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1.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115863, 2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126161

RESUMEN

Cigarette smoke (CS) affects immune functions, leading to severe outcomes in smokers. Robust evidence addresses the immunotoxic effects of combustible tobacco products. As heat-not-burn tobacco products (HNBT) vaporize lower levels of combustible products, we here compared the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) and HNBT vapor on Jurkat T cells. Cells were exposed to air, conventional cigarettes or heatsticks of HNBT for 30 min and were stimulated or not with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Cell viability, proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, 8-OHdG, MAP-kinases and nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation and metallothionein expression (MTs) were assessed by flow cytometry; nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine levels were measured by Griess reaction and ELISA, respectively. Levels of metals in the exposure chambers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. MT expressions were quantified by immunohistochemistry in the lungs and liver of C57Bl/6 mice exposed to CS, HNBT or air (1 h, twice a day for five days: via inhalation). While both CS and HBNT exposures increased cell death, CS led to a higher number of necrotic cells, increased the production of ROS, NO, inflammatory cytokines and MTs when compared to HNBT-exposed cells, and led to a higher expression of MTs in mice. CS released higher amounts of metals. CS and HNBT exposures decreased PMA-induced interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion and impaired Jurkat proliferation, effects also seen in cells exposed to nicotine. Although HNBT vapor does not activate T cells as CS does, exposure to both HNBT and CS suppressed proliferation and IL-2 release, a pivotal cytokine involved with T cell proliferation and tolerance, and this effect may be related to nicotine content in both products.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 416: 121-6, 2012 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22134030

RESUMEN

In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Salud Laboral , Adulto , Agricultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Femenino , Flores , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Plaguicidas/efectos adversos , Lugar de Trabajo/normas , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
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