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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 212: 108049, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with mental health conditions (MHC) experience health disparities related to combustible tobacco use, and recent studies suggest disproportionately high use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, e.g., e-cigarettes) among adults with MHC. Continued surveillance of ENDS use by MHC status is needed, as well as in-depth examinations of why adults with versus without MHC are using ENDS. METHODS: Using 2018 U.S. nationally representative data (N = 5878), this study examined associations between MHC and serious psychological distress (SPD) with ENDS use. Among current ENDS users (n = 544), associations between MHC and SPD with perceived benefits and reasons for using ENDS were also investigated. RESULTS: Both MHC and SPD were associated with higher likelihood of having ever used ENDS, currently using ENDS, and currently using ENDS daily. There was an interaction between SPD and smoking status in predicting current ENDS use such that the association between SPD and higher current ENDS use was stronger among never smokers. Compared to those without MHC, participants with MHC indicated that using ENDS helped them feel more relaxed and that stress management was a more important reason for ENDS use. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. adults with MHC (and particularly never smokers with SPD) report disproportionately high use of ENDS. Individuals with MHC may be particularly likely to use ENDS for relaxation and stress management.

2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 211: 107855, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057533

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the reasons smokers have discontinued or chosen not to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). METHODS: Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 1843 US adult current smokers who were not current ENDS users pooled from the 2017 and 2018 annual, cross-sectional Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys. Participants reported their ENDS use, reasons for discontinuing or not initiating ENDS use, quit smoking intentions, perceptions, and use intentions. Weighted proportions and logistic regression models were estimated. RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of smokers were former ENDS users who reported prior "regular use", and 7.5% were former ENDS users who reported regular use. Three most cited reasons for discontinuing ENDS were: ENDS "didn't feel like smoking" (23%), "only ever tried them to see what they were like" (20%), and "didn't help me deal with cravings for smoking" (14%). Reasons for discontinuing ENDS were associated with the regularity of former ENDS use and ENDS type. Nearly 40% of current smokers had not tried ENDS with the most commonly cited reasons being not wanting to substitute one addiction for another (60%), concerns about their safety (53%), skepticism that ENDS could help them quit smoking (52%), and cost (43%). Reasons were associated with smoking quit intentions, harm perceptions, and age. CONCLUSION: Whereas smokers who had formerly used ENDS cited inadequate craving reduction or incomparability to smoking for their discontinuation, the larger segment of smokers who have never used ENDS cited "safety," "effectiveness," and "costs" as reasons for non-use.

4.
Prev Med Rep ; 16: 101009, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763161

RESUMEN

Introduction: If dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes is a transition state to tobacco and nicotine use cessation, it may be a tolerable temporary condition. But, if a long-term behavior, dual use may increase tobacco harm to the population as a whole, and efforts should aim to reduce it as much as possible. To develop effective tobacco control policy, the changes in dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes need to be better understood. Methods: National probability samples of U.S. adults in 2015 (n = 6051), 2016 (n = 6014), 2017 (n = 5992), and 2018 (n = 5989) reported their smoking and e-cigarette use status, including frequency of use. Weighted multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine temporal trends and patterns of cigarette and e-cigarette use. Results: Between 2015 and 2018, the prevalence of current e-cigarette use (29.8% in 2015, 22.3% in 2016, 29.1% in 2017, and 27.7% in 2018) did not change significantly among current smokers. This result was consistent among light, moderate, and heavy smokers, and did not change when stratified by sex, age and race. However, the prevalence of cigarette smoking in current e-cigarette users declined from 56.9% in 2015 to 40.8% in 2018 (p < 0.001). Among never (p = .012) and former (ps < 0.001) smokers the prevalence of current e-cigarette use increased significantly. Conclusion: The continued high prevalence of dual use and increased prevalence of current e-cigarette use among never smokers highlight the need for better communication about the risks of prolonged dual use for e-cigarette users, and the risks of nicotine initiation and addiction for nonusers.

5.
Am J Public Health ; 109(9): 1224-1232, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318599

RESUMEN

Objectives. To investigate use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) among priority populations.Methods. Using 2016 through 2017 US nationally representative surveys (n = 11 688), we examined ENDS use by sociodemographic variables (age, education, poverty status, insurance, employment, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation) and combustible tobacco use.Results. Among individuals who currently use noncigarette combustible tobacco, those from certain backgrounds (young adults, those living below the poverty level, those less educated, sexual minorities, Blacks, Hispanics, and those without health insurance) were more likely to use ENDS. Among current cigarette smokers, those who were younger, living at or above poverty (ever use), with higher education (current use), sexual minority, and non-Black were more likely to use ENDS.Conclusions. Associations between sociodemographic variables and ENDS use varied depending on combustible tobacco use status, highlighting the need to consider multiple types of tobacco products to understand ENDS use among priority populations. The impact on tobacco disparities will ultimately depend on whether ENDS are used to transition completely away from combustible tobacco products and how this may differ across priority populations who use diverse tobacco products.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(3): e191047, 2019 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924893

RESUMEN

Importance: Debate is ongoing about whether the scientific evidence of the health risks of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) compared with combustible cigarettes (hereinafter referred to as cigarettes) has been accurately communicated to the public. Large representative surveys are needed to examine how the public perceives the health risk of e-cigarettes and how their perceptions change over time. Objective: To examine how US adults perceived the harm of e-cigarettes relative to cigarettes and how their perception has changed from 2012 to 2017. Design, Setting, and Participants: Survey study using data from 2 multiyear cross-sectional nationally representative surveys-the Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys (TPRPS) and the Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS)-to assess perceived harm of e-cigarettes relative to cigarettes among US adults in 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017. Respondents were selected via address-based sampling or random-digit dialing and consisted of adults 18 years or older. Analyses were conducted from February through April 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported perceived harm of e-cigarettes relative to cigarettes. Results: The analytical samples of TPRPS consisted of 2800 adults in 2012 (cumulative response rate, 7.3%), 5668 in 2014 (cumulative response rate, 6.6%), 5372 in 2015 (cumulative response rate, 6.8%), 5245 in 2016 (cumulative response rate, 6.4%), and 5357 in 2017 (cumulative response rate, 5.8%). The analytical samples of HINTS consisted of 2609 adults in 2012 (response rate, 39.9%), 3301 in 2014 (response rate, 34.4%), 2224 in 2015 (response rate, 33.0%), and 2683 in 2017 (response rate, 32.4%). The proportion of adults who perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes decreased from 39.4% (95% CI, 36.9%-41.9%) in 2012 to 33.9% (95% CI, 32.7%-35.2%) in 2017 in TPRPS and decreased from 50.7% (95% CI, 48.8%-52.7%) in 2012 to 34.5% (95% CI, 32.7%-36.3%) in 2017 in HINTS. During the same period, the proportion of adults who perceived e-cigarettes to be as harmful as cigarettes increased from 11.5% (95% CI, 10.0%-13.2%) in 2012 to 36.4% (95% CI, 35.1%-37.7%) in 2017 (TPRPS) and from 46.4% (95% CI, 44.5%-48.3%) in 2012 to 55.6% (95% CI, 53.7%-57.5%) in 2017 (HINTS). Those who perceived e-cigarettes to be more harmful than cigarettes increased from 1.3% (95% CI, 0.8%-2.2%) in 2012 to 4.3% (95% CI, 3.8%-4.9%) in 2017 (TPRPS) and from 2.8% (95% CI, 2.2%-3.5%) in 2012 to 9.9% (95% CI, 8.8%-11.1%) in 2017 (HINTS). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the proportion of US adults who perceived e-cigarettes to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes increased substantially from 2012 to 2017. The findings of this study underscore the urgent need to accurately communicate the risks of e-cigarettes to the public, which should clearly differentiate the absolute from the relative harms of e-cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Addict Behav ; 93: 194-197, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735829

RESUMEN

Certain sub-populations (e.g., those living in poverty, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual minorities, and people with mental health conditions) experience profound tobacco-related health disparities. Ongoing surveillance of use of various combustible tobacco products by priority populations of cigarette smokers is needed, particularly in the changing U.S. tobacco regulatory landscape. In 2018 the FDA announced their consideration of a tobacco product standard that would limit the level of nicotine in combustible cigarettes, and such regulations should consider potential effects on tobacco-related disparities. If certain subgroups of cigarette smokers are also using other combustible products, they may be particularly likely to continue dual use or switch to exclusive use of those products if a nicotine reduction standard only applies to cigarettes. Accordingly, this study provided recent U.S. nationally representative data on use of other combustible tobacco products among current cigarette smokers by sociodemographic characteristics. Data were drawn from current cigarette smokers (n = 2559) in 2016 and 2017 U.S. nationally representative surveys. Associations between sociodemographic variables (poverty status, education, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and mental health status) with use of little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), traditional cigars, and hookah were examined. Among current cigarette smokers, those living in poverty, racial/ethnic minorities, and those with mental health conditions were particularly likely to use LCCs. Racial/ethnic minority smokers were more likely to smoke traditional cigars. Non-heterosexual smokers, Hispanic smokers, and smokers with mental health conditions were particularly likely to use hookah. These findings have important implications for tobacco regulatory policy and other efforts to combat tobacco-related disparities.

8.
Addiction ; 114(2): 315-325, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adults with mental health conditions (MHC) exhibit disproportionately high smoking prevalence and experience profound tobacco-related disparities. US nationally representative surveys from 2012 to 2015 found relatively high usage of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; e.g. e-cigarettes) among adults with MHC. However, research has not examined these associations specifically among never smokers. Aims were to examine associations among MHC diagnosis, serious psychological distress (SPD) and ENDS use and to test whether associations varied by cigarette smoking status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional US nationally representative survey. SETTING: United States, 2017. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5762 adults (52.0% female; 64.8% non-Hispanic white, 11.4% non-Hispanic black, 15.9% Hispanic, 7.9% non-Hispanic other). MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes were lifetime, current and current daily ENDS use. Predictors were lifetime MHC, past-month SPD and cigarette smoking status, and covariates were gender, age, race/ethnicity, education and annual household income. FINDINGS: lifetime MHC and past-month SPD were each associated with higher likelihood of having ever used ENDS (P ≤ 0.001), currently using ENDS (P ≤ 0.001) and currently using ENDS daily (P < 0.05). There were interactions between MHC and smoking status in predicting ENDS use, such that MHC status predicted higher lifetime and current ENDS use specifically among never and current smokers. Never smokers with MHC had 2.62 higher odds [95% confidence interval, (CI) = 1.54, 4.45] of current ENDS use than those without MHC. Among never smokers, those with MHC indicated higher expectations that ENDS would improve relaxation and concentration (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In 2017, US adults with versus without mental health conditions (MHC) were more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). In particular, both never and current smokers with MHC reported disproportionately high rates of current ENDS use.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/prevención & control , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Distrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto Joven
9.
Tob Control ; 27(Suppl 1): s55-s61, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158204

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Although heated tobacco products (HTP) have been on and off the commercial market for the past three decades (eg, Premier, Eclipse and Accord), they have not received widespread consumer acceptance as an alternative to combustible cigarettes. This may change with recent product innovations, shifts in consumer preferences and the tobacco market landscape and a US regulatory environment that may permit an internationally available HTP to be sold in the USA, possibly with a reduced exposure or risk statement. This study examined the extent of awareness and use of HTP in the USA and assessed the characteristics of those aware of and using these products. METHODS: Data came from the 2016 and 2017 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys of national probability samples of US adults, conducted online during September-October 2016 (n=6014) and August-September 2017 (n=5992). Weighted χ2 tests and regression analyses examined changes in awareness and use of HTP between 2016 and 2017 and characteristics associated with awareness and use. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2017, awareness of HTP among US adults increased from 9.3% to 12.4% (p<0.001), ever use increased from 1.4% to 2.2% (p=0.005) and current use increased two fold, from 0.5% to 1.1% (p=0.004). Men and adults under age 45 years had higher rates of awareness than women and those 45 and older, respectively. Non-white adults, cigarette smokers and both current and former users of electronic nicotine delivery systems were more likely to be using HTP. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness and use of HTP in the USA are increasing. These products are more familiar to men and younger adults and may be being used disproportionately by racial/ethnic minorities. With increases in HTP availability and the potential for reduced-risk claims ahead, surveillance of patterns and consequences of use by both smokers and non-smokers is needed.


Asunto(s)
Concienciación , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Utilización de Equipos y Suministros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(suppl_1): S62-S70, 2018 08 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125015

RESUMEN

Introduction: While smoking rates have declined, use of smokeless tobacco (ST) has remained constant. ST is heavily marketed to cigarette smokers, and many ST users smoke cigarettes. This study provides updated comparisons of the characteristics, smoking behaviors, and perceptions of US adult dual ST and cigarette users and exclusive cigarette smokers in 2015-2016. Methods: Data were from nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys from 2015 and 2016. Adult smokers reported past 30-day use of ST, current cigarette smoking, risk perceptions, smoking, and quitting behaviors. We estimated Rao-Scott χ2 and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) to compare dual users and exclusive smokers. Results: Dual users were more likely to be younger, reside in nonmetropolitan statistical areas (MSA) and outside the Northeast United States. Adjusting for covariates, dual users did not differ significantly from exclusive smokers on most smoker characteristics, including number of past year quit attempts. Dual users were more likely to report past 30-day use of novel tobacco products (AORs 2.90 [little cigars and cigarillos] to 11.02 [hookah]). Dual users who reported at least 1 past year cigarette quit attempt were more likely than exclusive smokers to report using ST, traditional cigars, hookah, or heat-not-burn as a past year quit method (AOR: 9.54 [95% CI: 3.22 to 28.23]). Conclusions: Smokers who use ST are more likely than exclusive smokers to attempt to quit smoking cigarettes using other tobacco products. These findings may be attributed to increasing use prevalence of novel products. We recommend further monitoring to assess polytobacco use and differences among these populations. Implications: Many current ST users smoke cigarettes and ST promotions often target cigarette smokers. As the FDA considers ST regulations and implements a nicotine centered regulatory framework, it is imperative to evaluate how these policies and promotion of ST as potentially reduced risk products impact dual and polytobacco use. Our study found that many dual users engage in novel tobacco use in general and as a cessation method. Consideration of ST and polytobacco use among smokers may be helpful in the development of forthcoming FDA regulations, messaging, and interventions.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Pediatrics ; 142(2)2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012557

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the changing landscape of tobacco products in recent years, the array of products through which children could be exposed to nicotine has grown substantially. Thus, it is particularly important to understand adults' perceptions of the harms of nicotine to children and to identify any sociodemographic factors related to inaccurate risk perceptions. METHODS: Data were drawn from 2015 to 2016 US nationally representative surveys (n = 11 959). Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we examined whether race, sex, education, tobacco product use, and having a minor child in the home are associated with the level of perceived harmfulness of nicotine to children. RESULTS: Although the majority of respondents characterized nicotine as "definitely harmful" to children, there were notable subgroup differences. Compared with women, men had significantly lower odds of characterizing nicotine as "definitely harmful" to children. Tobacco product users had significantly lower odds of endorsing "definitely harmful" or "don't know" than nonusers. African American non-Hispanic individuals, Hispanic individuals, and "other" non-Hispanic individuals had significantly lower odds of endorsing "definitely harmful" or "maybe harmful" than white individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although most adults perceive nicotine exposure as harmful for children, there are important differences based on sex, racial and/or ethnic background, and tobacco use status. The results reveal the need for public health efforts to better understand and target inaccurate risk perceptions among specific subgroups.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Percepción , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0198047, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985948

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The potential of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to reduce the cardiovascular and other disease risks of smoking is of great interest. While many smokers report using ENDS for cessation, their impact under real-world use patterns and conditions on adult smokers' quitting behavior is uncertain. The objective of this study was to generate more recent and comprehensive evidence on the effect of "real world" ENDS use on the population quit rates of adult smokers while taking account of frequency and duration of use, device type, e-liquid flavor, and reasons for use. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based, prospective cohort study of a random probability sample of 1284 U.S. adult smokers recruited in August/September 2015 and re-contacted one-year later (September 2016) from GfK's KnowledgePanel, a national, probability-based web-panel designed to be representative of non-institutionalized U.S. adults. Among the 1081 baseline smokers who remained members of KnowledgePanel, 858 completed the follow-up survey. The primary outcome was smoking abstinence for at least 30 days prior to follow-up. Secondary outcomes were making a quit attempt during the 12-month study period and number of cigarettes smoked per day at follow-up. The adjusted odds of quitting smoking were lower for those that used ENDS at baseline (9.4%, 95% CI = 5.22%-16.38%; AOR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13-0.72) compared to smokers who did not use at ENDS (18.9%, 95% CI = 14.24%-24.68%). Smokers who used ENDS daily at some point during the study period were also less likely to quit smoking than nonusers (AOR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.04-0.82). Limited ability to draw causal inferences from the observational design and a lack of biochemical verification of quitting smoking or ENDS use are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that ENDS use, within context of the 2015-2016 US regulatory and tobacco/vaping market landscape, helped adult smokers quit at rates higher than smokers who did not use these products. Absent any meaningful changes, ENDS use among adult smokers is unlikely to be a sufficient solution to obtaining a meaningful increase in population quit rates. Additional research is needed to reconcile the divergent literature and monitor the impact of ENDS in an environment of rapidly evolving markets and regulatory policies.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Fumar/fisiopatología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 395, 2018 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco companies argue that the decision to smoke is made by well-informed rational adults who have considered all the risks and benefits of smoking. Yet in promoting their products, the tobacco industry frequently relies on affect, portraying their products as part of a desirable lifestyle. Research examining the roles of affect and perceived risks in smoking has been scant and non-existent for novel tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). METHODS: We examined the relationship between affect, perceived risk, and current use for cigarettes and e-cigarettes in 2015 in a nationally representative sample of 5398 U.S. adults who were aware of e-cigarettes. RESULTS: Participants held various affective associations with tobacco products, and affect towards cigarettes was more negative than affect towards e-cigarettes. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), affect towards cigarettes and e-cigarettes was associated with cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use respectively, and these associations were both direct and partially mediated by risk perceptions towards smoking and e-cigarette use. More positive affect towards cigarettes or e-cigarettes was associated with lower perceived risks, which in turn was associated with higher odds of being a current cigarette or e-cigarette user. CONCLUSIONS: In developing models explaining tobacco use behavior, or in creating public communication campaigns aimed at curbing tobacco use, it is useful to focus not only on the reason based predictors, such as perceptions of risks and benefits, but also on affective predictors. Educational efforts aimed at further smoking reductions should highlight and reinforce negative images and associations with cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Addict Behav ; 80: 102-109, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29407679

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking rates are disproportionately high among adults with mental health conditions (MHC), and recent research suggests that among former smokers, those with MHC are more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study investigated reasons for ENDS use and related risk perceptions among individuals with versus without MHC. METHODS: Among adult current ENDS users (n=550), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and motives for ENDS use and ENDS risk perceptions were examined, stratified by smoking status. RESULTS: There were no significant associations between MHC status and ENDS motives or perceptions in the overall sample. However, current smokers with MHC indicated thinking more about how ENDS might improve their health, and former smokers with MHC reported thinking less about how ENDS might harm their health, compared to their counterparts without MHC. Former smokers with MHC rated several reasons for ENDS use (e.g., less harmful than regular cigarettes; to quit smoking; appealing flavors) as more important than did those without MHC. CONCLUSIONS: Current and former smokers with MHC may be especially optimistic about health benefits of ENDS. However, they might also be prone to health risks of continued ENDS use or concurrent use with traditional cigarettes. It will be important for public health messaging to provide this population with accurate information about benefits and risks of ENDS.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Trastornos Mentales , Motivación , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Trastorno Bipolar , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Fumar Cigarrillos , Trastorno Depresivo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Trastornos Psicóticos , Riesgo , Esquizofrenia , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
15.
Addict Behav ; 79: 219-225, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175027

RESUMEN

Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing surveys concerning e-cigarette perceptions. We surveyed the 14 TCORS sites and received and reviewed 371 e-cigarette perception items from seven sites. We categorized the items based on types of perceptions asked, and identified measurement approaches that could enhance data validity and approaches that researchers may consider avoiding. The committee provides suggestions in four areas: (1) perceptions of benefits, (2) harm perceptions, (3) addiction perceptions, and (4) perceptions of social norms. Across these 4 areas, the most appropriate way to assess e-cigarette perceptions depends largely on study aims. The type and number of items used to examine e-cigarette perceptions will also vary depending on respondents' e-cigarette experience (i.e., user vs. non-user), level of experience (e.g., experimental vs. established), type of e-cigarette device (e.g., cig-a-like, mod), and age. Continuous formative work is critical to adequately capture perceptions in response to the rapidly changing e-cigarette landscape. Most important, it is imperative to consider the unique perceptual aspects of e-cigarettes, building on the conventional cigarette literature as appropriate, but not relying on existing conventional cigarette perception items without adjustment.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vapeo , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Normas Sociales
16.
Tob Control ; 27(e2): e143-e151, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183920

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Benefit-cost analyses of tobacco regulations include estimates of the informed choice of smokers to continue smoking. Few studies have focused on subjective feelings associated with continued smoking. This study estimates how smoker discontent and regret relate to risk perceptions and health concerns. METHODS: We analysed data from a 2015 nationally representative, online survey of 1284 US adult current smokers. Information was collected on regret, intention to quit, perceived addiction, risk perceptions and health concerns. Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics and health status was used to examine factors associated with smoker discontent. RESULTS: More than 80% of current smokers report high (22.5%) or very high (59.8%) discontent due to inability to quit, perceived addiction and regret about having started to smoke. Higher levels of discontent did not vary significantly by sex, age, race/ethnicity, education or income (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) 0.5-1.2). Compared with the smokers expressing low (5.9%) or very low (3.6%) discontent, those expressing higher levels of discontent perceived their health status as fair/poor (AOR=2.3), worried most of the time about lung cancer (AOR=4.6) and felt they were more likely to develop lung cancer in the future (AOR=5.1). CONCLUSION: The proportion of smokers who might be characterised as having a preference to continue smoking are greatly outnumbered by addicted, discontent and concerned smokers who want to quit and regret ever having started to smoke. These discontent smokers could have a substantial net welfare gain if new regulations helped them escape their concerns about the health effects from continuing smoking.


Asunto(s)
Placer , Políticas , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Bienestar Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Emociones , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
17.
Public Health Rep ; 132(5): 545-548, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880788

RESUMEN

Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Am J Health Behav ; 41(5): 608-617, 2017 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760183

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) changed during 2014-2016 and examine factors associated with use among adults in the United States (US). METHODS: Data were obtained from Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys of probability samples representative of US adults in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Change over time in current (past 30 day) STP use was examined using pairwise comparisons of proportions and multivariable logistic regression. Associated factors were examined using Rao-Scott χ2 and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of current STP use was higher in 2015 (3.6%) than in 2014 (2.3%, p < .001) and 2016 (2.7%, p = .018) among US adults. In 2016, current STP use was associated with being male, under age 60, currently using hookah or e-cigarettes, and having less than a college degree. Rates of use did not vary by cigarette smoking status, race/ethnicity, income, or metropolitan statistical area (MSA). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of current STP use peaked in 2015. In 2016, current STP use was more prevalent among males and adults with lower education. Continuous monitoring of STP use is needed, particularly non-cigarette tobacco product users.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
19.
Prev Med ; 104: 71-78, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579496

RESUMEN

Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB]) populations experience disparities in cigarette use, but sparse evidence exists about novel and other alternative tobacco product use. In this study, we compared rates of novel and other alternative tobacco product use, risk perceptions, and worldview between LGB and heterosexual (HET) adults. An online survey administered in 2014-2015, using a weighted probability sample of 11,525 U.S. adults, assessed awareness of tobacco products; ever and current use of e-cigarettes, cigars, little cigars and cigarillos, and hookahs; perceptions of e-cigarettes; and worldview (individualism vs. communitarianism). Bivariate and adjusted multivariable analyses were performed to determine differences between LGB and HET groups. In the adjusted analyses, LGB adults were 1.5 times more likely to have ever used e-cigarettes (95% CI 1.2-1.9) and 1.9 times more likely to have ever used hookahs (95% CI 1.5-2.4) as compared to HET adults. A lower percentage of LGB adults, as compared to HET adults (16.7% vs. 19.2%), believed that exposure to vapors from e-cigarettes was "harmful" and reported that they "did not know" of any harm (35.1% vs. 39.8%). LGB were 20% less likely than were HET adults to endorse an individualistic worldview. These results suggest that a disparity exists, whereby LGB adults are more likely to have used e-cigarettes and hookahs. In addition, although vapor from e-cigarettes contains nicotine and other chemicals, LGB adults are less likely to perceive exposure to secondhand vapor as harmful. Tailored awareness campaigns and interventions are needed to convey the risks and curb use of these products.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Heterosexualidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383508

RESUMEN

Background: The majority of smokers regret ever starting to smoke, yet the vast majority continue to smoke despite the fact that smoking kills nearly 50% of lifetime users. This study examined the relationships between regret and smoker characteristics, quit history, risk perceptions, experiential thinking, and beliefs and intentions at time of smoking initiation. Methods: Data from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey, a nationally representative survey of United States adults, were analyzed to provide the latest prevalence estimates of regret and potential predictors. Relationships among predictor variables and regret were analyzed using correlations, t-tests, and multinomial logistic regression. Results: The majority of smokers (71.5%) regretted starting to smoke. Being older and non-Hispanic white were significant predictors of regret. Smokers having a high intention to quit, having made quit attempts in the past year, worrying about getting lung cancer, believing smoking every day can be risky for your health, perceiving a risk of being diagnosed with lung cancer during one's lifetime, and considering themselves addicted to cigarettes were significant predictors of regret for smoking initiation. Conclusions: This study provides updated prevalence data on regret using a national sample, and confirms that regret is associated with perceived risk. The findings from this study can be used to inform smoking intervention programs and support the inclusion of smoker regret in cost-benefit analyses of the economic impact of tobacco regulations.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Adulto , Terapia Conductista , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Consejo , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Intención , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/economía , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Tabaquismo/economía , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
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