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1.
Nanoscale ; 14(3): 865-874, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985489

RESUMEN

The interface-dependent electronic, vibrational, piezoelectric, and optical properties of van der Waals heterobilayers, formed by buckled GeO (b-GeO) and Janus MoSO structures, are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. The electronic band dispersions show that O/Ge and S/O interface formations result in a type-II band alignment with direct and indirect band gaps, respectively. In contrast, O/O and S/Ge interfaces give rise to the formation of a type-I band alignment with an indirect band gap. By considering the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) on top of G0W0 approximation, it is shown that different interfaces can be distinguished from each other by means of the optical absorption spectra as a consequence of the band alignments. Additionally, the low- and high-frequency regimes of the Raman spectra are also different for each interface type. The alignment of the individual dipoles, which is interface-dependent, either weakens or strengthens the net dipole of the heterobilayers and results in tunable piezoelectric coefficients. The results indicate that the possible heterobilayers of b-GeO/MoSO asymmetric structures possess various electronic, optical, and piezoelectric properties arising from the different interface formations and can be distinguished by means of various spectroscopic techniques.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(1): 66-74, 2022 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958221

RESUMEN

A multiscale modeling and simulation approach, including first-principles calculations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and a tight binding approach, is employed to study band flattening of the electronic band structure of oxidized monolayer graphene. The width of flat bands can be tuned by strain, the external electric field, and the density of functional groups and their distribution. A transition to a conducting state is found for monolayer graphene with impurities when it is subjected to an electric field of ∼1.0 V/Å. Several parallel impurity-induced flat bands appear in the low-energy spectrum of monolayer graphene when the number of epoxy groups is changed. The width of the flat band decreases with an increase in tensile strain but is independent of the electric field strength. Here an alternative and easy route for obtaining band flattening in thermodynamically stable functionalized monolayer graphene is introduced. Our work discloses a new avenue for research on band flattening in monolayer graphene.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7170, 2021 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887395

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional crystals with angstrom-scale pores are widely considered as candidates for a next generation of molecular separation technologies aiming to provide extreme, exponentially large selectivity combined with high flow rates. No such pores have been demonstrated experimentally. Here we study gas transport through individual graphene pores created by low intensity exposure to low kV electrons. Helium and hydrogen permeate easily through these pores whereas larger species such as xenon and methane are practically blocked. Permeating gases experience activation barriers that increase quadratically with molecules' kinetic diameter, and the effective diameter of the created pores is estimated as ∼2 angstroms, about one missing carbon ring. Our work reveals stringent conditions for achieving the long sought-after exponential selectivity using porous two-dimensional membranes and suggests limits on their possible performance.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(44): 25424-25433, 2021 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751693

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional materials composed of transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) are poised to revolutionize energy conversion and storage. In this work, we used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the adsorption of Mg and Na adatoms on five M2CS2 monolayers (where M = Mo, Nb, Ti, V, and Zr) for battery applications. We assessed the stability of the adatom (i.e. Na and Mg)-monolayer systems by calculating adsorption and formation energies, as well as voltages as a function of surface coverage. For instance, we found that Mo2CS2 cannot support a full layer of Na nor even a single Mg atom. Na and Mg exhibit the strongest binding on Zr2CS2, followed by Ti2CS2, Nb2CS2 and V2CS2. Using the nudged elastic band method (NEB), we computed promising diffusion barriers for both dilute and nearly full ion surface coverage cases. In the dilute ion adsorption case, a single Mg and Na atom on Ti2CS2 experience ∼0.47 eV and ∼0.10 eV diffusion barriers between the lowest energy sites, respectively. For a nearly full surface coverage, a Na ion moving on Ti2CS2 experiences a ∼0.33 eV energy barrier, implying a concentration-dependent diffusion barrier. Our molecular dynamics results indicate that the three (one) layers (layer) of the Mg (Na) ion on both surfaces of Ti2CS2 remain stable at T = 300 K. While, according to voltage calculations, Zr2CS2 can store Na up to three atomic layers, our MD simulations predict that the outermost layers detach from the Zr2CS2 monolayer due to the weak interaction between Na ions and the monolayer. This suggests that MD simulations are essential to confirm the stability of an ion-electrode system - an insight that is mostly absent in previous studies.

5.
Phys Rev E ; 104(3-1): 034412, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654201

RESUMEN

Due to the potential application of DNA for biophysics and optoelectronics, the electronic energy states and transitions of this genetic material have attracted a great deal of attention recently. However, the fluorescence and corresponding physical process of DNA under optical excitation with photon energies below ultraviolet are still not fully clear. In this work, we experimentally investigate the photoluminescence (PL) properties of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) samples under near-ultraviolet (NUV) and visible excitations (270∼440 nm). Based on the dependence of the PL peak wavelength (λ_{em}) upon the excitation wavelength (λ_{ex}), the PL behaviors of ssDNA can be approximately classified into two categories. In the relatively short excitation wavelength regime, λ_{em} is nearly constant due to exciton-like transitions associated with delocalized excitonic states and excimer states. In the relatively long excitation wavelength range, a linear relation of λ_{em}=Aλ_{ex}+B with A>0 or A<0 can be observed, which comes from electronic transitions related to coupled vibrational-electronic levels. Moreover, the transition channels in different excitation wavelength regimes and the effects of strand length and base type can be analyzed on the basis of these results. These important findings not only can give a general description of the electronic energy states and transitional behaviors of ssDNA samples under NUV and visible excitations, but also can be the basis for the application of DNA in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.


Asunto(s)
ADN de Cadena Simple , ADN , Electrónica
6.
Opt Lett ; 46(19): 4892-4895, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598227

RESUMEN

Terahertz (THz) magneto-optical (MO) properties of monolayer (ML) tungsten disulfide (WS2), placed on different substrates and subjected to external magnetic fields, are studied using THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). We find that the THz MO conductivity exhibits a nearly linear response in a weak magnetic field, while a distinctly nonlinear/oscillating behavior is found in strong magnetic fields owing to strong substrate-induced random impurity scattering and interactions. The THz MO response of ML WS2 depends sensitively on the choice of the substrates, which we trace back to electronic localization and the impact of the substrates on the Landau level (LL) spectrum. Our results provide an in-depth understanding of the THz MO properties of ML WS2/substrate systems, especially the effect of substrates, which can be utilized to realize atomically thin THz MO nano-devices.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(10): 106801, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533367

RESUMEN

The moiré pattern observed in stacked noncommensurate crystal lattices, such as heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides, produces a periodic modulation of their band gap. Excitons subjected to this potential landscape exhibit a band structure that gives rise to a quasiparticle dubbed the moiré exciton. In the case of MoS_{2}/WSe_{2} heterobilayers, the moiré trapping potential has honeycomb symmetry and, consequently, the moiré exciton band structure is the same as that of a Dirac-Weyl fermion, whose mass can be further tuned down to zero with a perpendicularly applied field. Here we show that, analogously to other Dirac-like particles, the moiré exciton exhibits a trembling motion, also known as Zitterbewegung, whose long timescales are compatible with current experimental techniques for exciton dynamics. This promotes the study of the dynamics of moiré excitons in van der Waals heterostructures as an advantageous solid-state platform to probe Zitterbewegung, broadly tunable by gating and interlayer twist angle.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(30): 16417-16422, 2021 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318830

RESUMEN

Using first-principles many-body perturbation theory, we investigate the optical properties of 8-Pmmn borophene at two levels of approximations; the GW method considering only the electron-electron interaction and the GW in combination with the Bethe-Salpeter equation including electron-hole coupling. The band structure exhibits anisotropic Dirac cones with semimetallic character. The optical absorption spectra are obtained for different light polarizations and we predict strong optical absorbance anisotropy. The absorption peaks undergo a global redshift when the electron-hole interaction is taken into account due to the formation of bound excitons which have an anisotropic excitonic wave function.

9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(14)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503605

RESUMEN

Using relativistic density-functional calculations, we examine the magneto-crystalline anisotropy and exchange properties of transition-metal atoms adsorbed on 2D-GaAs. We show that single Mn and Mo atom (Co and Os) strongly bind on 2D-GaAs, and induce local out-of-plane (in-plane) magnetic anisotropy. When a pair of TM atoms is adsorbed on 2D-GaAs in a close range from each other, magnetisation properties change (become tunable) with respect to concentrations and ordering of the adatoms. In all cases, we reveal presence of strong Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. These results indicate novel pathways towards two-dimensional chiral magnetic materials by design, tailored for desired applications in magneto-electronics.

10.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(9): 095503, 2021 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232944

RESUMEN

The time evolution of a low-energy two-dimensional Gaussian wave packet in ABC-stacked n-layer graphene (ABC-NLG) is investigated. Expectation values of the position (x, y) of center-of-mass and the total probability densities of the wave packet are calculated analytically using the Green's function method. These results are confirmed using an alternative numerical method based on the split-operator technique within the Dirac approach for ABC-NLG, which additionally allows to include external fields and potentials. The main features of the zitterbewegung (trembling motion) of wave packets in graphene are demonstrated and are found to depend not only on the wave packet width and initial pseudospin polarization, but also on the number of layers. Moreover, the analytical and numerical methods proposed here allow to investigate wave packet dynamics in graphene systems with an arbitrary number of layers and arbitrary potential landscapes.

11.
Phys Rev E ; 102(2-1): 022803, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942431

RESUMEN

The dielectric properties of confined water is of fundamental interest and is still controversial. For water confined in channels with height smaller than h=8Å, we found a commensurability effect and an extraordinary decrease in the out-of-plane dielectric constant down to the limit of the dielectric constant of optical water. Spatial resolved polarization density data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations are found to be antisymmetric across the channel and are used as input in a mean-field model for the dielectric constant as a function of the height of the channel for h>15Å. Our results are in excellent agreement with a recent experiment [L. Fumagalli et al., Science 360, 1339 (2018)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aat4191].

12.
J Chem Phys ; 152(16): 164116, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357789

RESUMEN

By means of density functional theory based first-principles calculations, the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of 1H- and 1T-phases of single-layer CaX2 (X = F, Cl, Br, or I) structures are investigated. Our results reveal that both the 1H- and 1T-phases are dynamically stable in terms of their phonon band dispersions with the latter being the energetically favorable phase for all single-layers. In both phases of single-layer CaX2 structures, significant phonon softening occurs as the atomic radius increases. In addition, each structural phase exhibits distinctive Raman active modes that enable one to characterize either the phase or the structure via Raman spectroscopy. The electronic band dispersions of single-layer CaX2 structures reveal that all structures are indirect bandgap insulators with a decrease in bandgaps from fluorite to iodide crystals. Furthermore, the calculated linear elastic constants, in-plane stiffness, and Poisson ratio indicate the ultra-soft nature of CaX2 single-layers, which is quite important for their nanoelastic applications. Overall, our study reveals that with their dynamically stable 1T- and 1H-phases, single-layers of CaX2 crystals can be alternative ultra-thin insulators.

13.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(35): 355504, 2020 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348966

RESUMEN

Motivated by the recent successful synthesis of double-M carbides, we investigate structural and electronic properties of WCrC and WCrCO2 monolayers and the effects of biaxial and out-of-plane strain and electric field using density functional theory. WCrC and WCrCO2 monolayers are found to be dynamically stable. WCrC is metallic and WCrCO2 display semi-metallic character with narrow band gap, which can be controlled by strain engineering and electric field. WCrCO2 monolayer exhibits a dual band gap which is preserved in the presence of an electric field. The band gap of WCrCO2 monolayer increases under uniaxial strain while it becomes metallic under tensile strain, resulting in an exotic 2D double semi-metallic behavior. Our results demonstrate that WCrCO2 is a new platform for the study of novel physical properties in two-dimensional Dirac materials and which may provide new opportunities to realize high-speed low-dissipation devices.

14.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(14): 145502, 2020 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822645

RESUMEN

First-principles calculations have been carried out to investigate the stability, structural and electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) hydrogenated GaAs with three possible geometries: chair, zigzag-line and boat configurations. The effect of van der Waals interactions on 2D H-GaAs systems has also been studied. These configurations were found to be energetic and dynamic stable, as well as having a semiconducting character. Although 2D GaAs adsorbed with H tends to form a zigzag-line configuration, the energy differences between chair, zigzag-line and boat are very small which implies the metastability of the system. Chair and boat configurations display a [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] direct bandgap nature, while pristine 2D-GaAs and zigzag-line are indirect semiconductors. The bandgap sizes of all configurations are also hydrogen dependent, and wider than that of pristine 2D-GaAs with both PBE and HSE functionals. Even though DFT-vdW interactions increase the adsorption energies and reduce the equilibrium distances of H-GaAs systems, it presents, qualitatively, the same physical results on the stability and electronic properties of our studied systems with PBE functional. According to our results, 2D buckled gallium arsenide is a good candidate to be synthesized by hydrogen surface passivation as its group III-V partners 2D buckled gallium nitride and boron nitride. The hydrogenation of 2D-GaAs tunes the bandgap of pristine 2D-GaAs, which makes it a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications in the blue and violet ranges of the visible electromagnetic spectrum.

15.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(15): 155501, 2020 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860873

RESUMEN

The energy spectrum and local current patterns in graphene quantum dots (QD) are investigated for different geometries in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic field. Our results demonstrate that, for specific geometries and edge configurations, the QD exhibits vortex and anti-vortex patterns in the local current density, in close analogy to the vortex patterns observed in the probability density current of semiconductor QD, as well as in the order parameter of mesoscopic superconductors.

16.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(10): 962-966, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477802

RESUMEN

Monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) are highly permeable to thermal protons1,2. For thicker two-dimensional (2D) materials, proton conductivity diminishes exponentially, so that, for example, monolayer MoS2 that is just three atoms thick is completely impermeable to protons1. This seemed to suggest that only one-atom-thick crystals could be used as proton-conducting membranes. Here, we show that few-layer micas that are rather thick on the atomic scale become excellent proton conductors if native cations are ion-exchanged for protons. Their areal conductivity exceeds that of graphene and hBN by one to two orders of magnitude. Importantly, ion-exchanged 2D micas exhibit this high conductivity inside the infamous gap for proton-conducting materials3, which extends from ∼100 °C to 500 °C. Areal conductivity of proton-exchanged monolayer micas can reach above 100 S cm-2 at 500 °C, well above the current requirements for the industry roadmap4. We attribute the fast proton permeation to ~5-Å-wide tubular channels that perforate micas' crystal structure, which, after ion exchange, contain only hydroxyl groups inside. Our work indicates that there could be other 2D crystals5 with similar nanometre-scale channels, which could help close the materials gap in proton-conducting applications.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 30(45): 455705, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390597

RESUMEN

Atomic vacancies and nanopores act as local scattering centers and modify the transport properties of charge carriers in phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs). We investigate the influence of such atomic defects on the electronic transport of multi-terminal PNR. We use the non-equilibrium Green's function approach within the tight-binding framework to calculate the transmission coefficient and the conductance. Terminals induce band mixing resulting in oscillations in the conductance. In the presence of atomic vacancies and nanopores the conductance between non-axial terminals exhibit constructive scattering, which is in contrast to mono-axial two-terminal systems where the conductance exhibits destructive scattering. This can be understood from the spatial local density of states of the transport modes in the system. Our results provide fundamental insights into the electronic transport in PNR-based multi-terminal systems and into the ability of atomic defects and nanopores through tuning the transport properties.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(28): 15798-15804, 2019 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282510

RESUMEN

Using the simplified linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method in combination with ab initio calculations, we construct a tight-binding (TB) model for two different crystal structures of monolayer gallium: a100- and b010-Gallenene. The analytical expression for the Hamiltonian and numerical results for the overlap matrix elements between different orbitals of the Ga atoms and for the Slater and Koster (SK) integrals are obtained. We find that the compaction of different structures affects significantly the formation of the orbitals. The results for a100-Gallenene can be very well explained with an orthogonal basis set, while for b010-Gallenene we have to assume a non-orthogonal basis set in order to construct the TB model. Moreover, the transmission properties of nanoribbons of both monolayers oriented along the AC and ZZ directions are also investigated and it is shown that both AC- and ZZ-b010-Gallenene nanoribbons exhibit semiconducting behavior with zero transmission while those of a100-Gallenene nanoribbons are metallic.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(18): 9285-9295, 2019 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931451

RESUMEN

When confined between graphene layers, water behaves differently from the bulk and exhibits unusual properties such as fast water flow and ordering into a crystal. The hydrogen-bonded network is affected by the limited space and by the characteristics of the confining walls. The presence of an extraordinary number of hydronium and hydroxide ions in narrow channels has the following effects: (i) they affect water permeation through the channel, (ii) they may interact with functional groups on the graphene oxide surface and on the edges, and (iii) they change the thermochemistry of water, which are fundamentally important to understand, especially when confined water is subjected to an external electric field. Here we study the physical properties of water when confined between two graphene sheets and containing hydronium and hydroxide. We found that: (i) there is a disruption in the solvation structure of the ions, which is also affected by the layered structure of confined water, (ii) hydronium and hydroxide occupy specific regions inside the nanochannel, with a prevalence of hydronium (hydroxide) ions at the edges (interior), and (iii) ions recombine more slowly in confined systems than in bulk water, with the recombination process depending on the channel height and commensurability between the size of the molecules and the nanochannel height - a decay of 20% (40%) in the number of ions in 8 ps is observed for a channel height of h = 7 Å (bulk water). Our work reveals distinctive properties of water confined in a nanocapillary in the presence of additional hydronium and hydroxide ions.

20.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(26): 265502, 2019 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840939

RESUMEN

The bandgap behavior of 2D-GaAs and graphene have been investigated with van der Waals heterostructured into a yet unexplored graphene/GaAs bilayer, under both uniaxial stress along c axis and different planar strain distributions. The 2D-GaAs bandgap nature changes from [Formula: see text]-K indirect in isolated monolayer to [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] direct in graphene/GaAs bilayer. In the latter, graphene exhibits a bandgap of 5 meV. The uniaxial stress strongly affects the graphene electronic bandgap, while symmetric in-plane strain does not open the bandgap in graphene. Nevertheless, it induces remarkable changes on the GaAs bandgap-width around the Fermi level. However, when applying asymmetric in-plane strain to graphene/GaAs, the graphene sublattice symmetry is broken, and the graphene bandgap is open at the Fermi level to a maximum width of 814 meV. This value is much higher than that reported for just graphene under asymmetric strain. The [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] direct bandgap of GaAs remains unchanged in graphene/GaAs under different types of applied strain. The analyses of phonon dispersion and the elastic constants yield the dynamical and mechanical stability of the graphene/GaAs system, respectively. The calculated mechanical properties for bilayer heterostructure are better than those of their constituent monolayers. This finding, together with the tunable graphene bandgap not only by the strength but also by the direction of the strain, enhance the potential for strain engineering of ultrathin group-III-V electronic devices hybridized by graphene.

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