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Ambio ; 49(1): 231-244, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201614


A variety of rewilding initiatives are being implemented across Europe, generally characterized by a more functionalist approach to nature management compared to the classic compositional approach. To address the increasing need for a framework to support implementation of rewilding in practical management, we present TRAAIL-Trophic Rewilding Advancement in Anthropogenically Impacted Landscapes. TRAAIL has been co-produced with managers and other stakeholders and provides managers with a framework to categorize rewilding initiatives and to link conventional nature management and rewilding by guiding steps towards a higher degree of self-regulation. Applying TRAAIL to data obtained in a Danish survey of rewilding-inspired initiatives we find that out of 44 initiatives there is no "Full rewilding" initiatives, 3 "Near-full rewilding" initiatives, 23 "Partial rewilding" initiatives, 2 "minimal rewilding" initiatives and 16 "Effort-intensive conservation management" initiatives. This study shows how TRAAIL can guide and inform trophic rewilding on a local and national scale.

Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Europa (Continente)
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0198308, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697680


Recently, several wild or semi-wild herds of European bison have been reintroduced across Europe. It is essential for future successful bison reintroductions to know how the European bison use different habitats, which environmental parameters drive their habitat selection, and whether their habitat use and behavioural patterns in new reintroduction sites differ from habitats where European bison have been roaming freely for a long time. Here, we address these questions for a 40-ha enclosed site that has been inhabited by semi-free ranging European bison since 2012. The site, Vorup Meadows, is adjacent to the Gudenå river in Denmark and consists of human-modified riparian meadows. During 2013 we monitored the behavioural pattern and spatial use of the 11 bison present and in parallel carried out floristic analyses to assess habitat structure and food quality in the enclosure. We tested habitat use and selection against environmental parameters such as habitat characteristics, plant community traits, topography, and management area (release area vs. meadow area) using linear regression and spatial models. The bison herd had comparable diurnal activity patterns as observed in previous studies on free-roaming bison herds. Topography emerged as the main predictor of the frequency of occurrence in our spatial models, with high-lying drier areas being used more. Bison did not prefer open areas over areas with tree cover when accounting for habitat availability. However, they spent significantly more time in the release area, a former agricultural field with supplementary fodder, than expected from availability compared to the rest of the enclosure, a meadow with tree patches. We wish to increase awareness of possible long-term ethological effects of the release site and the management protocols accomplished here that might reduce the ecological impact by the bison in the target habitat, and thereby compromise or even oppose the conservation goals of the conservation efforts.

Physiol Biochem Zool ; 86(1): 149-58, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23303329


Pythons are renowned for the profound phenotypical flexibility of their visceral organs in response to ingestion of large meals following prolonged fasting. Traditionally, the phenotypic changes are studied by determining organ mass of snakes killed at different times during digestion. Here we evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for in vivo measurements of the visceral organs in fasting and digesting snakes. Twelve snakes were MRI scanned immediately before the organs were removed and weighed to provide direct comparison of the two methods. Both methods provided similar estimates for the mass of liver, gallbladder, and pancreas, whereas MRI overestimated the size of the heart and small intestine, probably because blood and digesta contributed to the volume determined by MRI. The correlations were used to derive wet organ mass from MRI-based volumes to evaluate the mass development through repeated MRI scans of five digesting snakes. MRI was performed at fasting and 24, 48, 72, 132, and 500 h after eating a meal corresponding to 25% of body mass. This observation period revealed a reversible volume upregulation of the visceral organs, supporting the view that successive MRI facilitates in vivo investigations of structural changes accompanied by digestion.

Boidae/anatomía & histología , Boidae/fisiología , Digestión , Ayuno , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Animales , Sistema Digestivo , Corazón , Riñón , Tamaño de los Órganos , Periodo Posprandial