disease was 15.5 days. 7% of the patients were hospitalised. Only 2 outbreaks of a family nature related to the consumption of pork were detected. The temporal evolution reflects higher incidence during the winter season (January). The most common exposure factor among the cases was the consumption of dried pork sausage (50% of the cases interviewed). The 58 typed strains were all of the biotype 4, serotype O:3, except one O:9. We distinguished 21 pulsotypes grouped in 8 clusters with a similarity of 97%. Over a number of years, a substitution of some pulsotypes for others was observed. Yersiniosis has a high incidence in our area, with a clear seasonality of winter predominance. It affects very young children, in particular. The strains are of the same serotype, but the variety of pulsotypes changed over time. As an exposure factor for further analytical studies, the consumption of some pork products is proposed, without ruling out other factors.

13.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518494

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Approximately 25% of patients with anorectal malformation have tethered cord. The traditional way of determining conus medullaris level on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relies on counting vertebrae, which may be challenging due to vertebral numeric variation, segmentation anomalies, as well as transitional vertebral body anatomy. The purpose of this study was to utilize more reliable anatomic landmarks (foramen magnum, conus termination, and the upper limit of the iliac crest) to establish a consistent ratio that may differentiate patients with normal and low-lying conus. METHODS: A single institution database search identified two groups of patients: 255 with normal and 85 with abnormal spinal MRI, who underwent tethered cord release. The conus medullaris ratio was calculated in both groups. The ratio was obtained by dividing the distance between the conus level and the iliac crest by the distance between the foramen magnum and the conus level (IRB # 16-2330). RESULTS: The mean ratio was significantly higher in the non-tethered group compared to the tethered patients (0.184 [sd 0.03] versus 0.118 [sd 0.09]; P < .0001). The ratio proved to be a good discriminator between normal and abnormal patients, with area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.749, meaning that at random, there is a 75% chance that the tethered cord patient will have a lower ratio than the non-tethered cord patient. CONCLUSION: "The Conus Medullaris Ratio" is a good predictor of low-lying conus level on MRI and offers an easy alternative to counting vertebral body levels, particularly in patients with variant or abnormal vertebral body anatomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II, Study of Diagnostic Test.

15.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 2018 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392127

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Traditionally, the care of children and adults has been arbitrarily separated into pediatric and adult medicine and surgery. Despite progress in pediatric surgical techniques, patients born with congenital anomalies still suffer from significant functional sequelae, which persist into adulthood. We aim to describe some of the most common problems experienced by adult patients with congenital colorectal malformations. METHODS: Following IRB approval, we performed a retrospective database review of all adult patients who were treated by our group from 1983 until 2017. RESULTS: We identified 88 cases. 51 patients had ARM, 18 cloacas, 9 presacral masses, 3 HD, 2 spina bifida and 5 with other diagnoses (3 vaginal anomalies, 1 cloacal exstrophy, 1 obstructed seminal vesical). The specific problems addressed were: complications from previous operations (41), rectal prolapse (25), fecal incontinence (11), gynecologic concerns (12), urologic concerns (6), and recurrent recto urogenital fistula (3). We performed 83 surgical interventions, including 13 rectal prolapse repair, 13 continent appendicostomies, 44 PSARP or redo PSARP, 11 resections of presacral masses, 11 vaginoplasties, 2 examinations under anesthesia, and 2 Mitrofanoff procedures. Five patients were treated medically (bowel management program, obstetric, urologic evaluation). CONCLUSION: There is a growing need to better prepare adult providers to assume the care of patients born with congenital colorectal disease as these patients transition to adulthood. A collaboration between specialized pediatric referral centers with adult colorectal surgeons, urologists and gynecologists is a potential pathway for the adequate transition of care.

16.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 2018 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392128

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Sacral abnormalities range from missing the coccyx, a few sacral vertebrae, or hemi-sacrum, to complete absence with fused iliac bones. The purpose of this study was to review the association between sacral agenesis and fecal incontinence to help inform patient prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients who presented for bowel management due to sacral agenesis at a tertiary care children's hospital between 2016 and 2017 (n = 10). Data collection included: gender, time of diagnosis, sacral ratio, and associated anomalies. Patients with anorectal malformation and sacrococcygeal teratomas were excluded. RESULTS: Four patients were female. Seven patients had a delayed diagnosis ranging from 22 months of age to 9 years. Most common symptoms included failure of age-appropriate toilet training and severe diaper rash. The sacral ratio was zero (6), 0.3 and 0.4 (2), and hemi-sacrum (2). Associated anomalies were present in five patients. CONCLUSION: Sacral abnormalities should be suspected in patients who present with early severe diaper rash and those who fail to toilet train. An abdominal radiograph can evaluate the sacrum, when the sacral ratio is 0.4 or less, parents should be counseled regarding fecal incontinence and neurogenic bladder.

17.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 2018 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402681

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Our center has been successfully implementing a bowel management program (BMP) for fecal incontinence consecutive to anorectal malformation and Hirschsprung disease. Recently, the number of patients with spina bifida requiring management for fecal incontinence has increased. The purpose of this study was to review the results of bowel management in patients with spina bifida and the challenges unique to this population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed including all patients with spina bifida who attended our BMP from February 2016 until April 2018. Data collection included: prenatal intervention, gender, age, characteristics of contrast enema, success rateand challenges faced. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients met inclusion criteria 13 of which were females. Three patients had their myelomeningocele repaired prenatally, the remaining were repaired postnatally. Patient ages ranged from 2 to 24 years. Only nine patients were referred to BMP at proper toilet training age. Three patients came to BMP status post an antegrade enema procedure with reported "accidents" on their current regimen. The colon in the contrast enema was non-dilated in all patients and two behaved as hypermotile requiring loperamide. Seventeen patients (77%) were clean of stool and considered successful. Solution leakage during enema administration was the most common challenge and was corrected by increasing the Foley balloon fill volume. CONCLUSIONS: Our bowel management program with enemas is effective for patients with a history of spina bifida. The data support specific considerations for this population including frequent adjustments, close follow-up and specific administration techniques.

18.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(8): 478-483, oct. 2018. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-176805

RESUMEN

Introduction: Salmonella infections (SI) are common in Spain. The aim of this study was to appraise risk factors and the clinical characteristics of sporadic Salmonella Typhimurium infections compared with other sporadic salmonella serotype infections (OSI). Methods: From September 2014 to August 2015, a case-case study was carried out by the Epidemiology Division of the Public Health Centre of Castellon. Case 1 consisted of patients with sporadic S. Typhimurium infections, while case 2 comprised OSI patients, assessed according to the stool cultures analyzed by the Microbiology Laboratories of Hospital General de Castellon and Hospital de La Plana in Vila-real. Patients from detected outbreaks were not included. The salmonella serotype was identified by the National Centre of Microbiology (Madrid). Results: The total number of SI patients reported was 327, 242 of whom were studied (74.0%). 148 patients had sporadic S. Typhimurium infection and 64 had OSI, with median ages of 4 and 8.5 years, respectively. Sporadic S. Typhimurium infection patients presented more blood in feces and diarrhea episodes. Consumption of pork meat (OR = 2.22; 95% CI 1.12-4.43), cold pork meats (OR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32-4.68) and playing in the dirt (OR=3.02; 95% CI 1.55-5.88), were associated with sporadic S. Typhimurium infection. In the 0-4 year-old group, the associated factors were consumption of cold pork meats, omelets and female gender. In the 5-year-old and over group, only playing in soil was associated with sporadic S. Typhimurium infection. Conclusions: The consumption of pork and omelets, as well as playing in the dirt, were the main factors associated with infection. Children were most affected by sporadic S. Typhimurium infection


Introducción: Las infecciones por Salmonella son frecuentes en España. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar factores de riesgo y características de las infecciones esporádicas por Salmonella typhimurium (IET), comparadas con infecciones esporádicas por otros serotipos de Salmonella. Métodos: Desde septiembre de 2014 a agosto de 2015 se efectuó un estudio caso-caso por la Sección de Epidemiología del Centro de Salud Pública de Castellón. El caso 1 fueron los pacientes con IET y el caso 2 aquellos con infecciones esporádicas por otros serotipos de Samonella, según los coprocultivos realizados por los laboratorios de Microbiología de los hospitales General de Castellón y La Plana de Vila-real, sin incluir los pacientes de brotes detectados. El serotipo de Salmonella fue identificado en el Centro Nacional de Microbiología (Madrid). Resultados: Se notificaron 327 pacientes con infección por Salmonella, de los que 242 fueron estudiados (74,0%). Ciento cuarenta y ocho pacientes tenían IET y 64, infecciones esporádicas por otros serotipos de Salmonella, con una mediana de edad de 4 y 8,5 años, respectivamente. Los pacientes IET presentaron más episodios diarreicos y sangre en las heces. El consumo de carne de cerdo (OR 2,22; IC 95% 1,12-4,43), fiambres de cerdo (OR 2,49; IC 95% 1,32-4,68) y jugar en la tierra (OR 3,02; IC 95% 1,55-5,88) fueron asociados con IET. En el grupo de 0-4 años, los factores asociados fueron consumo de fiambres de cerdo, tortillas y ser mujer. En el grupo de 5 y más años, solo jugar en la tierra fue asociado con IET. Conclusiones: El consumo de productos porcinos y tortillas, así como jugar en la tierra fueron los factores asociados, y los niños, los más afectados


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Salmonella/clasificación , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Salmonella typhimurium/aislamiento & purificación , España/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Serotipificación
19.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 36(6): 342-351, jun.-jul. 2018. tab, graf, mapas
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-176584

RESUMEN

Background: The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. Methods: Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000–2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20–85+). We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, and analyzed data using the Joinpoint Regression Program for men and women separately in the European Union overall and by individual country for each year. Results: Between 2000 and 2010, there were 68,771 recorded tuberculosis deaths in the European Union and the mortality rates were higher for men than women in the entire study zone. Overall, TB mortality rates declined linearly for both genders, but more in women than in men (from 5.43/100,000 in 2000 to 2.59/100,000 in 2010 in men and from 1.37/100,000 in 2000 to 0.51/100,000 in 2010 in women). There was decline in both genders for the entire study period, with a significant Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) of -8.1 for women and -7 for men when alpha < 0.05 and with a 95% confidence interval (CI). A higher tuberculosis mortality was associated with lower economic resources and greater inequalities. Conclusions: TB mortality rates in the European Union decreased overall in 2000–2010 for both genders. Men have higher TB mortality rates than women in all countries. Our findings were consistent with the downward TB mortality trend in many other countries worldwide


Antecedentes: El objetivo de este estudio fue actualizar y analizar los datos sobre la mortalidad por tuberculosis (TB) en la Unión Europea entre 2000 y 2010, separadamente para varones y mujeres, así como tratar de detectar si se han producido cambios en las tendencias para cada país, al igual que la asociación con la situación económica y las desigualdades. Métodos: Se extrajeron los datos sobre muertes por TB durante el periodo 2000-2010 para los 29 países de la Unión Europea y para Suiza, a través de la base de datos detallada europea sobre mortalidad (DMDB) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), utilizando por separado los códigos para varones y mujeres de la lista de tabulación de la mortalidad 1 (MTL1) para un grupo de edad (20-85+). Calculamos los índices de mortalidad estandarizados por edad, y analizamos los datos utilizando el programa de regresión Joinpoint, separando varones y mujeres, en la Unión Europea en general, y por país individual para cada año. Resultados: Entre 2000 y 2010, se produjeron 68.771 muertes por TB registradas en la Unión Europea, siendo los índices de mortalidad superiores en varones que en mujeres en el área total de estudio. En general, los índices de mortalidad por TB descendieron de forma lineal para ambos sexos, aunque más en mujeres que en varones (de 5,43/100.000 en 2000 a 2,59/100.000 en 2010 en varones, y de 1,37/100.000 en 2000 a 0,51/100.000 en 2010 en mujeres). Se produjo un descenso en ambos sexos durante el periodo total de estudio, con un cambio porcentual anual estimado (EAPC) de -8,1 para mujeres y de -7 para varones, siendo alfa < 0,05, y con un 95% de intervalo de confianza (IC). La mortalidad superior por TB se asoció a unos menores recursos económicos y a unas mayores desigualdades. Conclusiones: Los índices de mortalidad por TB en la Unión Europea descendieron en general durante el periodo 2000-2010 para ambos sexos. Los varones reflejan unos índices superiores de mortalidad que las mujeres en todos los países. Nuestros hallazgos fueron consistentes con la tendencia a la baja de la mortalidad por TB en muchos otros países a nivel mundial


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Tuberculosis/mortalidad , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos
20.
Infection ; 46(4): 549-554, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869018

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis (TBU) is often challenging and is usually made after excluding other causes of uveitis. We analysed the characteristics of TBU and variables associated with visual outcome. METHODS: A retrospective, observational analysis was performed in patients with presumptive TBU who were started on specific TB treatment between January 2006 and June 2016. Demographic, clinical, radiological, analytical and ophthalmic examination variables were studied. After completing TB treatment, a follow-up of at least 9 months was performed. A univariate and logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the variables associated with visual acuity and recurrences of uveitis. RESULTS: Forty affected eyes of 24 individuals were identified; 79% of patients were diagnosed during the last 3 years of the study period. Median delay from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 12 weeks. Loss of visual acuity was the most frequent symptom (87.5%). Posterior uveitis was the most frequent localization (72.9%); 19 patients (79.2%) presented at least one of the Gupta signs predictive of TBU, but there were no confirmed diagnoses. OUTCOME: There was improvement in visual acuity in 74.4% of the eyes, but a complete response was achieved only in 56.4%. There was recurrence in two patients. The initiation of treatment ≥ 24 weeks after onset of symptoms was significantly associated with no improvement (p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: TBU can cause permanent damage to visual acuity, particularly in patients with delayed diagnosis. A prompt initiation of systemic TB treatment is essential to improve visual prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis Ocular/epidemiología , Uveítis/epidemiología , Uveítis/microbiología , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacología , Antituberculosos/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vasculitis Retiniana/diagnóstico , Vasculitis Retiniana/tratamiento farmacológico , Vasculitis Retiniana/microbiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis Ocular/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Ocular/tratamiento farmacológico , Uveítis/diagnóstico , Uveítis/tratamiento farmacológico , Pruebas de Visión
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