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3.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 59(2): 169-176, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129709

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Preoperative short cervical length (CL) remains a major risk factor for preterm birth after laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), but the optimal intervention to prolong pregnancy remains elusive. The objective of this study was to compare secondary methods for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancies with TTTS undergoing fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (FLP), in the setting of a short cervix at the time of FLP, in five North American Fetal Treatment Network (NAFTNet) centers. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data collected prospectively at five NAFTNet centers, conducted from January 2013 to March 2020. Inclusion criteria were a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy complicated by TTTS, undergoing FLP, with preoperative CL < 30 mm. Management options for a short cervix included expectant management, vaginal progesterone, pessary (Arabin, incontinence or Bioteque cup), cervical cerclage or a combination of two or more treatments. Patients were not included if the intervention was initiated solely on the basis of having a twin gestation rather than at the diagnosis of a short cervix. Demographics, ultrasound characteristics, operative data and outcomes were compared. The primary outcome was FLP-to-delivery interval. Propensity-score matching was performed, with each treatment group matched (1:1) to the expectant-management group for CL, in order to estimate the effect of each treatment on the FLP-to-delivery interval. RESULTS: A total of 255 women with a twin pregnancy complicated by TTTS and a short cervix undergoing FLP were included in the study. Of these, 151 (59%) were managed expectantly, 32 (13%) had vaginal progesterone only, 21 (8%) had pessary only, 21 (8%) had cervical cerclage only and 30 (12%) had a combination of treatments. A greater proportion of patients in the combined-treatment group had had a prior preterm birth compared with those in the expectant-management group (33% vs 9%; P = 0.01). Mean preoperative CL was shorter in the pessary, cervical-cerclage and combined-treatment groups (14-16 mm) than in the expectant-management and vaginal-progesterone groups (22 mm for both) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in FLP-to-delivery interval between the groups, nor in gestational age at delivery or the rate of live birth or neonatal survival. Vaginal progesterone was associated with a decrease in the risk of delivery before 28 weeks' gestation compared with cervical cerclage and combined treatment (P = 0.03). Using propensity-score matching for CL, cervical cerclage was associated with a reduction in FLP-to-delivery interval of 13 days, as compared with expectant management. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of pregnancies with TTTS and a short maternal cervix undergoing FLP were managed expectantly for a short cervix, establishing a high (62%) risk of delivery before 32 weeks in this condition. No treatment that significantly improved outcome was identified; however, there were significant differences in potential confounders and there were also likely to be unmeasured confounders. Cervical cerclage should not be offered as a secondary prevention for preterm birth in twin pregnancies with TTTS and a short cervix undergoing FLP. A large randomized controlled trial is urgently needed to determine the effects of treatments for the prevention of preterm birth in these pregnancies. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Asunto(s)
Cuello del Útero/cirugía , Transfusión Feto-Fetal/cirugía , Complicaciones del Embarazo/cirugía , Embarazo Gemelar , Nacimiento Prematuro/prevención & control , Enfermedades del Cuello del Útero/cirugía , Cerclaje Cervical , Cuello del Útero/patología , Femenino , Fetoscopía , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/patología , Enfermedades del Cuello del Útero/patología
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 834-842, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285262

RESUMEN

Urolithiasis has a high incidence among confined sheep. It is multifactorial and may cause economic damage. Our aim was to determine the capacity of urinary acidification using ammonium chloride in sheep. Twenty-five 3-month-old male sheep were confined and randomly divided into three groups; the G200 and G500 groups received 200mg/kg/GW and 500mg/kg/GW of ammonium chloride daily for 56 consecutive days, respectively, whereas the CG group did not receive ammonium chloride. Sampling times and clinical evaluation were performed weekly, starting from the 14th day of confinement (M1 or immediately before administering ammonium chloride) until the 17th day (M9) of the feedlot. Hemogasometry, biochemical examination of serum urea and creatinine concentration and ultrasound evaluation of the urinary tract were performed. The urinalysis indicated a higher incidence of ammonium magnesium phosphate crystals at the beginning of the study, showing a migration to urate crystal formation, mainly in the G500 group because of urinary acidification. No hemogasometric, serum biochemistry, ruminal fluid, or ultrasonographic changes were observed. Urinary acidification was achieved and maintained after M7 during the administration of ammonium chloride in the G500 group, but not in the other study groups.(AU)


A urolitíase apresenta alta incidência em ovinos confinados, etiologia multifatorial, e pode causar prejuízo econômico. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a capacidade da acidificação urinária mediante o uso de cloreto de amônio em ovinos. Foram utilizados 25 ovinos de três meses de idade, confinados e divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: grupo CG (controle) não recebeu cloreto de amônio; grupo G200 (200mg/kg/PV) recebeu cloreto de amônio por 56 dias consecutivos; grupo G500 (500mg/kg/PV) recebeu cloreto de amônio por 56 dias consecutivos, administrados diariamente por via oral. Os momentos (M) de colheita de amostras e de avaliação clínica foram realizados com intervalo de sete dias, sendo M1 (imediatamente antes do cloreto de amônio), M2 (sete dias após) até M9, totalizando 70 dias de confinamento. Foram realizadas hemogasometria, concentração sérica de ureia e creatinina e avaliação ultrassonográfica do trato urinário. Na urinálise, houve uma maior incidência de cristais de fosfato amônio magnesiano no início do estudo, com migração para formação de cristais de urato, principalmente no G500, devido à acidificação urinária. Não houve alterações hemogasométricas, na bioquímica sérica, no líquido ruminal, ou alterações ultrassonográficas. A acidificação urinária foi obtida e mantida a partir do M7 durante a administração do cloreto de amônio no grupo G500, não ocorrendo nos outros grupos de estudo.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ovinos/fisiología , Litiasis/veterinaria , Urolitiasis/veterinaria , Cloruro de Amonio/administración & dosificación , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre/veterinaria , Urinálisis/veterinaria
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 471-479, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128381

RESUMEN

Este trabalho descreve as espécies do gênero Eimeria Schneider, 1875, que ocorreram em um confinamento de cordeiros, bem como as dinâmicas da eliminação de oocistos no ambiente, a correlação com o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD) e as variáveis climáticas, durante nove semanas. Cento e quatro cordeiros de diversas raças e cruzas, com aproximadamente 60 dias de vida, foram confinados e submetidos a pesagens e avaliações clínicas e coprológicas periódicas. Amostras de fezes com mais de 500 oocistos de Eimeria por grama de fezes (OoPG) foram separadas para esporulação e identificação das espécies. Entre os oocistos avaliados, foram identificadas as espécies: E. parva, E. crandallis, E. ovinoidalis, E. weybridgensis, E. bakuensis, E. marsica, E. ahsata, E. granulosa, E. pallida e E. faurei. Eimeria crandallis foi a mais frequente, presente em 44 das 58 amostras avaliadas, enquanto E. parva foi a mais abundante nas contagens individuais. Nenhum dos animais apresentou quadro de eimeriose, e coeficientes negativos foram encontrados nas correlações OoPG vs. GMD (-0,075) e OoPG vs. pluviosidade (-0,1164), enquanto para OoPG vs. temperatura foi encontrado coeficiente positivo (0,2914). Animais positivos para a eliminação de oocistos apresentaram infecção mista nas avaliações semanais, com até sete espécies parasitando um mesmo cordeiro.(AU)


This study describes the Eimeria Schneider, 1875 species that occurred in a lamb feedlot, as well as the dynamics of oocyst output in the environment and its correlation with daily weight gain (DWG) and climatic variables during nine weeks. One hundred and four lambs of various breeds and crossbreeds, at approximately 60 days old, were placed in a feedlot and submitted to periodic weighing and clinical and coprological evaluations. Fecal samples presenting more than 500 Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram (OPG) were separated for sporulation, and oocysts were identified at species level. Among evaluated oocysts, the following species were identified: E. parva, E. crandallis, E. ovinoidalis, E. weybridgensis, E. bakuensis, E. marsica, E. ahsata, E. granulosa, E. pallida and E. faurei. Eimeria crandallis was the most frequent one, being identified in 44 of the 58 evaluated samples, while E. parva was the more abundant in individual counts in most weeks. None of the animals presented clinical signs of eimeriosis and negative correlation coefficients were found for OPG vs DWG (-0.075) and OPG vs rainfall, as for OPG vs temperature this coefficient was positive. Animals shedding oocysts presented mixed infection, with up to seven species parasitizing the same lamb.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ovinos/parasitología , Oocistos , Eimeria/aislamiento & purificación , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Heces/parasitología
8.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521581

RESUMEN

GOAL: To report our experience with the use of Stoppa approach for fractures of the acetabulum with quadrilateral plate involvement. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study; level iv. All patients were operated in a third level trauma center. The surgical team was experienced in the management of pelvic fractures. Data about patients, injuries, treatment features and clinical and radiological results were collected. We performed a statistical analysis; both descriptive and analytical. RESULT: 16 patients integrated the sample. 15 suffered associated fracture patterns. Anatomical plates were used in 15. Four required extended approaches. Reduction was anatomical in 9. 7 suffered some complication, needing the additional surgical procedures in 4. The surgical site infection rate was particularly high, appearing in 3. DISCUSSION: Radiological results were within the previously reported. We had a high complication rate, particularly infection. This outcome may be influenced by the special complexity of our cases and the adaptation process to a new technique. CONCLUSSION: Using the Stoppa approach we achieved lots of good or anatomical reductions. However, is an exigent and not without complications technique.


Asunto(s)
Acetábulo/lesiones , Acetábulo/cirugía , Fracturas Óseas/cirugía , Procedimientos Ortopédicos/métodos , Acetábulo/anatomía & histología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1299-1306, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038632

RESUMEN

O objetivo do estudo foi procurar proteínas de fase aguda que possam indicar sinais de maturação no neonato prematuro, por meio da quantificação sérica delas. Identificou-se a imunoglobulina A, a ceruloplasmina, a haptoglobina, a glicoproteína ácida, a transferrina, a albumina e as imunoglobulinas G de cadeias leve e pesada, pela comparação do perfil dos proteinogramas de cordeiros nascidos a termo com os prematuros submetidos a diferentes protocolos terapêuticos, a fim de estimular a atividade respiratória. Constituíram-se seis grupos: PN (n= 9): nascidos de parto normal; CN (n= 7): nascidos de cesariana em tempo normal de gestação; CP (n= 6): nascidos de cesariana prematura sem nenhum tipo de tratamento; DEX (n= 9): prematuros cujas mães receberam dexametasona pré-parto; SURF (n= 6): prematuros tratados com surfactante; e DEXSURF (n= 6): prematuros tratados com surfactante cujas mães receberam dexametasona pré-parto. As avaliações foram realizadas nos momentos imediatamente após o nascimento (M0), após 24 (M24) e após 48 horas (M48). As amostras foram processadas por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). A albumina, as imunoglobulinas e a proteína total dos cordeiros tiveram elevação após a ingestão de colostro. Maiores valores séricos de transferrina são referentes a maior período gestacional, podendo essa proteína ser utilizada como marcador de maturação neonatal.(AU)


The aim of this study was to search for acute phase proteins that could indicate signs of maturation in the premature neonate by quantifying them in serum. Immunoglobulin A, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, acid glycoprotein, tranferrin, albumin, light and heavy chain immunoglobulin G were quantified, comparing the profile of proteinograms from term to preterm lambs submitted to different protocols that stimulate respiratory activity. Six groups were used: PN (n= 9): born from normal birth; CN (n= 7): born from caesarean section at normal time of gestation; CP (n= 6): born from premature cesarean without any type of treatment; DEX (n= 9) preterm whose mothers received prepartum dexamethasone; SURF (n= 6) preterm treated with surfactant; DEXSURF (n= 6): preterm treated with surfactant whose mothers received prepartum dexamethasone. The evaluations were performed immediately after birth (M 0), after 24 and 48 hours (M 24 and M 48). Samples were processed with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Albumin, immunoglobulins, and serum total protein of the lambs were elevated, after colostrum ingestion. Higher serum transferrin values refer to a longer gestational period, and this protein may be used as a marker of neonatal maturation.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Recién Nacido , Recien Nacido Prematuro/sangre , Transferrina/análisis , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/análisis , Ovinos/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Electroforesis en Gel de Poliacrilamida/veterinaria
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 44-52, jan.-fev. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989372

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the vitality and lung function of preterm lambs. Twenty seven preterm lambs were divided in four groups. Group I (n=6) preterm lambs/ control; group II (n=9) lambs born to mothers that were treated with dexamethasone antepartum; group III (n=6) lambs treated with surfactant; and group IV (n=6) lambs treated with surfactant and born to mothers that were treated with dexamethasone antepartum. The APGAR score was performed after birth (T0) and 15 minutes later (T1/4) to assess vitality. The vital signs, blood gas analysis, spirometry and capnometry were assessed immediately after birth and continued until 48 hours. Chest radiographs were performed at T0, T24 and T48. Significant rectal temperature interactions occurred at T1 and T6 depending on the type of treatment used. All animals showed low pH values, which were associated with high pCO2 values and HCO3 -values that increased over time from immediately after birth to two days of age. Higher tidal volume values were observed at T1/4, T1 and T24 when the animals were not treated with surfactant. Capnometry showed significant interactions between treatments at T0. Premature animals showed low vitality and impaired pulmonary function.(AU)


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a vitalidade e a função pulmonar de cordeiros prematuros. Vinte e sete cordeiros foram divididos em quatro grupos: grupo I (n= 6), cordeiros prematuros/controle; grupo II (n= 9), cordeiros prematuros nascidos de mães tratadas com dexametasona antes do parto; grupo III (n= 6), cordeiros prematuros tratados com surfactante; e grupo IV (n= 6), cordeiros prematuros tratados com surfactante e nascidos de mães tratadas com dexametasona antes do parto. O escore APGAR foi realizado após o nascimento (T0) e 15 minutos depois (T1/4). Os parâmetros vitais, hemogasometria, espirometria e capnometria foram avaliados após o nascimento até 48 horas. As radiografias torácicas foram realizadas em T0, T24 e T48. Interações significativas de temperatura retal ocorreram em T1 e T6, dependendo do tipo de tratamento utilizado. Todos os animais apresentaram valores de pH baixos, que foram associados com altos valores de pCO2 e valores de HCO3 que aumentaram ao longo do tempo. Os maiores valores de volume corrente foram observados em T1/4, T1 e T24, quando os animais não foram tratados com surfactante. A capnometria mostrou interações significativas entre tratamentos em T0. Os animais prematuros apresentaram pouca vitalidade e deficiência da função pulmonar.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/veterinaria , Tensoactivos/análisis , Dexametasona/análisis , Ovinos , Cesárea/veterinaria
12.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 39(10): 1947-1952, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fetal MRI has become a valuable tool in the evaluation of open spinal dysraphisms making studies comparing prenatal and postnatal MRI findings increasingly important. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of predicting the level of the spinal dysraphic defect of open spinal dysraphisms on fetal MR imaging and to report additional findings observed when comparing fetal and postnatal MR imaging of the spine in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective analysis was performed of fetal MRIs with open spinal dysraphisms from 2004 through 2016 with available diagnostic postnatal spine MR imaging. Images were reviewed by 2 board-certified fellowship-trained pediatric neuroradiologists. Corresponding clinical/operative reports were reviewed. RESULTS: One hundred nineteen fetal MRIs of open spinal dysraphisms were included. The level of the osseous defect between fetal and postnatal MR imaging was concordant in 42.9% (51/119) of cases and was 1 level different in 39% (47/119) of cases. On postnatal MR imaging, type II split cord malformation was seen in 8.4% (10/119) of cases, with only 50% (5/10) of these cases identified prospectively on fetal MR imaging. Syrinx was noted in 3% (4/119) of prenatal studies, all cervical, all confirmed on postnatal MR imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal MR imaging is accurate in detecting the level of the spinal dysraphic defect, which has an impact on prenatal counseling, neurologic outcomes, and eligibility for fetal surgery. In addition, fetal MR imaging is limited in its ability to detect split cord malformations in patients with open spinal dysraphisms. Although rare, fetal MR imaging has a high specificity for detection of cervical spinal cord syrinx.


Asunto(s)
Feto/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Disrafia Espinal/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(3): 627-636, jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846906

RESUMEN

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as variáveis hematológicas e o perfil bioquímico renal sérico de cordeiros nascidos a termo e prematuros do nascimento às 48 horas de vida, bem como verificar a influência da dexametasona sobre tais variáveis. Foram constituídos quatros grupos experimentais: PN (cordeiros nascidos de parto normal, n=15, média de 146 dias); PNDEX (cordeiros nascidos de parto normal cujas mães receberam 16mg de dexametasona aos 141 de gestação, n=8, média de 143 dias); PRE (cordeiros prematuros nascidos de cesarianas aos 138 dias de gestação, n=10) e PREDEX (cordeiros prematuros nascidos de cesarianas aos 138 dias de gestação cujas mães receberam 16mg de dexametasona dois dias antes, n=9). Os valores médios do volume globular e de hemoglobina diminuíram ao longo das 48 horas de observação, nos quatro grupos experimentais, porém dentro dos limites fisiológicos para a espécie. Houve variação da concentração plasmática de proteínas totais em todos os momentos, sendo os menores valores no grupo PRE. A contagem leucocitária foi mais alta no grupo PN apenas no M24h. Ao longo do período, apenas o grupo PN mostrou diferença entre o M24h e os demais momentos, e o grupo PRE apresentou os menores valores de neutrófilos no M0h, M15min e M60min. As concentrações séricas de creatinina foram mais altas no grupo PRE no M60min, M24h e M48h. Em todos os grupos, houve diminuição no M24h e M48h. Os parâmetros avaliados foram afetados pela prematuridade na espécie ovina e a dexametasona teve influência positiva sobre a taxa de sobrevivência dos animais prematuros.(AU)


The aim of the study was to evaluate hematologic parameters and renal biochemical profile of full-term and premature lambs from birth to 48 hours of life, and assess the effect of dexamethasone on such variables. Four experimental groups were formed: NDG (normal delivery group - lambs vaginally delivered, n=15, average of 146-day gestation); NDEXG (normal delivery with dexamethasone group - lambs vaginally delivered whose mothers received 16 mg of dexamethasone at 141 days of gestation, n=8, average of 143-day gestation); PRE (premature lambs born by cesarean section at 138 days of gestation, n=10) and PREDEX (premature lambs born by cesarean section at 138 days gestation, whose mothers received 16 mg of dexamethasone two days before, n=9). Mean values of cell volume and hemoglobin content decreased during the observation period of 48 hours in all groups, but within the physiologic limits for ovine species. There was significant variation in plasma concentration of total protein in all periods evaluated, with the lowest mean values in PRE group. The leukocyte count was significantly higher in PN group only in M24h. Throughout the observation period, only PN group showed differences between M24h and the other moments and PRE group showed the lowest values of neutrophils in M0h, M15min and M60min. Serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in group PRE in M60min, M24h and M48h. In all groups, there was a decrease in M24 and M48. The evaluated parameters were affected by prematurity in sheep and dexamethasone had a positive effect on the survival rate of premature animals.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos/sangre , Cesárea/veterinaria , Ovinos/sangre , Pruebas Hematológicas/veterinaria , Riñón/química
14.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 56(4): 277-296, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548585

RESUMEN

Nutritional research in elderly disabled is difficult in noninstitutionalized people. The dietary intake of a noninstitutionalized disabled population of the eastern region of Spain was evaluated to detect possible nutritional deviations. A total of 329 participants aged 65 and over were recruited. Most participants were overweight. Carbohydrates did not reach 50% of total Kcal/day. Insufficient micronutrient intakes and high consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats (SFA) were found. A decreasing trend of water intake (p < .05) as well as an increasing trend of alcohol consumption (p < .05) with increasing age was found. The area of residence had a relevant impact on nutritional, dietary, and anthropometric characteristics of our population.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas sobre Dietas , Dieta/normas , Ingestión de Energía , Estado Nutricional , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Grasas de la Dieta , Fibras de la Dieta , Proteínas en la Dieta , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , España/epidemiología , Verduras
15.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 38(5): 1031-1036, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As the practice of in utero repair of myelomeningoceles becomes more prevalent, knowledge of the expected MR imaging findings has become increasingly important. Our aim was to examine neuroimaging findings with a focus on hindbrain herniation and ventricular size in fetuses with open spinal dysraphism and to compare them with postnatal imaging features in groups undergoing prenatal-versus-postnatal repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-center retrospective analysis was performed on MRIs of fetuses with open spinal dysraphism from January 2004 through July 2015 with available postnatal imaging. One hundred two fetuses were included. Reports from available fetal ultrasound were also examined. Images were reviewed by 2 board-certified fellowship-trained pediatric neuroradiologists. Descriptive analyses were performed to demonstrate the distribution of the imaging findings. RESULTS: Thirty-two of 102 (31.3%) fetuses underwent in utero repair of open spinal dysraphism; 68.6% (70/102) underwent postnatal repair. Ninety-four of 102 (92.2%) fetuses had cerebellar ectopia. Of those who underwent prenatal repair (26 grade 3, 6 grade 2), 81.3% (26/32) had resolved cerebellar ectopia postnatally. Of those who had severe cerebellar ectopia (grade 3) that underwent postnatal repair, 65.5% (36/55) remained grade 3, while the remaining 34.5% (19/55) improved to grade 2. The degree of postnatal lateral ventriculomegaly in those that underwent prenatal repair (20.3 ± 5.6 mm) was not significantly different from that in those that underwent postnatal repair (21.5 ± 10.2 mm, P = .53). Increased Chiari grade was significantly correlated with decreased head size for gestational age on fetal sonography (P = .0054). CONCLUSIONS: In fetuses with open spinal dysraphism and severe Chiari II malformation that do not undergo prenatal repair, most have no change in the severity of cerebellar ectopia/Chiari grade. However, in fetuses that undergo in utero repair, most have resolved cerebellar ectopia postnatally.


Asunto(s)
Malformación de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagen/métodos , Rombencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Disrafia Espinal/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Feto , Humanos , Hidrocefalia , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 30(19): 2301-2305, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27997256

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the interpretation of a new technique for the ultrasound evaluation of the level of neurological lesion in fetuses with myelomeningocele. METHODS: Observational study including myelomeningocele fetuses, referred to our center for the sonographic assessment of the fetal lower-limb movements, made and recorded by an expert in Maternal-fetal medicine and a specialist in Rehabilitation. Two observers, with different levels of expertise and blinded to each other's results, interpreted each recorded scan two different times. The agreement for the segmental levels assigned between the observers and the gold standard, the inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility were tested using the weighed Kappa (wκ) index. RESULTS: Twenty-eight scans were recorded and evaluated. The agreement between the observers and the gold standard remained constant for the expert observer (wκ = 0.82) and increased (wκ = 0.66-wκ = 0.72) for the other one. The inter-observer and the intra-observer variability for the expert observer were wκ = 0.72 and wκ = 0.94, respectively. DISCUSSION: The agreement for the prenatal evaluation of the segmental neurological level was excellent, after a short training period, for observers with different degrees of expertise. The interpretation of this technique is reproducible enough and this supports its value for the prediction of postnatal motor function in myelomeningocele fetuses.


Asunto(s)
Meningomielocele/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía Prenatal , Femenino , Humanos , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Embarazo
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(5): 1152-1158, set.-out. 2016. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827876

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as vias aéreas por endoscopia, o perfil de gases, de eletrólitos e o equilíbrio ácido-base de equinos da raça Quarto de Milha (QM) antes e após o exercício de três tambores. Dezesseis cavalos, divididos em dois grupos de oito animais, treino regular (TR - cinco vezes) e treino esporádico (TE - duas vezes por semana), foram utilizados no experimento. A endoscopia foi realizada antes e 90 min após o exercício. Foram realizadas duas coletas de sangue por punção da artéria facial transversa antes do aquecimento (M0) e imediatamente após o exercício (M1), e as leituras foram realizadas com o I-Stat(r). Foram determinadas PCO2, PO2, SO2, pH, BE, HCO3 e TCO2, Na+, K+, iCa, glicose, Hg e Ht. Foi utilizada ANOVA com medidas repetidas no tempo para comparações dos grupos e dos momentos (P<0,05). A HFL acometeu em grau leve (1-2) os animais de ambos os grupos, com 8/8 (100%) no TR e 5/8 (62,5%) no TE. Observou-se presença de secreção serosa na traqueia em 4/8 (50%) para ambos os grupos. A HPIE acometeu em grau leve (1-2) os animais de ambos os grupos, com 4/8 (50%) no grupo TR e 3/8 (37,5%) no grupo TE. Os animais com grau 2 de HPIE apresentaram leve hipoxemia e hipercapnia pós-exercício. SO2, PCO2, pH, HCO3, BE, K e iCa+ não diferiram estatisticamente (P>0,05) entre os grupos. Os cavalos da raça QM submetidos ao exercício de TT apresentam HPIE e acidose metabólica.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the airways by endoscopy, gas profile, electrolytes and acid-base balance of horses in the Quarter Horse (QM) race before and after training three drums. Sixteen horses divided into two groups of 8 animals, with regular training (RT - 5 times a week) and sporadic training (ET - 2 times a week) were used in the experiment. Endoscopy was performed before and 90 min after training. Two blood samples were taken by puncturing the transverse facial artery before heating (M0) and immediately after training (M1), and the readings were performed with the I-Stat(r). PCO2, PO2, SO2, pH, BE, HCO3 and TCO2, Na +, K +, iCa, Glucose, Hg, and Ht were determined. ANOVA was used with repeated measures over time for comparisons of groups and time (P<0.05). The HFL befell was mild (1-2), the animals from both groups with 8/8 (100%) in the TR and 5/8 (62.5%) for the TE. There was presence of serous trachea 4/8 (50%) for both groups. The EIPH befell was mild (1-2) in the animals from both groups with 4/8 (50%) in the RT group and 3/8 (37.5%) for the TE group. Animals with grade 2 EIPH had mild hypoxemia and hypercapnia after exercise. The SO2, PCO2, pH, HCO3, BE, K, and iCa did not differ P <0.05 between groups. QM race submitted to TT exercise have EIPH and metabolic acidosis.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre/veterinaria , Endoscopía/veterinaria , Caballos/sangre , Pulmón , Esfuerzo Físico , Equilibrio Ácido-Base , Electrólitos/análisis , Cetosis/veterinaria , Intercambio Gaseoso Pulmonar
18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11528, 2016 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27198961

RESUMEN

Quantum point contacts are cornerstones of mesoscopic physics and central building blocks for quantum electronics. Although the Fermi wavelength in high-quality bulk graphene can be tuned up to hundreds of nanometres, the observation of quantum confinement of Dirac electrons in nanostructured graphene has proven surprisingly challenging. Here we show ballistic transport and quantized conductance of size-confined Dirac fermions in lithographically defined graphene constrictions. At high carrier densities, the observed conductance agrees excellently with the Landauer theory of ballistic transport without any adjustable parameter. Experimental data and simulations for the evolution of the conductance with magnetic field unambiguously confirm the identification of size quantization in the constriction. Close to the charge neutrality point, bias voltage spectroscopy reveals a renormalized Fermi velocity of ∼1.5 × 10(6) m s(-1) in our constrictions. Moreover, at low carrier density transport measurements allow probing the density of localized states at edges, thus offering a unique handle on edge physics in graphene devices.

19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 345-352, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-779799

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a transferência de imunidade passiva de cabras, que pariram com mastite, para seus respectivos cabritos. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos, a saber: grupo 1 (GI), constituído por cabritos, filhos de cabras sem isolamento microbiológico em ambas as glândulas mamárias, e grupo 2 (GII), composto por cabritos, filhos de cabras com resultado positivo à lactocultura, em pelo menos uma das glândulas mamárias. Foram coletadas amostras de colostro e sangue à parição, bem como às 24 e às 48 horas após o parto/nascimento. O diagnóstico e o monitoramento da mastite nos animais foram realizados por meio do California Mastitis Test (CMT), contagem de células somáticas e isolamento microbiológico. A proteína total foi mensurada pelo método do biureto, e as concentrações de imunoglobulina A (IgA), imunoglobulina G (IgG), transferrina, albumina e haptoglobina por meio da eletrofoerese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Os agentes mais isolados na cultura microbiológica foram os Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. Não houve diferença significativa (P<0,05) entre os valores médios de imunoglobulina G (IgG) nos cabritos provenientes de cabras com mastite quando comparados aos recém-nascidos oriundos de cabras livres de infecções intramamárias. Da mesma forma, a atividade de gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT) não mostrou diferença entre os grupos em todos os momentos avaliados. A ingestão de colostro decorrente de cabras com mastite não causou falha na transferência de imunidade passiva nos respectivos conceptos.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of passive immunity goats kidded with mastitis to their kids. The animals were divided into two groups, namely: Group 1 (GI) containing kids, sons of goats without microbiological isolation in both mammary glands, and Group 2 (GII), composed of kids, sons of goats with positive result to lactoculture in at least one of mammary glands. Colostrum samples and blood were collected after delivery, 24 and 48 hours after delivery / birth. The diagnosis and monitoring of mastitis in animals were performed using the California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell count and microbiological isolation. Total protein was measured by the biuret method, and the concentrations of immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), transferrin, albumin and haptoglobin through eletrofoerese polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE). The agents most isolated in microbiological culture were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. There was no significant difference (p <0.05) between the acquisition of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in goats from goats with mastitis compared to infants originating free goat mammary infections. Similarly the gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was equal in the comparison between groups in all evaluated moments. The colostrum intake resulting from goats with mastitis caused no failure in the passive transfer of immunity in their fetuses.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Cabras/inmunología , Inmunización Pasiva/veterinaria , Mastitis/inmunología , Mastitis/veterinaria , Rumiantes , Staphylococcus/patogenicidad , Coagulasa/análisis , Recuento de Células/veterinaria , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/anomalías , Inmunoglobulinas
20.
Int J Sports Med ; 37(3): 183-90, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26669249

RESUMEN

Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries in sports medicine. In this work, we have generated a new surgically-induced skeletal muscle injury in rats, by using a biopsy needle, which could be easily reproduced and highly mimics skeletal muscle lesions detected in human athletes. By means of histology, immunofluorescence and MRI imaging, we corroborated that our model reproduced the necrosis, inflammation and regeneration processes observed in dystrophic mdx-mice, a model of spontaneous muscle injury, and realistically mimicked the muscle lesions observed in professional athletes. Surgically-injured rat skeletal muscles demonstrated the longitudinal process of muscle regeneration and fibrogenesis as stated by Myosin Heavy Chain developmental (MHCd) and collagen-I protein expression. MRI imaging analysis demonstrated that our muscle injury model reproduces the grade I-II type lesions detected in professional soccer players, including edema around the central tendon and the typically high signal feather shape along muscle fibers. A significant reduction of 30% in maximum tetanus force was also registered after 2 weeks of muscle injury. This new model represents an excellent approach to the study of the mechanisms of muscle injury and repair, and could open new avenues for developing innovative therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle regeneration in sports medicine.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/patología , Músculo Esquelético/lesiones , Regeneración , Animales , Biopsia con Aguja/efectos adversos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Animales , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patología , Fuerza Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/patología , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Fútbol , Medicina Deportiva
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