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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601599

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: The causal role of endogenous estradiol in cancers other than breast and endometrial cancer remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the causal associations of endogenous 17ß-estradiol (E2), the most potent estrogen, with cancer risk in women through Mendelian randomization. METHODS: As primary genetic instrument, we used a genetic variant in the CYP19A1 gene that is strongly associated with serum E2 levels. Summary statistics genetic data for the association of the E2 variant with breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer were obtained from large-scale consortia. We additionally estimated the associations of the E2 variant with any and 20 site-specific cancers in 198 825 women of European descent in UK Biobank. Odds ratios (OR) of cancer per 0.01 unit increase in log-transformed serum E2 levels in pmol/L were estimated using the Wald ratio. RESULTS: Genetic predisposition to higher serum E2 levels was associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (OR 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03; P=2.5×10 -3), endometrial cancer overall (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.06-1.11; P=7.3×10 -13), and endometrial cancer of the endometrioid histology subtype (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.07-1.13; P=2.1×10 -11). There were suggestive associations with breast cancer overall (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.02; P=0.02), ovarian cancer of the endometrioid subtype (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10; P=0.02), and stomach cancer (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.00-1.26; P=0.05), but no significant association with other cancers. CONCLUSION: This study supports a role of E2 in the development of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and endometrioid endometrial cancer, but found no strong association with other cancers in women.

2.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580026

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of health care system access on outcomes for Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed Hispanic and non-Hispanic White patients diagnosed with localized RCC between 2007 and 2020. We used Health Resources and Services Administration criteria to identify patients living in Medically Underserved Areas (MUA). Primary outcome all-cause mortality and cancer-specific survival using Log Rank test on Kaplan Meier Analysis. Secondary outcome was all-cause mortality and cancer specific survival on Cox Regression when adjusting for risk factors. RESULTS: We analyzed 774 patients, 246 (31.8%) Hispanic patients and 528 (68.2%) Non-Hispanic White patients. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with lower risk of ACM (HR 0.53, P = 0.019) and there was no difference for cancer specific survival (HR 0.57, P = 0.059). Living in a MUA was associated with worse all-cause mortality (P = 0.010) but not cancer specific survival (CSS) (P = 0.169). Comparing Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Whites, KMA revealed no difference in 5-year all-cause mortality (83.1% vs. 78.8%, P = 0.254) and 5-year CSS (85.7% vs. 85.4%, P = 0.403). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanics had lower all-cause mortality risk and no significant differences in 5-year overall survival and CSS compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Our findings indicate that tertiary referral centers may help mitigate inequalities in access to care.

3.
J Immunol ; 207(7): 1776-1784, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497151

RESUMEN

Acquired neutrophil dysfunction frequently develops during critical illness, independently increasing the risk for intensive care unit-acquired infection. PI3Kδ is implicated in driving neutrophil dysfunction and can potentially be targeted pharmacologically. The aims of this study were to determine whether PI3Kδ inhibition reverses dysfunction in neutrophils from critically ill patients and to describe potential mechanisms. Neutrophils were isolated from blood taken from critically ill patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, renal support, or blood pressure support. In separate validation experiments, neutrophil dysfunction was induced pharmacologically in neutrophils from healthy volunteers. Phagocytosis and bacterial killing assays were performed, and activity of RhoA and protein kinase A (PKA) was assessed. Inhibitors of PI3Kδ, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), and PKA were used to determine mechanisms of neutrophil dysfunction. Sixty-six patients were recruited. In the 27 patients (40.9%) with impaired neutrophil function, PI3Kδ inhibition consistently improved function and significantly increased bacterial killing. These findings were validated in neutrophils from healthy volunteers with salbutamol-induced dysfunction and extended to demonstrate that PI3Kδ inhibition restored killing of clinical isolates of nine pathogens commonly associated with intensive care unit-acquired infection. PI3Kδ activation was associated with PDK1 activation, which in turn phosphorylated PKA, which drove phosphorylation and inhibition of the key regulator of neutrophil phagocytosis, RhoA. These data indicate that, in a significant proportion of critically ill patients, PI3Kδ inhibition can improve neutrophil function through PDK1- and PKA-dependent processes, suggesting that therapeutic use of PI3Kδ inhibitors warrants investigation in this setting.

4.
Physiother Theory Pract ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anterior Cruciate Ligament rehabilitation is a lengthy process and requires appropriate goal setting strategies to help optimize patient and athlete outcomes. From a global perspective, ACL injury incidences are continuing to rise, with Australia and the USA having one of the highest incidences of ACL injury rates in the athletic population. In addition, physiotherapists are expected by their professional regulatory body to effectively use goal setting practices. DESIGN: Theoretical Goal Setting Model consisting of three phases: 1) Pre goal setting phase (empower); 2) goal implementation phase (strive); and 3) goal evaluation phase (attain). DISCUSSION: This model provides physiotherapists with a useful process so that key aspects of setting goals are considered and incoporporated. This model showcases a necessary path a physiotherapist and patient must journey together in order to enhance rehabilitation outcomes. This model will also advance the  physiotherapists' awareness of the multi-stages of the patients goal desires, intentions and commitment to their rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: This model is a preliminary attempt to guide both practice, teaching, and research to ensure that goal setting practices in ACL rehabilitation are given an appropriate rehabilitative platform. The next stage is to empirically validate the practical application of the model and how each phase manifests.

5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211149

RESUMEN

Age at first sexual intercourse and age at first birth have implications for health and evolutionary fitness. In this genome-wide association study (age at first sexual intercourse, N = 387,338; age at first birth, N = 542,901), we identify 371 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 11 sex-specific, with a 5-6% polygenic score prediction. Heritability of age at first birth shifted from 9% [CI = 4-14%] for women born in 1940 to 22% [CI = 19-25%] for those born in 1965. Signals are driven by the genetics of reproductive biology and externalising behaviour, with key genes related to follicle stimulating hormone (FSHB), implantation (ESR1), infertility and spermatid differentiation. Our findings suggest that polycystic ovarian syndrome may lead to later age at first birth, linking with infertility. Late age at first birth is associated with parental longevity and reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Higher childhood socioeconomic circumstances and those in the highest polygenic score decile (90%+) experience markedly later reproductive onset. Results are relevant for improving teenage and late-life health, understanding longevity and guiding experimentation into mechanisms of infertility.

6.
Cell Biosci ; 11(1): 143, 2021 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs) are large chromosomal gains, losses and copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in peripheral leukocytes. While many individuals with detectable mCAs have no notable adverse outcomes, mCA-associated gene dosage alterations as well as clonal expansion of mutated leukocyte clones could increase susceptibility to disease. RESULTS: We performed a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) using existing data from 482,396 UK Biobank (UKBB) participants to investigate potential associations between mCAs and incident disease. Of the 1290 ICD codes we examined, our adjusted analysis identified a total of 50 incident disease outcomes associated with mCAs at PheWAS significance levels. We observed striking differences in the diseases associated with each type of alteration, with autosomal mCAs most associated with increased hematologic malignancies, incident infections and possibly cancer therapy-related conditions. Alterations of chromosome X were associated with increased lymphoid leukemia risk and, mCAs of chromosome Y were linked to potential reduced metabolic disease risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that a wide range of diseases are potential sequelae of mCAs and highlight the critical importance of careful covariate adjustment in mCA disease association studies.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4178, 2021 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234147

RESUMEN

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in leukocytes is the most common form of clonal mosaicism, caused by dysregulation in cell-cycle and DNA damage response pathways. Previous genetic studies have focussed on identifying common variants associated with LOY, which we now extend to rarer, protein-coding variation using exome sequences from 82,277 male UK Biobank participants. We find that loss of function of two genes-CHEK2 and GIGYF1-reach exome-wide significance. Rare alleles in GIGYF1 have not previously been implicated in any complex trait, but here loss-of-function carriers exhibit six-fold higher susceptibility to LOY (OR = 5.99 [3.04-11.81], p = 1.3 × 10-10). These same alleles are also associated with adverse metabolic health, including higher susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes (OR = 6.10 [3.51-10.61], p = 1.8 × 10-12), 4 kg higher fat mass (p = 1.3 × 10-4), 2.32 nmol/L lower serum IGF1 levels (p = 1.5 × 10-4) and 4.5 kg lower handgrip strength (p = 4.7 × 10-7) consistent with proposed GIGYF1 enhancement of insulin and IGF-1 receptor signalling. These associations are mirrored by a common variant nearby associated with the expression of GIGYF1. Our observations highlight a potential direct connection between clonal mosaicism and metabolic health.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Portadoras/genética , Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Anciano , Proteínas Portadoras/metabolismo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Leucocitos , Mutación con Pérdida de Función , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/genética , Secuenciación del Exoma Completo
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108824, 2021 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186445

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The parental rules about alcohol questionnaire (Van der Vorst et al., 2005, 2006) uses 10 items to assess how strictly adolescents believe the rules set by their parents about drinking are. An increasing body of literature has attested to the importance of rule setting in the prevention of problematic alcohol use among adolescents. A recent study proposed a two-factor solution in place of the hypothesized unidimensional one, with factors assessing non-normative, and normative rules. METHODS: The present study used five waves of data to examine the structure of the scale, and how well it relates to a measure of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Participants in Waves one to four {10,954-9,383} were substantively more numerous than those at wave five (N = 2,332). RESULTS: Confirmatory Factor Analyses did not support either the ten-item hypothesized model, nor the proposed two-factor solution. Results of exploratory factor analyses all pointed to a one factor solution. Using Modification Indices, we obtained a good-fitting, five-item unidimensional model in Waves one to four. At wave five, a good fitting unidimensional model was obtained with the dropping of a further item. Scores on this shortened scale were internally consistent, correlated highly with scores on the original ten-item version, and correlated to a similar degree as the original 10-item measure, with scores on a HED measure. CONCLUSION: Further work is required in assessing the properties of this scale across cultures and samples before definitively determining that two factors best represent parental rules.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Padres , Adolescente , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070864

RESUMEN

Dietary intakes of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (FAs) have been inconsistently associated with puberty timing. We examined longitudinal associations of prepubertal dietary and plasma phospholipid FAs with several puberty timing traits in boys and girls. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, prepubertal fat intakes at 3-7.5 years and plasma phospholipid FAs at 7.5 years were measured. Timings of Tanner stage 2 genital or breast development and voice breaking or menarche from repeated reports at 8-17 years, and age at peak height velocity (PHV) from repeated height measurements at 5-20 years were estimated. In linear regression models with adjustment for maternal and infant characteristics, dietary substitution of polyunsaturated FAs for saturated FAs, and higher concentrations of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3n6) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n7) were associated with earlier timing of puberty traits in girls (n = 3872) but not boys (n = 3654). In Mendelian Randomization models, higher genetically predicted circulating dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was associated with earlier menarche in girls. Based on repeated dietary intake data, objectively measured FAs and genetic causal inference, these findings suggest that dietary and endogenous metabolic pathways that increase plasma dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, an intermediate metabolite of n-6 polyunsaturated FAs, may promote earlier puberty timing in girls.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/métodos , Ácidos Grasos/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos/sangre , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana/métodos , Fosfolípidos/administración & dosificación , Fosfolípidos/sangre , Pubertad , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Tiempo , Adulto Joven
11.
J Microbiol Methods ; 186: 106252, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051278

RESUMEN

Slow growing, mucoid isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa require adaptation of the protocol used for automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). In the present study we used a water soluble tetrazolium salt WST-1 (4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulfonate) in combination with menadione for possibly improving AST of slow growing and biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. WST-1 and menadione addition ensures sensitive detection of microbial growth increase in the presence of antibiotics that may remain undetected with the automated VITEK® 2 method. We observed that 32.8% of P. aeruginosa isolates from CF and bronchiectasis patients produced an elevated absorbance signal intensity thereby increasing the sensitivity while maintaining the accuracy of VITEK 2. Our study merits future investigation with other slow growing pathogenic bacterial species.

13.
Nat Genet ; 53(5): 663-671, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888908

RESUMEN

Genetic association results are often interpreted with the assumption that study participation does not affect downstream analyses. Understanding the genetic basis of participation bias is challenging since it requires the genotypes of unseen individuals. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate comparative biases by performing a genome-wide association study contrasting one subgroup versus another. For example, we showed that sex exhibits artifactual autosomal heritability in the presence of sex-differential participation bias. By performing a genome-wide association study of sex in approximately 3.3 million males and females, we identified over 158 autosomal loci spuriously associated with sex and highlighted complex traits underpinning differences in study participation between the sexes. For example, the body mass index-increasing allele at FTO was observed at higher frequency in males compared to females (odds ratio = 1.02, P = 4.4 × 10-36). Finally, we demonstrated how these biases can potentially lead to incorrect inferences in downstream analyses and propose a conceptual framework for addressing such biases. Our findings highlight a new challenge that genetic studies may face as sample sizes continue to grow.


Asunto(s)
Sesgo , Caracteres Sexuales , Adulto , Artefactos , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Cromosomas Humanos/genética , Femenino , Sitios Genéticos , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Patrón de Herencia/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Tamaño de la Muestra , Reino Unido
14.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1231-1244.e4, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887202

RESUMEN

The conserved CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptor is expressed by nearly all human and ∼50% of mouse uterine natural killer (uNK) cells. Binding human HLA-E and mouse Qa-1, NKG2A drives NK cell education, a process of unknown physiological importance influenced by HLA-B alleles. Here, we show that NKG2A genetic ablation in dams mated with wild-type males caused suboptimal maternal vascular responses in pregnancy, accompanied by perturbed placental gene expression, reduced fetal weight, greater rates of smaller fetuses with asymmetric growth, and abnormal brain development. These are features of the human syndrome pre-eclampsia. In a genome-wide association study of 7,219 pre-eclampsia cases, we found a 7% greater relative risk associated with the maternal HLA-B allele that does not favor NKG2A education. These results show that the maternal HLA-B→HLA-E→NKG2A pathway contributes to healthy pregnancy and may have repercussions on offspring health, thus establishing the physiological relevance for NK cell education. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Asunto(s)
Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Subfamília C de Receptores Similares a Lectina de Células NK/inmunología , Subfamília D de Receptores Similares a Lectina de las Células NK/inmunología , Útero/inmunología , Animales , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/métodos , Antígenos HLA/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Placenta/inmunología , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo
15.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(8): 4019-4033, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837451

RESUMEN

Epidemiological investigations show that mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in leukocytes is associated with earlier mortality and morbidity from many diseases in men. LOY is the most common acquired mutation and is associated with aberrant clonal expansion of cells, yet it remains unclear whether this mosaicism exerts a direct physiological effect. We studied DNA and RNA from leukocytes in sorted- and single-cells in vivo and in vitro. DNA analyses of sorted cells showed that men diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease was primarily affected with LOY in NK cells whereas prostate cancer patients more frequently displayed LOY in CD4 + T cells and granulocytes. Moreover, bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing in leukocytes allowed scoring of LOY from mRNA data and confirmed considerable variation in the rate of LOY across individuals and cell types. LOY-associated transcriptional effect (LATE) was observed in ~ 500 autosomal genes showing dysregulation in leukocytes with LOY. The fraction of LATE genes within specific cell types was substantially larger than the fraction of LATE genes shared between different subsets of leukocytes, suggesting that LOY might have pleiotropic effects. LATE genes are involved in immune functions but also encode proteins with roles in other diverse biological processes. Our findings highlight a surprisingly broad role for chromosome Y, challenging the view of it as a "genetic wasteland", and support the hypothesis that altered immune function in leukocytes could be a mechanism linking LOY to increased risk for disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Cromosomas Humanos Y , Mosaicismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Células Asesinas Naturales/metabolismo , Leucocitos/metabolismo , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247166, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657154

RESUMEN

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are waterborne pathogens commonly found in building water systems where they are a primary concern to vulnerable patient populations and can cause severe disease. The recovery of NTM from environmental samples can be a laborious undertaking and current pre-treatment methods and selective media lack sensitivity. We explored the use of the highly selective Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria (RGM) medium for culturing NTM from environmental water samples compared to existing methods. In total, 223 environmental water samples, including potable and non-potable water, were cultured for NTM using three culture media. In addition to direct culture on RGM medium, each sample was cultured on Middlebrook 7H10 medium and Mitchison 7H11 medium after pre-treatment with 0.2M KCl-HCl. Additionally, 33 distinct species of NTM were inoculated onto RGM medium and 7H10 medium in parallel to directly compare their growth. The use of RGM medium alone without pre-treatment provided a sensitivity (91%) comparable to that offered by culture on both 7H10 and 7H11 with acid pretreatment (combined sensitivity; 86%) with significantly less overgrowth and interference from other organisms on RGM medium. The average concentration of NTM observed on RGM medium alone was comparable to or greater than the NTM concentration on either medium alone or combined. Thirty-three species were examined in parallel and all tested strains of 27 of these species successfully grew on RGM medium, including 19 of 21 from the CDC's healthcare-associated infections species list. RGM medium was successful at recovering environmental NTM without a pre-treatment, greatly reducing labor and materials required to process samples. Simplification of culture processing for environmental NTM will allow for a better assessment of their presence in building water systems and the potential for reduced exposure of susceptible populations.


Asunto(s)
Micobacterias no Tuberculosas , Microbiología del Agua , Humanos , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/clasificación , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Science ; 371(6536)2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766859

RESUMEN

Hamer et al argue that the variable "ever versus never had a same-sex partner" does not capture the complexity of human sexuality. We agree and said so in our paper. But Hamer et al neglect to mention that we also reported follow-up analyses showing substantial overlap of the genetic influences on our main variable and on more nuanced measures of sexual behavior, attraction, and identity.


Asunto(s)
Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Conducta Sexual , Humanos , Solución de Problemas
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): 1918-1928, 2021 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788949

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Adult height is highly heritable, yet no genetic predictor has demonstrated clinical utility compared to mid-parental height. OBJECTIVE: To develop a polygenic risk score for adult height and evaluate its clinical utility. DESIGN: A polygenic risk score was constructed based on meta-analysis of genomewide association studies and evaluated on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. SUBJECTS: Participants included 442 599 genotyped White British individuals in the UK Biobank and 941 genotyped child-parent trios of European ancestry in the ALSPAC cohort. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standing height was measured using stadiometer; Standing height 2 SDs below the sex-specific population average was considered as short stature. RESULTS: Combined with sex, a polygenic risk score captured 71.1% of the total variance in adult height in the UK Biobank. In the ALSPAC cohort, the polygenic risk score was able to identify children who developed adulthood short stature with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.84, which is close to that of mid-parental height. Combining this polygenic risk score with mid-parental height or only one of the child's parent's height could improve the AUROC to at most 0.90. The polygenic risk score could also substitute mid-parental height in age-specific Khamis-Roche height predictors and achieve an equally strong discriminative power in identifying children with a short stature in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: A polygenic risk score could be considered as an alternative or adjunct to mid-parental height to improve screening for children at risk of developing short stature in adulthood in European ancestry populations.


Asunto(s)
Estatura/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Trastornos del Crecimiento/diagnóstico , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Área Bajo la Curva , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Trastornos del Crecimiento/etnología , Trastornos del Crecimiento/genética , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Curva ROC , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido
19.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 43(2): 155-170, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721839

RESUMEN

The authors investigated relationships between emotions, coping, and resilience across two studies. In Study 1a, 319 athletes completed dispositional questionnaires relating to the aforementioned constructs. In Study 1b, 126 athletes from Study 1a repeated the same questionnaires 6 months later. In Study 2, 21 athletes were randomly allocated to an emotional (e.g., pleasant or unpleasant emotions) or control group and undertook a laboratory-based reaction-time task across three time points. Questionnaires and salivary cortisol samples were collected before and after each performance with imagery-based emotional manipulations engendered during the second testing session. Partial longitudinal evidence of the broaden-and-build effects of pleasant emotions was found. Pleasant emotions may undo lingering cognitive resource losses incurred from previous unpleasant emotional experiences. In Study 2, pleasant and unpleasant emotions had an immediate and sustained psychophysiological and performance impact. Taken together, this research supports the application of broaden-and-build theory in framing emotional interventions for athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Emociones , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Musculoskeletal Care ; 19(3): 293-305, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427379

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a common injury that occurs in both the sporting and non-sporting population. Goal setting is said to be an effective psychological tool within ACL rehabilitation and is commonly used by physiotherapists. To date, literature surrounding goal setting practices is under analysed in relation to qualitative research. PURPOSE: The central aim of this study was to explore UK physiotherapists understanding, experiences and training towards goal setting practices used in ACL rehabilitation and whether they are effective. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews involving 24 participants across three specific areas including: National Health Service, elite sport and academia were conducted using an inductive approach. Data analysis included thematic analysis with triangulation and a comprehensive multi-staged analysis process to enhance trustworthiness, whilst respecting ethical considerations. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Participants from all three areas of practice tended to use the same approach which was SMART goals. All participants lacked any theoretical understanding of goals but would welcome further training in the field. Participants were missing important aspects of setting goals such as not addressing expectations and underutilising feedback. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a call for more psychological training is clearly warranted in both the physiotherapy curriculum and within post graduate CPD training. Creating a specialist interest group (e.g. physiotherapists interested in psychology) may help share good psychological practices and overall enhance understanding in this field.

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