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1.
CJEM ; : 1-4, 2020 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213222

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: One in four cases of acute aortic syndrome are missed. This national survey examined Canadian Emergency physicians' opinion on risk stratification, the need for a clinical decision aid to risk stratify patients, and the required sensitivity of such a tool. METHODS: We surveyed 1,556 members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. We used a modified Dillman technique with a prenotification email and up to three survey attempts using electronic mail. Physicians were asked 21 questions about demographics, importance of certain high-risk features, investigation options, threshold for investigation, and if a clinical decision tool is required. RESULTS: We had a response rate of 32%. Respondents were 66% male, and 49% practicing >10 years, with 59% in an academic teaching hospital. A total of 93% reported a need for a clinical decision aid to risk stratify for acute aortic syndrome. A total of 99.6% of physicians were pragmatic accepting a non-zero miss-rate, two-thirds accepting <1%, and the remaining accepting a higher miss-rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our national survey determined that emergency physicians would use a highly sensitive clinical decision aid to determine which patients are at low, medium, or high-risk for acute aortic syndrome. The majority of clinicians have a low threshold (<1%) for investigating for acute aortic syndrome, but accept that a zero miss-rate is not feasible.

2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(1): e15503, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012095

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR), the Canadian Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) Score, and the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) Rule have all previously demonstrated the potential to significantly standardize care and improve the management of patients in emergency departments (EDs). On the basis of user feedback, we believe that the addition of these rules to the Ottawa Rules App has the potential to increase the app's usability and user acceptability. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the perceived usefulness, acceptability, and uptake of the enhanced Ottawa Rules App (which now includes CCHR, TIA, and SAH Rules) among ED clinicians (medical students, residents, nurses, and physicians). METHODS: The enhanced Ottawa Rules App was publicly released for free on iOS and Android operating systems in November 2018. This study was conducted across 2 tertiary EDs in Ottawa, Canada. Posters, direct enrollment, snowball sampling, and emails were used for study recruitment. A 24-question Web-based survey was administered to participants via email, and this was used to determine user acceptability of the app and Technology Readiness Index (TRI) scores. In-app user analytics were collected to track user behavior, such as the number of app sessions, length of app sessions, frequency of rule use, and the date app was first opened. RESULTS: A total of 77 ED clinicians completed the study, including 34 nurses, 12 residents, 14 physicians, and 17 medical students completing ED rotations. The median TRI score for this group was 3.38, indicating a higher than average propensity to embrace and adopt new technologies to accomplish goals in their work or daily lives. The majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the app helped participants accurately carry out the clinical rules (56/77, 73%) and that they would recommend this app to their colleagues (64/77, 83%). Feedback from study participants suggested further expansion of the app-more clinical decision rules (CDRs) and different versions of the app tailored to the clinician role. Analysis and comparison of Google Analytics data and in-app data revealed similar usage behavior among study-enrolled users and all app users globally. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that using the Ottawa Rules App (version 3.0.2) to improve and guide patient care would be feasible and widely accepted. The ability to verify self-reported user data (via a Web-based survey) against server analytics data is a notable strength of this study. Participants' continued app use and request for the addition of more CDRs warrant the further development of this app and call for additional studies to evaluate its feasibility and usability in different settings as well as assessment of clinical impact.

3.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 339-349, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007169

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute atrial fibrillation is the most common arrythmia treated in the emergency department. Our primary aim was to compare conversion to sinus rhythm between pharmacological cardioversion followed by electrical cardioversion (drug-shock), and electrical cardioversion alone (shock-only). Our secondary aim was to compare the effectiveness of two pad positions for electrical cardioversion. METHODS: We did a partial factorial trial of two protocols for patients with acute atrial fibrillation at 11 academic hospital emergency departments in Canada. We enrolled adult patients with acute atrial fibrillation. Protocol 1 was a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled comparison of attempted pharmacological cardioversion with intravenous procainamide (15 mg/kg over 30 min) followed by electrical cardioversion if necessary (up to three shocks, each of ≥200 J), and placebo infusion followed by electrical cardioversion. For patients having electrical cardioversion, we used Protocol 2, a randomised, open-label, nested comparison of anteroposterior versus anterolateral pad positions. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by study site) for Protocol 1 by on-site research personnel using an online electronic data capture system. Randomisation for Protocol 2 occurred 30 min after drug infusion for patients who had not converted and was stratified by site and Protocol 1 allocation. Patients and all research and emergency department staff were masked to treatment allocation for Protocol 1. The primary outcome was conversion to normal sinus rhythm for at least 30 min at any time after randomisation and up to a point immediately after three shocks. Protocol 1 was analysed by intention to treat and Protocol 2 excluded patients who did not receive electrical cardioversion. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01891058. FINDINGS: Between July 18, 2013, and Oct 17, 2018, we enrolled 396 patients, and none were lost to follow-up. In the drug-shock group (n=204), conversion to sinus rhythm occurred in 196 (96%) patients and in the shock-only group (n=192), conversion occurred in 176 (92%) patients (absolute difference 4%; 95% CI 0-9; p=0·07). The proportion of patients discharged home was 97% (n=198) versus 95% (n=183; p=0·60). 106 (52%) patients in the drug-shock group converted after drug infusion only. No patients had serious adverse events in follow-up. The different pad positions in Protocol 2 (n=244), had similar conversions to sinus rhythm (119 [94%] of 127 in anterolateral group vs 108 [92%] of 117 in anteroposterior group; p=0·68). INTERPRETATION: Both the drug-shock and shock-only strategies were highly effective, rapid, and safe in restoring sinus rhythm for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation, avoiding the need for return to hospital. The drug infusion worked for about half of patients and avoided the resource intensive procedural sedation required for electrical cardioversion. We also found no significant difference between the anterolateral and anteroposterior pad positions for electrical cardioversion. Immediate rhythm control for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation leads to excellent outcomes. FUNDING: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Asunto(s)
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapéutico , Fibrilación Atrial/terapia , Cardioversión Eléctrica , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Protocolos Clínicos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
4.
CJEM ; : 1-2, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009603

RESUMEN

A 67-year-old male presents to the emergency department (ED) with a 10-minute history of right upper extremity and right facial weakness, which came on suddenly. His symptoms spontaneously remitted. He has never experienced symptoms like this before. He has a past medical history of coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and is a lifelong smoker. The patient states that he now feels completely well and back to his baseline. On examination, the patient is afebrile. Blood pressure is 160/87, heart rate is 89 in sinus rhythm, and respiratory rate is 16. His oxygen saturation on room air is 94%. Glucose is 5.6 mmol/L. Cranial nerve and peripheral neurological examination are completely unremarkable. Reflexes, coordination, and gait are all within normal limits. Cardiac and respiratory examination are also unremarkable. His electrocardiogram shows normal sinus rhythm.

5.
Stroke ; 51(2): 424-430, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805846

RESUMEN

Background and Purpose- The Ottawa subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) rule identifies patients with headache requiring no testing for SAH, while the 6-hour computed tomography (CT) rule guides when to forgo a lumbar puncture. Our objectives were to: (1) estimate the clinical impact of the Ottawa SAH rule and the 6-hour-CT rule on testing rates (ie, CT, lumbar puncture, CT angiography); (2) validate the 6-hour-CT rule for SAH when applied prospectively in a new cohort of patients. Methods- We conducted a multicenter prospective before/after implementation study from 2011 to 2016 with 6 months follow-up at 6 tertiary-care Canadian Academic Emergency Departments. Consecutive alert, neurologically intact adults with headache were included. For intervention period, physicians were given a 1-hour lecture, pocket cards, posters were installed, and physicians indicated Ottawa SAH rule criteria when ordering CTs. SAH was defined by blood on CT, xanthochromia in cerebrospinal fluid, or >1×106/L red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid with aneurysm. Results- We enrolled 3672 patients, 1743 before and 1929 after implementation, including 188 with SAH. Proportions undergoing CT was unchanged (88.0% versus 87.5%; P=0.643). Lumbar puncture use decreased (38.9% versus 25.9%; P<0.0001). Additional testing following CT (ie, lumbar puncture or CT angiography) decreased (51.3% versus 42.2%; P<0.0001). Admissions declined (9.8% versus 7.4%; P=0.011). Mean emergency department stay was unchanged (6.3±4.0 versus 6.4±4.2 hours; P=0.685). The Ottawa SAH rule was 100% (95% CI, 98.1%-100%) sensitive, and the 6-hour-CT rule was 95.5% (95% CI, 89.8-98.5) sensitive for SAH. The 6-hour-CT rule missed 5 SAHs: 1 radiology misread, 2 incidental aneurysms, 1 nonaneurysmal cause, and 1 profoundly anemic patient. Conclusions- The Ottawa SAH rule and the 6-hour-CT rule are highly sensitive and can be used routinely when SAH is considered in patients with headache. Implementing both rules was associated with a meaningful decrease in testing and admissions to hospital.

6.
Resuscitation ; 146: 138-144, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is common and associated with high mortality. Frailty is increasingly recognized as a predictor of worse prognosis among critically ill patients, but its association with outcomes and resource utilization following IHCA is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis (2013-2016) of a prospectively collected registry from two hospitals of consecutive hospitalized adult patients with IHCA occurring on the hospital wards. We defined frailty using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) score ≥5. CFS scores were based on validated medical review criteria. The primary outcome is hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes include return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), discharge to long-term care, and hospital costs. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for known confounders. RESULTS: We included 477 patients, and 124 (26.0%) had frailty. Frailty was associated with increased odds of hospital death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.91 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.37-3.48) and discharge to long-term care (aOR 1.94 [95% CI: 1.57-2.32]). Compared with patients without frailty, patients with frailty had decreased odds of ROSC following IHCA (aOR 0.63 [95% CI: 0.41-0.93]). No difference in mean total costs was demonstrated between patients with and without frailty ($50,799 vs. $45,849). Frail patients did have higher cost-per-survivor ($947,546 vs. $161,550). CONCLUSIONS: Frail individuals who experience an IHCA are more likely to die in hospital or be discharged to long-term care, and less likely to achieve ROSC in comparison with individuals who are not frail. The hospital costs per-survivor of IHCA are increased when frailty is present.

7.
BMJ ; 367: l6373, 2019 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801749

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between important pre-arrest and intra-arrest prognostic factors and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 4 February 2019. Primary, unpublished data from the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit database. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: English language studies that investigated pre-arrest and intra-arrest prognostic factors and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. DATA EXTRACTION: PROGRESS (prognosis research strategy group) recommendations and the CHARMS (critical appraisal and data extraction for systematic reviews of prediction modelling studies) checklist were followed. Risk of bias was assessed by using the QUIPS tool (quality in prognosis studies). The primary analysis pooled associations only if they were adjusted for relevant confounders. The GRADE approach (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) was used to rate certainty in the evidence. RESULTS: The primary analysis included 23 cohort studies. Of the pre-arrest factors, male sex (odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.95, moderate certainty), age 60 or older (0.50, 0.40 to 0.62, low certainty), active malignancy (0.57, 0.45 to 0.71, high certainty), and history of chronic kidney disease (0.56, 0.40 to 0.78, high certainty) were associated with reduced odds of survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Of the intra-arrest factors, witnessed arrest (2.71, 2.17 to 3.38, high certainty), monitored arrest (2.23, 1.41 to 3.52, high certainty), arrest during daytime hours (1.41, 1.20 to 1.66, high certainty), and initial shockable rhythm (5.28, 3.78 to 7.39, high certainty) were associated with increased odds of survival. Intubation during arrest (0.54, 0.42 to 0.70, moderate certainty) and duration of resuscitation of at least 15 minutes (0.12, 0.07 to 0.19, high certainty) were associated with reduced odds of survival. CONCLUSION: Moderate to high certainty evidence was found for associations of pre-arrest and intra-arrest prognostic factors with survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018104795.


Asunto(s)
Paro Cardíaco/mortalidad , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Adulto , Femenino , Paro Cardíaco/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Reino Unido/epidemiología
8.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066619885347, 2019 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741418

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Patients with intracranial hemorrhage (including intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and traumatic hemorrhage) are commonly admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Although indications for oral antiplatelet agents are increasing, the impact of preadmission use on outcomes in patients with intracranial hemorrhage admitted to the ICU is unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between preadmission oral antiplatelet use, in-hospital mortality, resource utilization, and costs among ICU patients with intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected registry (2011-2016) and included consecutive adult patients from 2 hospitals admitted to ICU with intracranial hemorrhage. Patients were categorized on the basis of preadmission oral antiplatelet use. We excluded patients with preadmission anticoagulant use. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model. Contributors to total hospital cost were analyzed using a generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution. RESULTS: Of 720 included patients with intracranial hemorrhage, 107 (14.9%) had been using an oral antiplatelet agent at the time of ICU admission. Oral antiplatelet use was not associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.31 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-2.22]). Evaluation of total costs also revealed no association with oral antiplatelet use (adjusted ratio of means [aROM]: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.82-1.02, P = .10]). Total cost among patients with intracranial hemorrhage was driven by illness severity (aROM: 1.96 [95% CI: 1.94-1.98], P < .001), increasing ICU length of stay (aROM: 1.05 [95% CI: 1.05-1.06], P < .001), and use of invasive mechanical ventilation (aROM: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.68-1.86], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among ICU patients admitted with intracranial hemorrhage, preadmission oral antiplatelet use was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality or hospital costs. These findings have important prognostic implications for clinicians who care for patients with intracranial hemorrhage.

9.
CJEM ; 21(4): 535-541, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608860

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We conducted an environmental scan of quality improvement and patient safety (QIPS) infrastructure and activities in academic emergency medicine (EM) programs and departments across Canada. METHODS: We developed 2 electronic surveys through expert panel consensus to assess important themes identified by the CAEP QIPS Committee. "Survey 1" was sent by email to all 17 Canadian medical school affiliated EM department Chairs and Academic Hospitals department Chiefs; "Survey 2" to 12 identified QIPS leads in these hospitals. This was followed by 2 monthly email reminders to participate in the survey. RESULTS: 22/70 (31.4%) Department Chairs/Chiefs completed Survey 1. Most (81.8%) reported formal positions dedicated to QIPS activities within their groups, with a mixed funding model. Less than half of these positions have dedicated logistical support. 11/12 (91.7%) local QIPS leads completed Survey 2. Two-thirds (63.6%) reported explicit QIPS topics within residency curricula, but only 9.1% described QIPS training for staff physicians. Many described successful academic scholarship output, with the total number of peer-reviewed QIPS-related publications per centre ranging from 1-10 over the past 5 years. Few respondents reported access to academic supports: methodologists (27.3%), administrative personnel (27.3%), and statisticians (9.1%). CONCLUSION: This environmental scan provides a snapshot of QIPS activities in EM across academic centres in Canada. We found significant local educational and academic efforts, although there is a discrepancy between the level of formal support/infrastructure and such activities. There remains opportunity to further advance QIPS efforts on a national level, as well as advocating and supporting local QIPS activities.

10.
BMJ ; 366: l4225, 2019 07 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340932

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To summarise and compare the accuracy of physical examination, computed tomography (CT), sonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), and transcranial Doppler pulsatility index (TCD-PI) for the diagnosis of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Six databases, including Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed, from inception to 1 September 2018. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: English language studies investigating accuracy of physical examination, imaging, or non-invasive tests among critically ill patients. The reference standard was ICP of 20 mm Hg or more using invasive ICP monitoring, or intraoperative diagnosis of raised ICP. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Summary estimates were generated using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) model. RESULTS: 40 studies (n=5123) were included. Of physical examination signs, pooled sensitivity and specificity for increased ICP were 28.2% (95% confidence interval 16.0% to 44.8%) and 85.9% (74.9% to 92.5%) for pupillary dilation, respectively; 54.3% (36.6% to 71.0%) and 63.6% (46.5% to 77.8%) for posturing; and 75.8% (62.4% to 85.5%) and 39.9% (26.9% to 54.5%) for Glasgow coma scale of 8 or less. Among CT findings, sensitivity and specificity were 85.9% (58.0% to 96.4%) and 61.0% (29.1% to 85.6%) for compression of basal cisterns, respectively; 80.9% (64.3% to 90.9%) and 42.7% (24.0% to 63.7%) for any midline shift; and 20.7% (13.0% to 31.3%) and 89.2% (77.5% to 95.2%) for midline shift of at least 10 mm. The pooled area under the ROC (AUROC) curve for ONSD sonography was 0.94 (0.91 to 0.96). Patient level data from studies using TCD-PI showed poor performance for detecting raised ICP (AUROC for individual studies ranging from 0.55 to 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Absence of any one physical examination feature is not sufficient to rule out elevated ICP. Substantial midline shift could suggest elevated ICP, but the absence of shift cannot rule it out. ONSD sonography might have use, but further studies are needed. Suspicion of elevated ICP could necessitate treatment and transfer, regardless of individual non-invasive tests. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018105642.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crítica , Hipertensión Intracraneal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Examen Físico/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Ultrasonografía Doppler Transcraneal/métodos
12.
CJEM ; 21(5): 622-625, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084626

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to identify barriers to the organ donation registration process in Ontario; and to determine the acceptability of using the emergency department (ED) waiting room to provide knowledge and offer opportunities for organ and tissue donor registration. METHODS: We conducted a paper based in-person survey over nine days in March and April 2017. The survey instrument was created in English using existing literature and expert opinion, pilot tested and then translated into French. Data was collected from patients and visitors in an urban academic Canadian tertiary care ED waiting room. All adults in the waiting room were approached to participate during study periods. We excluded patients who were too ill and required immediate treatment. RESULTS: The number of attempted surveys was 324; 67 individuals (20.7%) declined participation. A total of 257 surveys were distributed and five were returned blank. This gave us a response rate of 77.8% with 252 completed surveys. The median age group was 51-60 years old with 55.9% female. Forty-six percent reported their religion as Christian and 34.1% did not declare a religious affiliation. 44.1% were already registered donors. Most participants agreed or were neutral that the ED waiting room was an acceptable place to provide information on donation, and for registration as an organ and tissue donor (83.3% and 82.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals waiting in the ED are generally supportive of using the waiting room for distributing information regarding organ and tissue donation, and to allow donor registration.

13.
CJEM ; 21(5): 607-617, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088589

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify emergency department interventions that lead to improvement in door-to-electrocardiogram (ECG) times for adults presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Two reviewers searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to April 2018 for studies in adult emergency departments with an identifiable intervention to reduce median door-to-ECG times when compared with the institution's baseline. Quality was assessed using the Quality Improvement Minimum Quality Criteria Set critical appraisal tool. The primary outcome was the absolute median reduction in door-to-ECG times as calculated by the difference between the post-intervention time and pre-intervention time. RESULTS: Two reviewers identified 809 unique articles, yielding 11 before-after quality improvement studies that met eligibility criteria (N = 15,622 patients). The majority of studies (10/11) reported bundled interventions, and most (10/11) showed statistical improvement in door-to-ECG times. The most common interventions were having a dedicated ECG machine and technician in triage (5/11); improved triage education (4/11); improved triage disposition (2/11); and data feedback mechanisms (2/11). CONCLUSIONS: There are multiple interventions that show potential for reducing emergency department door-to-ECG times. Effective bundled interventions include having a dedicated ECG technician, triage education, and better triage disposition. These changes can help institutions attain best practice guidelines. Emergency departments must first understand their local context before adopting any single or group of interventions.

14.
Crit Care Med ; 47(8): e669-e676, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135504

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Suspected infection and sepsis are common conditions seen among older ICU patients. Frailty has prognostic importance among critically ill patients, but its impact on outcomes and resource utilization in older patients with suspected infection is unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between patient frailty (defined as a Clinical Frailty Scale ≥ 5) and outcomes of critically ill patients with suspected infection. We also evaluated the association between frailty and the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. DESIGN: Analysis of a prospectively collected registry. SETTING: Two hospitals within a single tertiary care level hospital system between 2011 and 2016. PATIENTS: We analyzed 1,510 patients 65 years old or older (at the time of ICU admission) and with suspected infection at the time of ICU admission. Of these, 507 (33.6%) were categorized as "frail" (Clinical Frailty Scale ≥ 5). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. A total of 558 patients (37.0%) died in-hospital. Frailty was associated with increased risk of in-hospital death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81 [95% CIs, 1.34-2.49]). Frailty was also associated with higher likelihood of discharge to long-term care (adjusted odds ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.50-2.64]) and higher likelihood of readmission within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.38-2.34]). Frail patients had increased ICU resource utilization and total costs. The combination of frailty and quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment greater than or equal to 2 further increased the risk of death (adjusted odds ratio, 7.54 [95% CI, 5.82-9.90]). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of frailty among older ICU patients with suspected infection is associated with increased mortality, discharge to long-term care, hospital readmission, resource utilization, and costs. This work highlights the importance of clinical frailty in risk stratification of older ICU patients with suspected infection.

15.
CJEM ; 21(5): 618-621, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907334

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a time sensitive, difficult to diagnose, aortic emergency. We sought to explore the quality of history taking in AAD and assess its impact on misdiagnosis. METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of patients >18 years old who presented to two tertiary care emergency departments from January 1st 2004 - December 31st 2012 and were diagnosed with an acute aortic dissection (AAD) on CT, MRI or TEE. Trained reviewers' extracted data using a standardized data collection form. The definitions of 5 pain characteristics - character, onset, duration, quality, and radiation were defined a priori. RESULTS: Data were collected for 194 cases of acute aortic dissection with a mean age of 65(SD 14.1) and 66.7% male, 34(17.6%) missed on initial presentation. Only 20(14.8%) patients were asked all 5 questions. The most common initial incorrect diagnosis were acute coronary syndrome (16, 47%), pulmonary embolism (5, 14.7%) and stroke (4, 11.7%). If <2 questions were asked 1 in 5 cases were missed, 4 times greater than if >2 were asked (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Clinicians should ask and document the character, onset, duration, radiation and severity of pain in any patient presenting with chest, abdominal or flank pain. A focused history still remains the keystone to reducing misdiagnosis.

16.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 60, 2019 02 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791952

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rapid response teams (RRTs) respond to hospitalized patients experiencing clinical deterioration and help determine subsequent management and disposition. We sought to evaluate and compare the prognostic accuracy of the Hamilton Early Warning Score (HEWS) and the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) for prediction of in-hospital mortality following RRT activation. We secondarily evaluated a subgroup of patients with suspected infection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data (2012-2016) of consecutive RRT patients from two hospitals. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. We calculated the number needed to examine (NNE), which indicates the number of patients that need to be evaluated in order to detect one future death. RESULTS: Five thousand four hundred ninety-one patients were included, of whom 1837 (33.5%) died in-hospital. Mean age was 67.4 years, and 51.6% were male. A HEWS above the low-risk threshold (≥ 5) had a sensitivity of 75.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 73.9-77.9) and specificity of 67.6% (95% CI 66.1-69.1) for mortality, with a NNE of 1.84. A NEWS2 above the low-risk threshold (≥ 5) had a sensitivity of 84.5% (95% CI 82.8-86.2), and specificity of 49.0% (95% CI: 47.4-50.7), with a NNE of 2.20. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.76 (95% CI 0.75-0.77) for HEWS and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.71-0.74) for NEWS2. Among suspected infection patients (n = 1708), AUROC for HEWS was 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.81) and for NEWS2, 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: The HEWS has comparable clinical accuracy to NEWS2 for prediction of in-hospital mortality among RRT patients.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad Hospitalaria/tendencias , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Área Bajo la Curva , Socorristas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/organización & administración , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ontario , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
17.
Neurocrit Care ; 31(2): 321-328, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790225

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a brain aneurysm, if untreated in the acute phase, leads to loss of functional independence in about 30% of patients and death in 27-44%. To evaluate for SAH, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Clinical Policy recommends obtaining a non-contrast brain computed tomography (CT) scan followed by a lumbar puncture (LP) if the CT is negative. On the other hand, current evidence from prospectively collected data suggests that CT alone may be sufficient to rule out SAH in patients who present within 6 h of symptom onset while anecdotal evidence suggests that CT angiogram (CTA) may be used to detect aneurysms, which are the probable cause of SAH. Since many different options are available to emergency physicians, we examined their practice pattern variation by observing their diagnostic approaches and their adherence to the ACEP Clinical Policy. METHODS: We developed, validated, and distributed a survey to emergency physicians at three practice sites: (1) Stanford Healthcare, California, (2) Intermountain Healthcare (five emergency departments), Utah, and (3) Ottawa General Hospital, Toronto. The survey questions examined physician knowledge on CT and LP's test performance and used case-based scenarios to assess diagnostic approaches, variation in practice, and adherence to guidelines. Results were presented as proportions with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of the 216 physicians surveyed, we received 168 responses (77.8%). The responses by site were: (1) (n = 38, 23.2%), (2) (n = 70, 42.7%), (3) (n = 56, 34.1%). To the CT and LP test performance question, most physicians indicated that CT alone detects > 90% of SAH in those with a confirmed SAH [n = 150 (89.3%, 95% CI 83.6-93.5]. To the case-based questions, most physicians indicated that they would perform a CTA along with a CT [n = 110 (65.5%, 95% CI 57.8-72.6)], some indicated a LP along with a CT [n = 57, 33.9% 95% CI 26.8-41.6)], and a few indicated both a CTA and a LP [n = 16, 9.5%, 95% CI 5.5-15.0]. We also observed practice site variation in the proportion of physicians who indicated that they would use CTA: (1) (n = 25, 65.8%), (2) (n = 54, 77.1%), and (3) (n = 28, 50.0%) (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Survey responses indicate that physicians use some or all of the imaging tests, with or without LP to diagnose SAH. We observed variation in the use of CTA by site and academic setting and divergence from ACEP Clinical Policy.

19.
CJEM ; 21(2): 274-282, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888689

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Enhanced skills training in emergency medicine through the Canadian College of Family Physicians, CCFP(EM), has existed since the 1980s. Accreditation standards define what every program "must" and "should" have, yet little is known on what is currently done across Canada. Our objectives were to 1) describe major components of CCFP(EM) programs and 2) determine how curricular components are taught. METHODS: After a rigorous development process (expert content development, cognitive reviews, and pilot testing), a survey questionnaire was administered to all 17 CCFP(EM) program directors using a modified Dillman technique. RESULTS: All (17/17) program directors responded. Programs are similar in core clinical rotations conducted and provide ultrasound courses for basic skills (trauma, abdominal aortic aneurysm, intrauterine pregnancy). Variation exists for offering independent ultrasound certification (77%), advanced scanning (18%), and protected time for scanning (53%). All programs utilize high fidelity simulation. Some programs use in situ simulation (18%) and carry out a simulation boot camp (41%). Most centres require an academic project, which is a quality assurance project (53%) and/or a critical appraisal of the literature (59%). Publication or national conference presentations are required by 12% of programs. Competency-based curricula include simulation for rare procedures (88%), direct observations (65%), and a "transition to practice" curriculum (24%). All programs maintain strong connections to family medicine. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the diverse structures of CCFP(EM) programs across Canada. Programs have similar clinical rotations, ultrasound, and simulation requirements. Variation exists in administrative structure and financial resources of programs, academic project requirements, and programs' competency-based curricula.

20.
Ann Surg ; 269(1): 58-65, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672405

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We sought to summarize accuracy of physical examination, imaging, and Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score in diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI) in adults with a soft tissue infection clinically concerning for NSTI. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: NSTI is a life-threatening diagnosis. Delay to diagnosis and surgical management is associated with increased mortality. METHODS: We searched 6 databases from inception through November 2017. We included English-language studies reporting diagnostic accuracy of testing or LRINEC Score. Outcome was NSTI confirmed by surgery or histopathology. Two reviewers screened all citations and extracted data independently. Summary measures were obtained from the Hierarchical Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic model. RESULTS: From 2,290 citations, we included 23 studies (n = 5982). Of physical examination signs, pooled sensitivity and specificity for fever was 46.0% and 77.0% respectively, for hemorrhagic bullae 25.2% and 95.8%, and for hypotension 21.0% and 97.7%. Computed tomography (CT) had sensitivity of 88.5% and specificity of 93.3%, while plain radiography had sensitivity of 48.9% and specificity of 94.0%. Finally, LRINEC ≥ 6 had sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 84.8%, while LRINEC ≥ 8 had sensitivity of 40.8% and specificity of 94.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of any 1 physical examination feature (eg, fever or hypotension) is not sufficient to rule-out NSTI. CT is superior to plain radiography. LRINEC had poor sensitivity, and should not be used to rule-out NSTI. Given the poor sensitivity of these tests, a high clinical suspicion warrants early surgical consultation for definitive diagnosis and management.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico por Imagen/métodos , Fascitis Necrotizante/diagnóstico , Examen Físico/métodos , Infecciones de los Tejidos Blandos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Curva ROC , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
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