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1.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582231

RESUMEN

Statistical learning plays an important role in acquiring the structure of cultural communication signals such as speech and music, which are both perceived and reproduced. However, statistical learning is typically investigated through passive exposure to structured signals, followed by offline explicit recognition tasks assessing the degree of learning. Such experimental approaches fail to capture statistical learning as it takes place and require post hoc conscious reflection on what is thought to be an implicit process of knowledge acquisition. To better understand the process of statistical learning in active contexts while addressing these shortcomings, we introduce a novel, processing-based measure of statistical learning based on the position of errors in sequence reproduction. Across five experiments, we employed this new technique to assess statistical learning using artificial pure-tone or environmental-sound languages with controlled statistical properties in passive exposure, active reproduction, and explicit recognition tasks. The new error position measure provided a robust, online indicator of statistical learning during reproduction, with little carryover from prior statistical learning via passive exposure and no correlation with recognition-based estimates of statistical learning. Error position effects extended consistently across auditory domains, including sequences of pure tones and environmental sounds. Whereas recall performance showed significant variability across experiments, and little evidence of being improved by statistical learning, the error position effect was highly consistent for all participant groups, including musicians and nonmusicians. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding psychological mechanisms underlying statistical learning and compare the evidence provided by different experimental measures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Iperception ; 12(4): 20416695211024680, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377428

RESUMEN

Chills experienced in response to music listening have been linked to both happiness and sadness expressed by music. To investigate these conflicting effects of valence on chills, we conducted a computational analysis on a corpus of 988 tracks previously reported to elicit chills, by comparing them with a control set of tracks matched by artist, duration, and popularity. We analysed track-level audio features obtained with the Spotify Web API across the two sets of tracks, resulting in confirmatory findings that tracks which cause chills were sadder than matched tracks and exploratory findings that they were also slower, less intense, and more instrumental than matched tracks on average. We also found that the audio characteristics of chills tracks were related to the direction and magnitude of the difference in valence between the two sets of tracks. We discuss these results in light of the current literature on valence and chills in music, provide a new interpretation in terms of personality correlates of musical preference, and review the advantages and limitations of our computational approach.

3.
Psychol Sci ; 32(9): 1416-1425, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409898

RESUMEN

Anticipating the future is essential for efficient perception and action planning. Yet the role of anticipation in event segmentation is understudied because empirical research has focused on retrospective cues such as surprise. We address this concern in the context of perception of musical-phrase boundaries. A computational model of cognitive sequence processing was used to control the information-dynamic properties of tone sequences. In an implicit, self-paced listening task (N = 38), undergraduates dwelled longer on tones generating high entropy (i.e., high uncertainty) than on those generating low entropy (i.e., low uncertainty). Similarly, sequences that ended on tones generating high entropy were rated as sounding more complete (N = 31 undergraduates). These entropy effects were independent of both the surprise (i.e., information content) and phrase position of target tones in the original musical stimuli. Our results indicate that events generating high entropy prospectively contribute to segmentation processes in auditory sequence perception, independently of the properties of the subsequent event.


Asunto(s)
Música , Percepción Auditiva , Señales (Psicología) , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Incertidumbre
4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(17): 5595-5608, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459062

RESUMEN

When listening to music, pitch deviations are more salient and elicit stronger prediction error responses when the melodic context is predictable and when the listener is a musician. Yet, the neuronal dynamics and changes in connectivity underlying such effects remain unclear. Here, we employed dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate whether the magnetic mismatch negativity response (MMNm)-and its modulation by context predictability and musical expertise-are associated with enhanced neural gain of auditory areas, as a plausible mechanism for encoding precision-weighted prediction errors. Using Bayesian model comparison, we asked whether models with intrinsic connections within primary auditory cortex (A1) and superior temporal gyrus (STG)-typically related to gain control-or extrinsic connections between A1 and STG-typically related to propagation of prediction and error signals-better explained magnetoencephalography responses. We found that, compared to regular sounds, out-of-tune pitch deviations were associated with lower intrinsic (inhibitory) connectivity in A1 and STG, and lower backward (inhibitory) connectivity from STG to A1, consistent with disinhibition and enhanced neural gain in these auditory areas. More predictable melodies were associated with disinhibition in right A1, while musicianship was associated with disinhibition in left A1 and reduced connectivity from STG to left A1. These results indicate that musicianship and melodic predictability, as well as pitch deviations themselves, enhance neural gain in auditory cortex during deviance detection. Our findings are consistent with predictive processing theories suggesting that precise and informative error signals are selected by the brain for subsequent hierarchical processing.

5.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(5): e1008995, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038404

RESUMEN

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008304.].

6.
Brain Cogn ; 151: 105729, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887654

RESUMEN

Evaluative judgment-i.e., assessing to what degree a stimulus is liked or disliked-is a fundamental aspect of cognition, facilitating comparison and choosing among alternatives, deciding, and prioritizing actions. Neuroimaging studies have shown that evaluative judgment involves the projection of sensory information to the reward circuit. To investigate whether evaluative judgments are based on modality-specific or modality-general attributes, we compared the extent to which balance, contour, symmetry, and complexity affect liking responses in the auditory and visual modalities. We found no significant correlation for any of the four attributes across sensory modalities, except for contour. This suggests that evaluative judgments primarily rely on modality-specific sensory representations elaborated in the brain's sensory cortices and relayed to the reward circuit, rather than abstract modality-general representations. The individual traits art experience, openness to experience, and desire for aesthetics were associated with the extent to which design or compositional attributes influenced liking, but inconsistently across sensory modalities and attributes, also suggesting modality-specific influences.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Juicio , Cognición , Estética , Humanos
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 203: 105020, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271397

RESUMEN

It has been argued that children implicitly acquire the rules relating to the structure of music in their environment using domain-general mechanisms such as statistical learning. Closely linked to statistical learning is the ability to form expectations about future events. Whether children as young as 5 years can make use of such internalized regularities to form expectations about the next note in a melody is still unclear. The possible effect of the home musical environment on the strength of musical expectations has also been under-explored. Using a newly developed melodic priming task that included melodies with either "expected" or "unexpected" endings according to rules of Western music theory, we tested 5- and 6-year-old children (N = 46). The stimuli in this task were constructed using the information dynamics of music (IDyOM) system, a probabilistic model estimating the level of "unexpectedness" of a note given the preceding context. Results showed that responses to expected versus unexpected tones were faster and more accurate, indicating that children have already formed robust melodic expectations at 5 years of age. Aspects of the home musical environment significantly predicted the strength of melodic expectations, suggesting that implicit musical learning may be influenced by the quantity of informal exposure to the surrounding musical environment.


Asunto(s)
Motivación , Música , Percepción Auditiva , Niño , Humanos , Aprendizaje
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(11): e1008304, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147209

RESUMEN

Statistical learning and probabilistic prediction are fundamental processes in auditory cognition. A prominent computational model of these processes is Prediction by Partial Matching (PPM), a variable-order Markov model that learns by internalizing n-grams from training sequences. However, PPM has limitations as a cognitive model: in particular, it has a perfect memory that weights all historic observations equally, which is inconsistent with memory capacity constraints and recency effects observed in human cognition. We address these limitations with PPM-Decay, a new variant of PPM that introduces a customizable memory decay kernel. In three studies-one with artificially generated sequences, one with chord sequences from Western music, and one with new behavioral data from an auditory pattern detection experiment-we show how this decay kernel improves the model's predictive performance for sequences whose underlying statistics change over time, and enables the model to capture effects of memory constraints on auditory pattern detection. The resulting model is available in our new open-source R package, ppm (https://github.com/pmcharrison/ppm).


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva , Simulación por Computador , Memoria , Algoritmos , Humanos , Música
9.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 32(12): 2241-2259, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762519

RESUMEN

It is still a matter of debate whether visual aids improve learning of music. In a multisession study, we investigated the neural signatures of novel music sequence learning with or without aids (auditory-only: AO, audiovisual: AV). During three training sessions on three separate days, participants (nonmusicians) reproduced (note by note on a keyboard) melodic sequences generated by an artificial musical grammar. The AV group (n = 20) had each note color-coded on screen, whereas the AO group (n = 20) had no color indication. We evaluated learning of the statistical regularities of the novel music grammar before and after training by presenting melodies ending on correct or incorrect notes and by asking participants to judge the correctness and surprisal of the final note, while EEG was recorded. We found that participants successfully learned the new grammar. Although the AV group, as compared to the AO group, reproduced longer sequences during training, there was no significant difference in learning between groups. At the neural level, after training, the AO group showed a larger N100 response to low-probability compared with high-probability notes, suggesting an increased neural sensitivity to statistical properties of the grammar; this effect was not observed in the AV group. Our findings indicate that visual aids might improve sequence reproduction while not necessarily promoting better learning, indicating a potential dissociation between sequence reproduction and learning. We suggest that the difficulty induced by auditory-only input during music training might enhance cognitive engagement, thereby improving neural sensitivity to the underlying statistical properties of the learned material.


Asunto(s)
Música , Estimulación Acústica , Percepción Auditiva , Señales (Psicología) , Humanos , Aprendizaje
10.
Elife ; 92020 05 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420868

RESUMEN

Memory, on multiple timescales, is critical to our ability to discover the structure of our surroundings, and efficiently interact with the environment. We combined behavioural manipulation and modelling to investigate the dynamics of memory formation for rarely reoccurring acoustic patterns. In a series of experiments, participants detected the emergence of regularly repeating patterns within rapid tone-pip sequences. Unbeknownst to them, a few patterns reoccurred every ~3 min. All sequences consisted of the same 20 frequencies and were distinguishable only by the order of tone-pips. Despite this, reoccurring patterns were associated with a rapidly growing detection-time advantage over novel patterns. This effect was implicit, robust to interference, and persisted for 7 weeks. The results implicate an interplay between short (a few seconds) and long-term (over many minutes) integration in memory formation and demonstrate the remarkable sensitivity of the human auditory system to sporadically reoccurring structure within the acoustic environment.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Memoria a Largo Plazo/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Memoria y Aprendizaje , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Behav Res Methods ; 52(4): 1491-1509, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052354

RESUMEN

We present a novel set of 200 Western tonal musical stimuli (MUST) to be used in research on perception and appreciation of music. It consists of four subsets of 50 stimuli varying in balance, contour, symmetry, or complexity. All are 4 s long and designed to be musically appealing and experimentally controlled. We assessed them behaviorally and computationally. The behavioral assessment (Study 1) aimed to determine whether musically untrained participants could identify variations in each attribute. Forty-three participants rated the stimuli in each subset on the corresponding attribute. We found that inter-rater reliability was high and that the ratings mirrored the design features well. Participants' ratings also served to create an abridged set of 24 stimuli per subset. The computational assessment (Study 2) required the development of a specific battery of computational measures describing the structural properties of each stimulus. We distilled nonredundant composite measures for each attribute and examined whether they predicted participants' ratings. Our results show that the composite measures indeed predicted participants' ratings. Moreover, the composite complexity measure predicted complexity ratings as well as existing models of musical complexity. We conclude that the four subsets are suitable for use in studies that require presenting participants with short musical motifs varying in balance, contour, symmetry, or complexity, and that the stimuli and the computational measures are valuable resources for research in music psychology, empirical aesthetics, music information retrieval, and musicology. The MUST set and MATLAB toolbox codifying the computational measures are freely available at osf.io/bfxz7.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva , Música , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
Eur J Neurosci ; 51(11): 2250-2269, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891423

RESUMEN

Auditory prediction error responses elicited by surprising sounds can be reliably recorded with musical stimuli that are more complex and realistic than those typically employed in EEG or MEG oddball paradigms. However, these responses are reduced as the predictive uncertainty of the stimuli increases. In this study, we investigate whether this effect is modulated by musical expertise. Magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) responses were recorded from 26 musicians and 24 non-musicians while they listened to low- and high-uncertainty melodic sequences in a musical multi-feature paradigm that included pitch, slide, intensity and timbre deviants. When compared to non-musicians, musically trained participants had significantly larger pitch and slide MMNm responses. However, both groups showed comparable reductions in pitch and slide MMNm amplitudes in the high-uncertainty condition compared with the low-uncertainty condition. In a separate, behavioural deviance detection experiment, musicians were more accurate and confident about their responses than non-musicians, but deviance detection in both groups was similarly affected by the uncertainty of the melodies. In both experiments, the interaction between uncertainty and expertise was not significant, suggesting that the effect is comparable in both groups. Consequently, our results replicate the modulatory effect of predictive uncertainty on prediction error; show that it is present across different types of listeners; and suggest that expertise-related and stimulus-driven modulations of predictive precision are dissociable and independent.


Asunto(s)
Música , Estimulación Acústica , Percepción Auditiva , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos , Humanos , Percepción de la Altura Tonal , Incertidumbre
13.
Psychol Rev ; 127(2): 216-244, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868392

RESUMEN

Simultaneous consonance is a salient perceptual phenomenon corresponding to the perceived pleasantness of simultaneously sounding musical tones. Various competing theories of consonance have been proposed over the centuries, but recently a consensus has developed that simultaneous consonance is primarily driven by harmonicity perception. Here we question this view, substantiating our argument by critically reviewing historic consonance research from a broad variety of disciplines, reanalyzing consonance perception data from 4 previous behavioral studies representing more than 500 participants, and modeling three Western musical corpora representing more than 100,000 compositions. We conclude that simultaneous consonance is a composite phenomenon that derives in large part from three phenomena: interference, periodicity/harmonicity, and cultural familiarity. We formalize this conclusion with a computational model that predicts a musical chord's simultaneous consonance from these three features, and release this model in an open-source R package, incon, alongside 15 other computational models also evaluated in this paper. We hope that this package will facilitate further psychological and musicological research into simultaneous consonance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Música , Placer/fisiología , Reconocimiento en Psicología/fisiología , Cultura , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Neuroimage ; 206: 116311, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669411

RESUMEN

Human creativity is intricately linked to acquired knowledge. However, to date learning a new musical style and subsequent musical creativity have largely been studied in isolation. We introduced a novel experimental paradigm combining behavioural, electrophysiological, and computational methods, to examine the neural correlates of unfamiliar music learning, and to investigate how neural and computational measures can predict human creativity. We investigated music learning by training non-musicians (N = 40) on an artificial music grammar. Participants' knowledge of the grammar was tested before and after three training sessions on separate days by assessing explicit recognition of the notes of the grammar, while additionally recording their EEG. After each training session, participants created their own musical compositions, which were later evaluated by human experts. A computational model of auditory expectation was used to quantify the statistical properties of both the grammar and the compositions. Results showed that participants successfully learned the new grammar. This was also reflected in the N100, P200, and P3a components, which were higher in response to incorrect than correct notes. The delta band (2.5-4.5 Hz) power in response to grammatical notes during first exposure to the grammar positively correlated with learning, suggesting a potential neural mechanism of encoding. On the other hand, better learning was associated with lower alpha and higher beta band power after training, potentially reflecting neural mechanisms of retrieval. Importantly, learning was a significant predictor of creativity, as judged by experts. There was also an inverted U-shaped relationship between percentage of correct intervals and creativity, as compositions with an intermediate proportion of correct intervals were associated with the highest creativity. Finally, the P200 in response to incorrect notes was predictive of creativity, suggesting a link between the neural correlates of learning, and creativity. Overall, our findings shed light on the neural mechanisms of learning an unfamiliar music grammar, and offer novel contributions to the associations between learning measures and creative compositions based on learned materials.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiología , Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Creatividad , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Música , Aprendizaje por Probabilidad , Adulto , Potenciales Relacionados con Evento P300/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Juicio/fisiología , Masculino , Adulto Joven
15.
Curr Biol ; 29(23): 4084-4092.e4, 2019 12 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708393

RESUMEN

Listening to music often evokes intense emotions [1, 2]. Recent research suggests that musical pleasure comes from positive reward prediction errors, which arise when what is heard proves to be better than expected [3]. Central to this view is the engagement of the nucleus accumbens-a brain region that processes reward expectations-to pleasurable music and surprising musical events [4-8]. However, expectancy violations along multiple musical dimensions (e.g., harmony and melody) have failed to implicate the nucleus accumbens [9-11], and it is unknown how music reward value is assigned [12]. Whether changes in musical expectancy elicit pleasure has thus remained elusive [11]. Here, we demonstrate that pleasure varies nonlinearly as a function of the listener's uncertainty when anticipating a musical event, and the surprise it evokes when it deviates from expectations. Taking Western tonal harmony as a model of musical syntax, we used a machine-learning model [13] to mathematically quantify the uncertainty and surprise of 80,000 chords in US Billboard pop songs. Behaviorally, we found that chords elicited high pleasure ratings when they deviated substantially from what the listener had expected (low uncertainty, high surprise) or, conversely, when they conformed to expectations in an uninformative context (high uncertainty, low surprise). Neurally, we found using fMRI that activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, and auditory cortex reflected this interaction, while the nucleus accumbens only reflected uncertainty. These findings challenge current neurocognitive models of music-evoked pleasure and highlight the synergistic interplay between prospective and retrospective states of expectation in the musical experience. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Música , Placer , Incertidumbre , Adulto , Amígdala del Cerebelo/fisiología , Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Femenino , Hipocampo/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiología , Adulto Joven
16.
J Neurosci ; 39(47): 9397-9409, 2019 11 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636112

RESUMEN

Music ranks among the greatest human pleasures. It consistently engages the reward system, and converging evidence implies it exploits predictions to do so. Both prediction confirmations and errors are essential for understanding one's environment, and music offers many of each as it manipulates interacting patterns across multiple timescales. Learning models suggest that a balance of these outcomes (i.e., intermediate complexity) optimizes the reduction of uncertainty to rewarding and pleasurable effect. Yet evidence of a similar pattern in music is mixed, hampered by arbitrary measures of complexity. In the present studies, we applied a well-validated information-theoretic model of auditory expectation to systematically measure two key aspects of musical complexity: predictability (operationalized as information content [IC]), and uncertainty (entropy). In Study 1, we evaluated how these properties affect musical preferences in 43 male and female participants; in Study 2, we replicated Study 1 in an independent sample of 27 people and assessed the contribution of veridical predictability by presenting the same stimuli seven times. Both studies revealed significant quadratic effects of IC and entropy on liking that outperformed linear effects, indicating reliable preferences for music of intermediate complexity. An interaction between IC and entropy further suggested preferences for more predictability during more uncertain contexts, which would facilitate uncertainty reduction. Repeating stimuli decreased liking ratings but did not disrupt the preference for intermediate complexity. Together, these findings support long-hypothesized optimal zones of predictability and uncertainty in musical pleasure with formal modeling, relating the pleasure of music listening to the intrinsic reward of learning.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Abstract pleasures, such as music, claim much of our time, energy, and money despite lacking any clear adaptive benefits like food or shelter. Yet as music manipulates patterns of melody, rhythm, and more, it proficiently exploits our expectations. Given the importance of anticipating and adapting to our ever-changing environments, making and evaluating uncertain predictions can have strong emotional effects. Accordingly, we present evidence that listeners consistently prefer music of intermediate predictive complexity, and that preferences shift toward expected musical outcomes in more uncertain contexts. These results are consistent with theories that emphasize the intrinsic reward of learning, both by updating inaccurate predictions and validating accurate ones, which is optimal in environments that present manageable predictive challenges (i.e., reducible uncertainty).


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Música/psicología , Placer/fisiología , Recompensa , Incertidumbre , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adolescente , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Adulto Joven
18.
Cortex ; 120: 181-200, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323458

RESUMEN

Theories of predictive processing propose that prediction error responses are modulated by the certainty of the predictive model or precision. While there is some evidence for this phenomenon in the visual and, to a lesser extent, the auditory modality, little is known about whether it operates in the complex auditory contexts of daily life. Here, we examined how prediction error responses behave in a more complex and ecologically valid auditory context than those typically studied. We created musical tone sequences with different degrees of pitch uncertainty to manipulate the precision of participants' auditory expectations. Magnetoencephalography was used to measure the magnetic counterpart of the mismatch negativity (MMNm) as a neural marker of prediction error in a multi-feature paradigm. Pitch, slide, intensity and timbre deviants were included. We compared high-entropy stimuli, consisting of a set of non-repetitive melodies, with low-entropy stimuli consisting of a simple, repetitive pitch pattern. Pitch entropy was quantitatively assessed with an information-theoretic model of auditory expectation. We found a reduction in pitch and slide MMNm amplitudes in the high-entropy as compared to the low-entropy context. No significant differences were found for intensity and timbre MMNm amplitudes. Furthermore, in a separate behavioral experiment investigating the detection of pitch deviants, similar decreases were found for accuracy measures in response to more fine-grained increases in pitch entropy. Our results are consistent with a precision modulation of auditory prediction error in a musical context, and suggest that this effect is specific to features that depend on the manipulated dimension-pitch information, in this case.


Asunto(s)
Música/psicología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Incertidumbre , Estimulación Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Entropía , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos , Femenino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografía , Masculino , Percepción de la Altura Tonal/fisiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(8): 1981-1991, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152188

RESUMEN

Both movement and neural activity in humans can be entrained by the regularities of an external stimulus, such as the beat of musical rhythms. Neural entrainment to auditory rhythms supports temporal perception, and is enhanced by selective attention and by hierarchical temporal structure imposed on rhythms. However, it is not known how neural entrainment to rhythms is related to the subjective experience of groove (the desire to move along with music or rhythm), the perception of a regular beat, the perception of complexity, and the experience of pleasure. In two experiments, we used musical rhythms (from Steve Reich's Clapping Music) to investigate whether rhythms that are performed by humans (with naturally variable timing) and rhythms that are mechanical (with precise timing), elicit differences in (1) neural entrainment, as measured by inter-trial phase coherence, and (2) subjective ratings of the complexity, preference, groove, and beat strength of rhythms. We also combined results from the two experiments to investigate relationships between neural entrainment and subjective perception of musical rhythms. We found that mechanical rhythms elicited a greater degree of neural entrainment than performed rhythms, likely due to the greater temporal precision in the stimulus, and the two types only elicited different ratings for some individual rhythms. Neural entrainment to performed rhythms, but not to mechanical ones, correlated with subjective desire to move and subjective complexity. These data, therefore, suggest multiple interacting influences on neural entrainment to rhythms, from low-level stimulus properties to high-level cognition and perception.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Música , Periodicidad , Placer/fisiología , Percepción del Tiempo/fisiología , Adulto , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Música/psicología
20.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 31(6): 855-873, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883293

RESUMEN

Prediction is held to be a fundamental process underpinning perception, action, and cognition. To examine the time course of prediction error signaling, we recorded intracranial EEG activity from nine presurgical epileptic patients while they listened to melodies whose information theoretical predictability had been characterized using a computational model. We examined oscillatory activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, lateral cortical areas previously implicated in auditory predictive processing. We also examined activity in anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), insula, and amygdala to determine whether signatures of prediction error signaling may also be observable in these subcortical areas. Our results demonstrate that the information content (a measure of unexpectedness) of musical notes modulates the amplitude of low-frequency oscillatory activity (theta to beta power) in bilateral STG and right MTG from within 100 and 200 msec of note onset, respectively. Our results also show this cortical activity to be accompanied by low-frequency oscillatory modulation in ACG and insula-areas previously associated with mediating physiological arousal. Finally, we showed that modulation of low-frequency activity is followed by that of high-frequency (gamma) power from approximately 200 msec in the STG, between 300 and 400 msec in the left insula, and between 400 and 500 msec in the ACG. We discuss these results with respect to models of neural processing that emphasize gamma activity as an index of prediction error signaling and highlight the usefulness of musical stimuli in revealing the wide-reaching neural consequences of predictive processing.


Asunto(s)
Anticipación Psicológica/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiología , Electrocorticografía , Música , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Lóbulo Temporal/fisiología , Adulto , Amígdala del Cerebelo/fisiología , Epilepsia/fisiopatología , Femenino , Giro del Cíngulo/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos
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