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Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340990


A case of Mycobacterium leprae rifampin resistance after irregular antileprosy treatments since 1971 is reported. Whole-genome sequencing from four longitudinal samples indicated relapse due to acquired rifampin resistance and not to reinfection with another strain. A putative compensatory mutation in rpoC was also detected. Clinical improvement was achieved using an alternative therapy.

Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 219, 2017 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468680


BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which infects dermal macrophages and dendritic cells, causing an intense immune-mediated-tissue inflammation and a skin ulcer with elevated borders that can heal spontaneously or after antimonial therapy. The resolution of lesions depends on an adaptive immune response, and cytotoxic cells seem to have a fundamental role in this process. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of cytotoxicity mediated mechanisms that occur during the immune response in the CL lesion milieu, considering distinct cytotoxic-related CD107a+ cells, such as CD8+, CD4+, CD4neg CD8neg (double-negative, DN) and CD4+CD8+ (double-positive, DP) T lymphocytes, as well as NK and NKT cells. METHODS: Lesion derived cells were assessed for T cell subpopulations and NK cells, as well as CD107a expression by flow cytometry. In addition, cytometric bead array (CBA) was used to quantify cytokines and granzyme B concentrations in supernatants from macerated lesions. RESULTS: Flow cytometry analyses revealed that NKT cells are the major CD107a-expressing cell population committed to cytotoxicity in CL lesion, although we also observed high frequencies of CD4+ and DN T cells expressing CD107a. Analysing the pool of CD107a+-cell populations, we found a higher distribution of DN T cells (44%), followed by approximately 25% of NKT cells. Interestingly, NK and CD8+ T cells represented only 3 and 4% of the total-CD107a+-cell pool, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cytotoxicity activity that occurs in the lesion milieu of CL patients seems to be dominated by DN T and NKT cells. These findings suggest the need for a reevaluation of the role of classical-cytotoxic NK and CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of CL, implicating an important role for other T cell subpopulations.

Citotoxicidad Inmunológica , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/inmunología , Proteína 1 de la Membrana Asociada a los Lisosomas/inmunología , Células T Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/inmunología , Adulto , Antígenos de Protozoos/inmunología , Biopsia , Brasil/epidemiología , Citocinas/biosíntesis , Citocinas/genética , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo , Granzimas/análisis , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/inmunología , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/epidemiología , Proteína 1 de la Membrana Asociada a los Lisosomas/genética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Piel/inmunología , Piel/parasitología , Piel/patología