Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 116
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Anim Health Res Rev ; : 1-7, 2020 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066515

RESUMEN

Wild birds have been the focus of a great deal of research investigating the epidemiology of zoonotic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance in the environment. While enteric pathogens (e.g. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7) and antimicrobial resistant bacteria of public health importance have been isolated from a wide variety of wild bird species, there is a considerable variation in the measured prevalence of a given microorganism from different studies. This variation may often reflect differences in certain ecological and biological factors such as feeding habits and immune status. Variation in prevalence estimates may also reflect differences in sample collection and processing methods, along with a host of epidemiological inputs related to overall study design. Because the generalizability and comparability of prevalence estimates in the wild bird literature are constrained by their methodological and epidemiological underpinnings, understanding them is crucial to the accurate interpretation of prevalence estimates. The main purpose of this review is to examine methodological and epidemiological inputs to prevalence estimates in the wild bird literature that have a major bearing on their generalizability and comparability. The inputs examined here include sample type, microbiological methods, study design, bias, sample size, definitions of prevalence outcomes and parameters, and control of clustering. The issues raised in this review suggest, among other things, that future prevalence studies of wild birds should avoid opportunistic sampling when possible, as this places significant limitations on the generalizability of prevalence data.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227701, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995582

RESUMEN

In the last decade, there has been a marked increase in opioid-related human deaths in the U.S. However, the effects of the growth in opioid use on vulnerable populations, such as pet dogs, are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate potential risk factors at the dog, county, and state-levels that contributed to accidental dog opioid poisonings. Dog demographic information was collected during calls to the Animal Poison Control Center (APCC), operated by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, about pet dog exposures to poisons from 2006-2014. Data concerning state-level opioid-related human death rates and county-level human opioid prescription rates were collected from databases accessed from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A multilevel logistic regression model with random intercepts for county and state was fitted to explore associations between the odds of a call to the APCC being related to dog opioid poisonings with the following independent variables: sex, weight, age, reproductive status, breed class, year, source of calls, county-level human opioid prescription rate, and state-level opioid human death rate. There was a significant non-linear positive association between accidental opioid dog poisoning calls and county-level human opioid prescription rates. Similarly, the odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning significantly declined over the study period. Depending on the breed class, the odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning event were generally lower for older and heavier dogs. The odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning were significantly higher for intact compared to neutered dogs, and if the call was made by a veterinarian compared to a member of the public. Veterinarians responding to poisonings may benefit from knowledge of trends in the use and abuse of both legal and illegal drugs in human populations.

3.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100349, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796196

RESUMEN

Wild canids represent a potential reservoir host for Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Ontario. Since wild canids are not protected by chemoprophylaxis, understanding the epidemiology of D. immmitis in these populations may help elucidate the background risk of infection for dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of D. immitis infection in wild canids across southern Ontario. From February 2016 to March 2017, 290 wild canid carcasses (273 coyotes and 17 foxes) were collected from across the region and assessed for the presence of D. immitis at the time of necropsy. Overall, D. immitis infection was identified in 4.8% (95% CI 2.8-8.0%) of these wild canid carcasses. Among coyotes, 5.1% (95% CI 3.0-8.5%) were positive; no evidence of D. immitis was found in the 17 foxes. Dirofilaria immitis infections in wild canids were detected in two regions of southern Ontario: 12 of the 14 D. immitis infections were detected in the south-western region and two were detected in the eastern region. Our findings provide preliminary insights into the prevalence and geographical distribution of D. immitis in coyotes and foxes in southern Ontario.

4.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 944-956, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850901

RESUMEN

The incidence of infectious waterborne disease in Canada continues to be a public health issue and can be associated with the source of drinking water. Millions of Canadians relying on unregulated private well water are at increased risk of disease. This study examined relationships between well and owner characteristics and the frequency of microbial testing of private wells in two southern-Ontario counties. Using multi-level logistic regression models, testing frequency (i.e., at least once per year vs. less) was modeled, as both self-reported and laboratory-validated, for associations with owner and well characteristics. For the self-reported outcome, a previous adverse test result significantly increased the odds of being classified as a frequent tester, and owners with a well-head more than 16 inches (40.6 cm) above the ground were at significantly higher odds of being classified as frequent testers compared to those with well-heads less than 16 inches above the ground and those below ground level. For the model based on the laboratory-validated outcome, the odds of an owner being a frequent tester significantly varied with the length of occupancy and the occurrence of a previous adverse result. The absence of associations between other well characteristics and testing frequency suggests that well safety education could benefit these communities.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/microbiología , Microbiología del Agua/normas , Pozos de Agua , Agua Potable/normas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Ontario , Salud Pública , Política Pública , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
5.
Geospat Health ; 14(2)2019 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724373

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidiosis is an infectious disease of relevance to the cattle industry. The southern region of the Canadian province of Ontario is characterised by widespread cattle farming that is a key contributor to the Canadian dairy industry. Given Ontario's key role in the Canadian dairy industry and the potential impact that cryptosporidiosis can have on cattle operations, identifying areas of increased risk for bovine cryptosporidiosis is important. The primary goal of this study was to explore the distribution of bovine cryptosporidiosis, across the geographical areas served by the 29 Public Health Units (PHUs) of Southern Ontario, in the period 2011-2014. Laboratory data on bovine cryptosporidiosis were collected from the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Canada. Using veterinary clinic locations as a proxy for farm location, choropleth and isopleth maps were produced. Highrisk clusters of bovine cryptosporidiosis were identified using the flexible spatial scan test. Assessment of the potential for spatial misclassification bias resulting from a proxy location variable was conducted. The overall raw farm-level prevalence of bovine cryptosporidiosis was 45% [95% confidence interval, CI: 42%-48%]. A cluster was identified in the central-west region of Southern Ontario (relative risk 1.30 [95% CI: 1.07-1.54, P=0.026]) meaning that cattle in the areas served by the Bruce-Grey-Owen Sound, Huron, Wellington-Dufferin Guelph and Waterloo PHUs were at a higher risk for infection. Given that this area is known for having a high-density of dairy cattle, it should be considered as a target for further surveillance.

6.
J Wildl Dis ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658429

RESUMEN

The raccoon (Procyon lotor) roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, is an emerging wildlife zoonosis of public health significance in North America. Although the adult stage typically causes no disease in raccoons, the larval stage can cause significant disease in a variety of species, including humans. Raccoons often use human environments, which may increase the risk of B. procyonis exposure in people, particularly in urban settings. Because of this, our objectives were to identify host and environmental risk factors associated with the prevalence and intensity of B. procyonis infection in raccoons in Ontario, Canada. Between 2013 and 2016, 1,539 raccoons were collected and examined for the presence of B. procyonis. Thereafter, we analyzed our data for the influence of age, sex, fat stores, human population size, land use classification, season, and year of collection on the prevalence and intensity of infection. With multilevel logistic regression models, we identified significant associations between prevalence and host age and amount of fat stores and season of collection; a significant two-way interaction was also identified between host sex and land use classification. Additionally, by using multilevel negative binomial regression models, we identified significant associations between the intensity of parasite infection and season of collection, as well as three significant two-way interactions: host sex and land use classification, host age and land use classification, and host sex and amount of fat stores. These findings help provide a more complete understanding of B. procyonis ecology in raccoons, including identifying associations between different environments and B. procyonis, which may assist in the development of future risk management strategies.

7.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661323

RESUMEN

To describe a historical baseline of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles for human clinical Campylobacter species isolates obtained by laboratory surveillance in the province of Saskatchewan from 1999 to 2006; to determine if there were differences in resistance between Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli; and to determine if there were changes in the annual resistance levels in the two species. One thousand three hundred seventy-eight Campylobacter isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the E-test method. Annual resistance levels in C. jejuni and C. coli were compared using logistic regression models. One thousand two hundred (87.1%) isolates were C. jejuni and 129 (9.4%) were C. coli. Resistance in C. jejuni isolates included ciprofloxacin (CIP: 9.4%), erythromycin (ERY: 0.5%), and tetracycline (33.3%). CIP resistance in C. jejuni was higher in 1999 (15.5%, odds ratio [OR] = 3.96, p = 0.01), 2000 (12.7%, OR = 3.10, p = 0.01), 2005 (10.2%, OR = 2.47, p = 0.05), and 2006 (13.0%, OR = 3.22, p = 0.01) compared with 2004 (4.4%). C. coli had significantly higher CIP resistance (15.5%, OR = 1.78, p = 0.03), ERY resistance (13.2%, OR = 60.12, p < 0.01), multidrug resistance (2.3%, OR = 36.29, p < 0.01), and CIP-ERY resistance (3.1%, OR = 50.23, p < 0.01) compared with C. jejuni. This represents the first and most current report of AMR of the collective human Campylobacter isolates from a province in Canada and provides a baseline against which current and future resistance patterns can be compared. Fluoroquinolone resistance in C. jejuni isolates fluctuated from 1999 to 2006, including an increased prevalence in 2005-2006, while macrolide/lincosamide resistance remained very low. Human clinical C. jejuni isolates from Saskatchewan demonstrated resistance to multiple antimicrobials but had significantly less fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance than C. coli isolates.

8.
Can Vet J ; 60(9): 945-954, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523080

RESUMEN

Antimicrobials are used for prophylactic purposes in some flocks because chicks are susceptible to pathogenic bacterial infection at the hatchery stage. The objectives of this study were to assess temporal changes in resistance to ceftiofur, gentamicin, and spectinomycin in Escherichia coli clinical isolates from Ontario broiler chickens between 2008 and 2015, to determine whether stage of production, year and season are predictors of resistance, and whether published data on antimicrobial use help to interpret the temporal patterns in resistance. Logistic regression revealed that stage of production, year, and season were significant predictors of resistance to all 3 antimicrobials. Resistance to ceftiofur fluctuated over time, with a trend towards decreasing resistance between 2013 to 2015; resistance to gentamicin and spectinomycin increased over the study period, with significantly high resistance clusters identified from 2013 to 2015. Comparisons with published hatchery-level antimicrobial use data suggest that these trends may reflect changes in use of ceftiofur and spectinomycin in Ontario.

9.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(6): 622-635, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222965

RESUMEN

Traditionally, zoonotic pathogen ecology studies in wildlife have focused on the interplay among hosts, their demographic characteristics and their pathogens. But pathogen ecology is also influenced by factors that traverse the hierarchical scale of biological organization, ranging from within-host factors at the molecular, cellular and organ levels, all the way to the host population within a larger environment. The influence of host disease and co-infections on zoonotic pathogen carriage in hosts is important because these factors may be key to a more holistic understanding of pathogen ecology in wildlife hosts, which are a major source of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Using wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) as a model species, the purpose of this study was to investigate how host disease and co-infections impact the carriage of zoonotic pathogens. Following a systematic trap and removal study, we tested the rats for the presence of two potentially zoonotic bacterial pathogens (Bartonella tribocorum and Leptospira interrogans) and assessed them for host disease not attributable to these bacteria (i.e., nematode parasites, and macroscopic and microscopic lesions). We fitted multilevel multivariable logistic regression models with pathogen status as the outcome, lesions and parasites as predictor variables and city block as a random effect. Rats had significantly increased odds of being infected with B. tribocorum if they had a concurrent nematode infection in one or more organ systems. Rats with bite wounds, any macroscopic lesion, cardiomyopathy or tracheitis had significantly increased odds of being infected with L. interrogans. These results suggest that host disease may have an important role in the ecology and epidemiology of rat-associated zoonotic pathogens. Our multiscale approach to assessing complex intrahost factors in relation to zoonotic pathogen carriage may be applicable to future studies in rats and other wildlife hosts.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Portador Sano , Coinfección , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/complicaciones , Enfermedades de los Roedores/microbiología , Zoonosis , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/complicaciones , Mordeduras y Picaduras , Femenino , Masculino , Ratas
10.
Can Vet J ; 60(4): 405-413, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992597

RESUMEN

While occupational stressors in human caregiving environments have been well-explored, little is known about these stressors in the animal caregiving professions. To address this, a cross-sectional survey was conducted (June and July, 2016) with employees at a Canadian animal welfare organization to explore perceived occupational stressors and desired wellness resources. Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed via thematic network analysis. Themes related to employee stress included: inability to provide desired level of animal care, poor team environment, overwork, challenges working with the public, and personal safety and vulnerability. Desired resource themes were: reduce overwork and address staffing issues, team building, creation of a wellness culture, and mental health training. These results shed light on occupational stressors facing animal welfare employees at a Canadian animal welfare organization. Recommendations to promote positive mental health and wellness within this, and potentially similar, organizations are discussed.

11.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(4): 406-416, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985994

RESUMEN

The role of free-ranging wildlife in the epidemiology of enteropathogens causing clinical illness in humans and domestic animals is unclear. Salmonella enterica and anti-microbial resistant bacteria have been detected in the faeces of raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the carriage of these bacteria in other sympatric meso-mammals. Our objectives were to: (a) report the prevalence of Salmonella and associated anti-microbial resistance, Campylobacter spp, Clostridium difficile, and anti-microbial resistant Escherichia coli in the faeces of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in southern Ontario; and (b) compare the prevalence of these bacteria in the faeces of these meso-mammal hosts with raccoons from a previously reported study. Faecal swabs were collected from striped skunks and Virginia opossums on five swine farms and five conservation areas from 2011 to 2013. Salmonella was detected in 41% (9/22) and 5% (5/95) of faecal swabs from Virginia opossums and striped skunks, respectively. None of the Salmonella serovars carried resistance to anti-microbials. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. difficile, and anti-microbial resistant E. coli ranged from 6% to 22% in striped skunk and Virginia opossums. Using exact logistic regression, Salmonella was significantly more likely to be detected in faecal swabs of Virginia opossums than skunks and significantly less likely in faecal swabs from skunks than raccoons from a previously reported study. In addition, Campylobacter spp. was significantly more likely to be detected in raccoons than opossums. Salmonella Give was detected in 8/9 (89%) of Salmonella-positive Virginia opossum faecal swabs. Our results suggest that striped skunks and Virginia opossums have the potential to carry pathogenic enteric bacteria in their faeces. The high prevalence of Salmonella Give in Virginia opossum faecal swabs in this study as well as its common occurrence in other Virginia opossum studies throughout North America suggests Virginia opossums may be reservoirs of this serovar.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/veterinaria , Infecciones por Clostridium/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Heces/microbiología , Salmonelosis Animal/epidemiología , Animales , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Infecciones por Clostridium/epidemiología , Clostridium difficile/aislamiento & purificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/epidemiología , Granjas , Femenino , Masculino , Mephitidae/microbiología , Ontario/epidemiología , Zarigüeyas/microbiología , Prevalencia , Mapaches/microbiología , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Salmonelosis Animal/transmisión
12.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(4): 917-922, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021686

RESUMEN

Wild birds are considered a potential source of zoonotic pathogens. We report on the occurrence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and antimicrobial-resistant, nonspecific Escherichia coli in ducks, grebes, and swans obtained by convenience while conducting related research with Canada Geese (Branta canadensis). Samples were obtained in southern Ontario, Canada, between 2013 and 2015 from hunter-caught birds, birds submitted for postmortem diagnosis, and fresh feces from live birds in parks. A secondary objective was to characterize Campylobacter genotypes using comparative genomic fingerprinting. Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance test panel. A total of 71 samples were collected from 15 different waterfowl species. We detected Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli in 17, 3, and 84% of samples, respectively. Ten unique Campylobacter subtypes were identified, some of which had been identified previously in water, poultry, waterfowl, and human clinical cases. Both Salmonella isolates were pansusceptible and 15% of E. coli isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, including resistance to antimicrobials of highest importance to human health. Source attribution studies should examine the role of waterfowl in the dissemination of these pathogens.

13.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100275, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027589

RESUMEN

Baylisascaris procyonis, the roundworm of raccoons (Procyon lotor), is an emerging helminthic zoonosis in North America. Since the larval form is capable of causing neurological disease in more than 150 species of birds and mammals including humans, understanding factors that influence carriage of the parasite by raccoons is important for mitigating risk. This review examines the current literature to identify major demographic and environmental risk factors associated with B. procyonis carriage in wild raccoons. Raccoon age and season of sample collection were most commonly identified as risk factors, with increased prevalence found in juvenile animals and when sample collection occurred in the fall. Human urbanization and agricultural land use were also observed as potential risk factors; however, there are inconsistencies in the direction of influence these risk factors have on the prevalence of infection. Further investigation into the role of environmental risk factors is required to better understand how human activities influence parasite carriage in raccoons. Additionally, future research using multivariable statistical models guided by epidemiological principles to control for confounding variables and identify interaction effects will help clarify the effect of these demographic and environmental factors. Developing a better understanding of the primary risk factors for parasite carriage in raccoons will help identify areas of higher risk for environmental contamination and will aid in the development and refinement of education and management programs to reduce the risk of human exposure.

14.
One Health ; 7: 100083, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809583

RESUMEN

Significant global ecological changes continue to drive emergence of tick-borne zoonoses around the world. This poses an important threat to both human and animal health, and highlights the need for surveillance systems that are capable of monitoring these complex diseases effectively across different stages of the emergence process. Our objective was to develop an evidence-based framework for surveillance of emerging tick-borne zoonoses. We conducted a realist review to understand the available approaches and major challenges associated with surveillance of emerging tick-borne zoonoses. Lyme disease, with a specific focus on emergence in Canada, was used as a case study to provide real-world context, since the process of disease emergence is ongoing in this country. We synthesize the results to propose a novel framework for adaptive surveillance of emerging tick-borne zoonoses. Goals for each phase of disease emergence are highlighted and approaches are suggested. The framework emphasizes the needs for surveillance systems to be inclusive, standardized, comprehensive and sustainable. We build upon a growing body of infectious disease literature that is advocating for reform to surveillance systems. Although our framework has been developed for tick-borne zoonoses, it is flexible and has the potential to be applied to a variety of other vector-borne and zoonotic diseases.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(2): 265-272, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666935

RESUMEN

Alveolar echinococcosis, the disease caused by infection with the intermediate stage of the Echinococcus multilocularis tapeworm, is typically fatal in humans and dogs when left untreated. Since 2012, alveolar echinococcosis has been diagnosed in 5 dogs, 3 lemurs, and 1 chipmunk in southern Ontario, Canada, a region previously considered free of these tapeworms. Because of human and animal health concerns, we estimated prevalence of infection in wild canids across southern Ontario. During 2015-2017, we collected fecal samples from 460 wild canids (416 coyotes, 44 foxes) during postmortem examination and analyzed them by using a semiautomated magnetic capture probe DNA extraction and real-time PCR method for E. multilocularis DNA. Surprisingly, 23% (95% CI 20%-27%) of samples tested positive. By using a spatial scan test, we identified an infection cluster (relative risk 2.26; p = 0.002) in the western-central region of the province. The cluster encompasses areas of dense human population, suggesting zoonotic transmission.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Animales/microbiología , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Equinococosis/microbiología , Echinococcus multilocularis , Animales , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Geografía Médica , Ontario/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 64, 2019 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691522

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne pathogens are emerging concerns in multiple regions of Canada. Determining regional prevalence of canine vector-borne pathogens and documenting change will improve clinician awareness, enable targeted prevention, enhance diagnosis and ideally reduce the risk of disease. Study objectives were to: (i) estimate the prevalence of positive canine vector-borne test results from samples submitted in Canada; (ii) assess change in prevalence over time, from baseline (2008) to 2015; and (iii) estimate the prevalence of pathogen co-infections. METHODS: This repeat cross-sectional study evaluated 753,468 test results for D. immitis antigen and B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis/ewingii/muris serology, and 753,208 test results for Anaplasma phagocytophilum/platys serology using the SNAP® 4Dx®Test and SNAP 4Dx® Plus Test. RESULTS: Based on all submitted samples from Canada (2008-2015), the period seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and D. immitis antigen were 2.0%, 0.5%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. Over the 7 years (2008 compared to 2015) we observed a significant increase in seroprevalence for B. burgdorferi (144.4%) and Ehrlichia spp. (150%). Co-infections (positive for two or more pathogens on a single 4 pathogen test kit) were estimated at 5.4% (1162/21,612) of total positive tests. CONCLUSIONS: The temporal rise and geographical differences in prevalence detected for these pathogens (notably B. burgdorferi) are consistent with anecdotal information on canine illness related to tick-borne pathogen exposure in multiple regions of Canada, particularly canine Lyme disease.


Asunto(s)
Anaplasmosis/epidemiología , Dirofilariasis/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Ehrlichiosis/veterinaria , Enfermedad de Lyme/veterinaria , Anaplasma/inmunología , Anaplasmosis/parasitología , Animales , Borrelia burgdorferi/inmunología , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Dirofilaria immitis/inmunología , Dirofilariasis/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , Ehrlichia/inmunología , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiología , Ehrlichiosis/parasitología , Enfermedad de Lyme/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Lyme/parasitología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(2): 290-298, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466965

RESUMEN

In eastern North America, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causal agents for human and canine Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, respectively. The extensive range expansion of I. scapularis in Ontario is a growing veterinary and public health concern. However, there is limited information on the risk factors associated with I. scapularis carriage on dogs. Within an emerging area for Lyme disease risk in southeastern Ontario, we identified the tick species carried by dogs; determined the prevalence of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in I. scapularis; and examined associations between pet demographics, travel history, and geographical location and the odds of: a dog carrying I. scapularis relative to other tick species (i.e., case-case design), and a removed I. scapularis being infected with B. burgdorferi. Seven species of ticks were collected from 543 companion dogs at 20 participating veterinary hospitals from April to December 2015. Ixodes scapularis were detected on 85.6% of parasitized dogs, and 7.5% of these dogs were carrying at least one B. burgdorferi-positive tick. Based on a multivariable logistic regression model, the odds of I. scapularis infestation relative to other tick species was significantly higher in fall and spring compared to summer, with closer proximity to Lake Ontario, in female compared to male dogs, in dogs weighing over 30 kg compared to lighter dogs, and in dogs that had not visited a farm in the 7 days prior to tick removal. Based on univariable exact logistic regression models, the odds of B. burgdorferi-positive I. scapularis carriage relative to B. burgdorferi-negative I. scapularis were significantly higher for dogs that traveled in the 14 days prior to tick removal, for those dogs under 1 year of age, and for those weighing less than 10 kg. This case-case study provides information for veterinarians and public health practitioners to help protect dogs and their owners from Lyme disease in southeastern Ontario.


Asunto(s)
Perros/parasitología , Ixodes/microbiología , Mascotas/parasitología , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria , Garrapatas/microbiología , Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Animales , Borrelia burgdorferi , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiología , Femenino , Modelos Logísticos , Enfermedad de Lyme/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Lyme/prevención & control , Masculino , Ontario/epidemiología , Propiedad , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/epidemiología , Viaje
18.
J Feline Med Surg ; 21(10): 922-930, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392432

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify any dietary, signalment, geographic and clinical factors associated with hematuric struvite crystalluria (HSC) in a population of cats that visit general care veterinary hospitals in the USA. METHODS: In total, 4032 cats that had a first-time diagnosis of HSC and 8064 control cats with no history of hematuria or crystalluria were identified from medical records of all cats examined between 2007 and 2011 at 790 US veterinary hospitals. Extracted variables included age, sex, neuter status, breed, diet, urinalysis results and history of cystitis. Potential associations between these variables and HSC were estimated. RESULTS: Controlling for other factors, young cats fed a dry diet had an increased likelihood of HSC relative to young cats fed a non-dry diet. However, as age increased, the likelihood of HSC declined for cats fed a dry diet and increased for cats fed a non-dry diet. Moreover, the odds of HSC were significantly greater when cats were unneutered (vs neutered; odds ratio [OR] 45.52) or had a thin (vs heavy) body condition (OR 23.81), diagnosis of cystitis (OR 2.84), urine protein concentration >30 mg/dl (OR 4.72), alkaline (vs neutral) urine pH (OR 3.34), pyuria (OR 23.67) or bacteriuria (OR 2.24). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The present study provides estimates of the strengths of association between HSC and certain signalment and clinical characteristics of cats. This information could help clinicians to perform a more directed screening for struvite crystalluria in certain cat populations. Follow-up studies that build on the findings of this study could explore the clinical importance of HSC in cats.

19.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(1): 60-72, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288954

RESUMEN

From May through October 2016, we conducted a repeated cross-sectional study examining the effects of temporal, spatial, flock and demographic factors (i.e. juvenile vs. adult) on the prevalence of Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae among 344 fresh faecal samples collected from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from four locations where birds nested in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter among all fresh faecal samples was 9.3% and was greatest in the fall when these birds became more mobile following the nesting season. Based on 40 gene comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF40), the increase in prevalence noted in the fall was matched by an increase in the number of unique CGF40 subtypes identified. Resistance to colistin was detected most commonly, in 6% of Escherichia coli isolates, and was highest in the late summer months. All colistin-resistant isolates were negative for the mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes; a chromosomal resistance mechanism (PmrB) was identified in all of these isolates. The prevalence of samples with E. coli exhibiting multi-class resistance or extended spectrum beta-lactamase was low (i.e. <2% of samples). The intra-class correlation coefficients, estimated from the variance components of multilevel logistic regression models, indicated that the shedding of Campylobacter and antimicrobial resistant E. coli among geese within a flock (i.e. birds collected from the same site on the same day) was moderately correlated. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clusters identified using the spatial scan statistic, largely supported the findings from our multi-level models. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the fresh faecal samples collected suggesting that its prevalence in this population of birds was very low.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves/microbiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/veterinaria , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinaria , Gansos/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiología , Ontario/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año
20.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(1): 72-76, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206012

RESUMEN

The growing risk of transmission of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans in Ontario, Canada, warrants investigations into regional tick distribution, tick burdens of local peridomestic animals, and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the geographic distribution and magnitude of tick infestations in opportunistically sampled mammalian wildlife and companion animals (i.e., dogs) in southern Ontario and to test these ticks for evidence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. Ticks collected from wildlife carcasses, live-trapped wildlife and companion animals (2015-2016), as well as wildlife diagnostic cases (2011-2013), were identified to species and life stage. Ixodes scapularis ticks were tested by real-time PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). Amblyomma americanum ticks were tested for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. A total of 1687 ticks of six species were collected from 334 animals, including 224 raccoons (n = 1381 ticks) and 50 dogs (n = 67 ticks). The most common tick species collected from parasitized raccoons were Ixodes texanus (n = 666 ticks) and Dermacentor variabilis (n = 600 ticks), which were removed from 58.5% (median: 2 ticks; range: 1-36) and 49.1% (median: 2 ticks; range: 1-64) of raccoons, respectively. Of I. scapularis tested, 9.3% (4/43) were positive for Bo. burgdorferi s.s. and 2.3% (1/43) for A. phagocytophilum. These results reveal that numerous tick species parasitize common, peridomestic wildlife and that at least two zoonotic, tick-borne pathogens circulate in southern Ontario. Host-tick vector-pathogen dynamics should continue to be monitored in the face of global climate change, landscape alterations and expanding human populations.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Vectores Arácnidos/fisiología , Ixodidae/fisiología , Mascotas , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/veterinaria , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/aislamiento & purificación , Distribución Animal , Animales , Vectores Arácnidos/microbiología , Vectores Arácnidos/parasitología , Babesia microti/aislamiento & purificación , Borrelia/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Ehrlichia chaffeensis/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Ixodes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ixodes/microbiología , Ixodes/parasitología , Ixodes/fisiología , Ixodidae/microbiología , Ixodidae/parasitología , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/microbiología , Larva/parasitología , Larva/fisiología , Masculino , Marmota , Mephitidae , Ninfa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ninfa/microbiología , Ninfa/parasitología , Ninfa/fisiología , Ontario/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Mapaches , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA