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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 374, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796187

RESUMEN

Introduction: since the launch of the "Treatment for All in Cameroon" strategy in 2015, an acceleration plan for antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in Cameroon was implemented, with remarkable progresses. These efforts were accompanied by the risk of developing HIV drug resistance. Then, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed surveillance of early warning indicators (IAP) for HIV drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the national HIV Drug Resistance Early Warning Indicators (EWI) in Cameroon. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study in the ten regions of Cameroon in December 2017 to evaluate the six EWIs recommended by the WHO in 68 randomly selected HIV care sites. The reporting period ranged from July 2016 to June 2017. Results: national scores were: drug withdrawal within the estimated time frame (EWI1): 66%; retention on antiretroviral therapy 12 months after treatment initiation (EWI2): 66%; stock-out of antiretroviral drugs over a 12-month period (EWI3): 53%; viral load testing coverage (CV) (EWI4): 10%; coverage suppression after 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (EWI5): 73% and practices for ARV drug delivery (EWI6): (100%). Regional scores were similar. Conclusion: the evaluation of EWI in Cameroon is limited and requires urgent interventions, primarily viral load testing coverage, optimal ARVs management and patient´s adherence.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219960, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318938

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long-term growth in HIV-infected infants treated early in resource-limited settings is poorly documented. Incidence of growth retardation, instantaneous risk of death related to malnutrition and growth parameters evolution during the first five years of life of uninfected and early treated HIV-infected children were compared and associated factors with growth retardation were identified. METHODS: Weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), and length-for-age (LAZ) Z-scores were calculated. The ANRS-PEDIACAM cohort includes four groups of infants with three enrolled during the first week of life: HIV-infected (HI, n = 69), HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU, n = 205) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU, n = 196). The last group included HIV-infected infants diagnosed before 7 months of age (HIL, n = 141). The multi-state Markov model was used to describe the incidence of growth retardation and identified associated factors. RESULTS: During the first 5 years, 27.5% of children experienced underweight (WAZ<-2), 60.4% stunting (LAZ<-2) and 41.1% wasting (WLZ<-2) at least once. The instantaneous risk of death observed from underweight state (35.3 [14.1-88.2], 84.0 [25.5-276.3], and 6.0 [1.5-24.1] per 1000 person-months for 0-6 months, 6-12 months, and 12-60 months respectively) was higher than from non-underweight state (9.6 [5.7-16.1], 20.1 [10.3-39.4] and 0.3 [0.1-0.9] per 1000 person-months). Compared to HEU, HIL and HI children were most at risk of wasting (adjusted HR (aHR) = 4.3 (95%CI: 1.9-9.8), P<0.001 and aHR = 3.3 (95%CI: 1.4-7.9), P = 0.01 respectively) and stunting for HIL (aHR = 8.4 (95%CI: 2.4-29.7). The risk of underweight was higher in HEU compared to HUU children (aHR = 5.0 (CI: 1.4-10.0), P = 0.001). Others associated factors to growth retardation were chronic pathologies, small size at birth, diarrhea and CD4< 25%. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children remained at high risk of wasting and stunting within the first 5 years period of follow-up. There is a need of identifying suitable nutritional support and best ways to integrate it with cART in pediatric HIV infection global care.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/efectos adversos , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Camerún/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Tiempo de Tratamiento
3.
Clin Med Insights Pediatr ; 13: 1179556519846110, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105436

RESUMEN

Background: To accelerate access to pediatric HIV care in Cameroon, operational challenges in implementing HIV pediatric care need to be identified. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health care workers regarding pediatric HIV infection in Cameroon. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted over a 4-month period (April to August 2014) in 12 health facilities in 7 regions of Cameroon selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected from interviews with health care providers and managers using standardized self-administered questionnaires and stored in the ACCESS software. Results: In total, 103 health care providers were included in this study, of which 59 (57.3%) were health workers and 44 (42.7%) community agents. Most of the health workers in charge of HIV pediatric care were nurses, requiring effective medical task shifting that was institutionalized in Cameroon. The knowledge of health care providers in relation to pediatric HIV care was acceptable. Indications for prescription of test for early infant diagnosis were known (96.1%), but their attitudes and practices regarding initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infants less than 2 years (5.2%) and first-line ART protocols (25.4%) were insufficient, due to little information about standard procedures. Conclusion: Capacity building of health care providers and large-scale dissemination of normative national documents are imperative to improve HIV pediatric care in the health care facilities.

4.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 39(3): 208-215, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017537

RESUMEN

Background: Vertical (VT) transmission of HIV remains a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To investigate the VT rate and factors associated with transmission in routine practice in three referral hospitals in Cameroon. Methods: All HIV-infected mothers who delivered in maternity wards or sought paediatric services during the first postnatal week from November 2007 to October 2010 were invited to participate in the ANRS-Pediacam cohort. Their infants were followed at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of life and HIV status was determined from the 6th week of life using real-time PCR. For those who were breastfed and negative at the first PCR, a second test was performed 6 weeks after breast-feeding was stopped. Logistic regression was performed to identify the independent risk factors of VT. Results: Overall, 2053 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. Of these, 1827 were tested for HIV including 1777 before the age of 3 months, and 59 were HIV-infected, resulting in an overall early VT rate of 3.3% (CI 2.5-4.3). The VT rate was significantly associated with the type of maternal exposure to ART (0.5%, 2/439, p<0.001, CI 0.0-1.6) in mothers who commenced HAART before pregnancy, 1.9% (6/321, CI 0.7-4.0) in mothers who commenced HAART during pregnancy, 4.1% (34/837, CI 2.8-5.6) in those on short-course ART and 11.1% (17/153, CI 6.6-17.2) in mothers not receiving ART. On multivariate analysis, the type of exposure to ART remained significantly associated with being small for gestational age (aOR 5.0, CI 2.4-10.3, p < 0.001) and female gender (aOR 2.1, CI 1.2-3.8, p = 0.01). Conclusion: The successfully low rate of VT transmission of HIV in mothers who commenced HAART in early pregnancy strongly supports the need to improve access to diagnosis and early treatment of all women of childbearing age with HIV through the national PMTCT programme. Abbreviations: ANRS: French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis; ART: antiretroviral therapy; ARV: antiretroviral; AUDIPOG: Association des Utilisateurs de Dossiers Informatisés en Pédiatrie, Obstétrique et Gynécologie; CHM/MCC-CBF: The Central Hospital Maternity/Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation; EHC: Essos Hospital Centre; EPI: Expanded Programme on Immunization; HAART: highly active antiretroviral therapy; HBV: hepatitis B virus; IQR: interquartile range; LH: Laquintinie Hospital; MTCT: mother-to-child transmission; NVP: nevirapine; Pediacam: Pediatrie Cameroun; PMTCT: prevention of mother-to-child transmission; SGAG: small for gestational age and gender; UNAIDS: Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS; WHO: World Health Organization; ZDV: zidovudine; 3TC: lamivudine.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Camerún , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Hospitales , Humanos , Incidencia , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 30: 91, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344875

RESUMEN

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected children under five years of age followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD). Methods: Medical records of children aged 13 days-59 months enrolled at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in the Day Care Unit/LHD, were reviewed for a period of 14 years (from 2002 to 2015). We used standard Z-scores, with cut-off point of <-2 SD to define low height-for-age (HAZ), low weight-for-height (WHZ) and low weight-for-age (WAZ). Factors associated with malnutrition were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results: Overall, 217 medical records were included and 52.5% were records of boys. The median weight, height and age of the children was 9.5 kg (range: 2.5-20), 76 cm (range: 46- 117) and 22 months (range: 0.03-59), respectively. The overall prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected children was 68.7%; 63.6% were stunted (HAZ<-2), 37.8% were underweight (WAZ<-2) and 18.4 % were wasted (WHZ<-2). Severe and advanced immunological stages of HIV according to WHO were found in 42.4%, (39/92) and 17.4%, (16/92) of children respectively, and most of them (21.7%) were aged 12-36 months. The overall prevalence of anemia, oropharyngeal candidiasis and pulmonary tuberculosis were 34.6%, 12% and 8.8%, respectively. Oropharyngeal candidiasis was a risk factor independently associated with severe underweight and wasting (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.8-13.5, p = 0.002) and (OR = 5.1, 95% CI: 1.5-17.1, p = 0.007). Conclusion: HIV infection negatively affects the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Early detection of malnutrition is necessary and adequate nutrition should be integrated into the management of pediatric HIV.


Asunto(s)
Candidiasis Bucal/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Camerún/epidemiología , Candidiasis Bucal/epidemiología , Preescolar , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/fisiopatología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Delgadez/epidemiología
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 259, 2018 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075712

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Universal HIV testing and treatment of infected children remain challenging in resource-limited settings (RLS), leading to undiagnosed children/adolescents and limited access to pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of active cases finding of HIV-infected children/adolescents by provider-initiated testing and counseling in a health facility. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from January through April 2016 at 6 entry-points (inpatient, outpatient, neonatology, immunization/family planning, tuberculosis, day-care units) at the Laquintinie Hospital of Douala (LHD), Cameroon. At each entry-point, following counseling with consenting parents, children/adolescents (0-19 years old) with unknown HIV status were tested using the Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) (Determine®) and confirmed with a second RDT (Oraquick®) according to national guidelines. For children less than 18 months, PCR was performed to confirm every positive RDT. Community health workers linked infected participants by accompanying them from the entry-point to the treatment centre for an immediate ART initiation following the « test and treat ¼ strategy. Statistical analysis was performed, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Out of 3439 children seen at entry-points, 2107 had an unknown HIV status (61.3%) and HIV testing acceptance rate was 99.9% (2104). Their mean age was 2.1 (Sd = 2.96) years, with a sex ratio boy/girl of 6/5. HIV prevalence was 2.1% (44), without a significant difference between boys and girls (p = 0.081). High rates of HIV-infection were found among siblings/descendants (22.2%), TB treatment unit attendees (11.4%) and hospitalized children/adolescents (5.6%); p < 0.001. Up to 95.4% (42/44) of those infected children/adolescents were initiated on ART. Overall, 487 (23.2%) deaths were registered (122 per month) and among them, 7 (15.9%) were HIV-positive; mainly due to tuberculosis and malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The consistent rate of unknown HIV status among children/adolescents attending health facilities, the high acceptability rates of HIV testing and linkage to ART, underscore the feasibility and utility of an active case finding model, using multiple entry-points at the health facility, in achieving the 90-90-90 targets for paediatric HIV/AIDS in RLS.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Consejo , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 30: 302, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637086

RESUMEN

Introduction: The use of different therapeutic approaches is common among sick children in Cameroon. The main objective of this study was to characterize the use of non-prescription drugs and describe the therapeutic itineraries of sick children before admission to the hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional and prospective study was conducted from January to May 2017. A closed-ended questionnaire (CEQ) consisting of one or several response options was administered to the parents/guardians of the children on admission to the hospital in the pediatric ward of the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala (LHD) and the Cité des Palmiers District Hospital (CPDH) of the city of Douala. Inclusion of participants was made consecutively for adolescents who gave their consent and parents or guardians who signed the informed consent for all children. The confidentiality of the data was ensured by the replacement of the names by codes. Results: Overall, 295 hospitalized children were included with an average age of 3.1 (SD: 3.3) years in the study. More than half of these children (58.6%) came from LHD. More than 90% of parents had at least one therapeutic recourse (TR). The ratio of boys to girls 3/1. Self-medication (74.1%) and medical consultation (16.9%) were the main therapeutic paths in 1st recourse. The medical consultation (80.2%) and the pharmaceutical advice (16.9%) were used frequently in 2nd recourse. The mean lapse time to see a medical professional was 2.7 days (min-max: 0-14 days). The main symptoms associated with TR were fever (76.6%), vomiting (24.7%) and diarrhea (22.7%). The most frequently used drugs were Analgesics/antipyretics (47.6%), antimalarials (15.0%) and antibiotics (10.2%) and the family medicine box was the highest source of drugs. Conclusion: Self medication remains the first therapeutic path, followed by medical consultation as second therapeutic path taken when the disease is perceived as serious.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicamentos sin Prescripción/administración & dosificación , Automedicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitales de Distrito , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16(1): 678, 2016 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846809

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), especially in resource-limited settings (RLS). In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. METHODS: Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites) of Cameroon, within the "reporting period" of October 2013-November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%), fair (85-75%), poor (<75); and factors with p-value < 0.01 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Majority (74.4%) of patients were in urban settings, and 50.9% were managed in reference treatment centres. Nationwide, retention on ART at 12 months was 60.4% (2023/3349); only six sites and one region achieved acceptable performances. Retention performance varied in reference treatment centres (54.2%) vs. management units (66.8%), p < 0.0001; male (57.1%) vs. women (62.0%), p = 0.007; and with WHO clinical stage I (63.3%) vs. other stages (55.6%), p = 0.007; but neither for age (adults [60.3%] vs. children [58.8%], p = 0.730) nor for immune status (CD4351-500 [65.9%] vs. other CD4-staging [59.86%], p = 0.077). CONCLUSIONS: Poor retention in care, within 12 months of ART initiation, urges active search for lost-to-follow-up targeting preferentially male and symptomatic patients, especially within reference ART clinics. Such sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Camerún , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
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