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Front Immunol ; 10: 495, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949168


Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. One of the most intriguing aspects of leprosy is the diversity of its clinical forms. Paucibacillary patients are characterized as having less than five skin lesions and rare bacilli while the lesions in multibacillary patients are disseminated with voluminous bacilli. The chronic course of leprosy is often interrupted by acute episodes of an inflammatory immunological response classified as either reversal reaction or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Although ENL is considered a neutrophilic immune-complex mediated condition, little is known about the direct role of neutrophils in ENL and leprosy disease overall. Recent studies have shown a renewed interest in neutrophilic biology. One of the most interesting recent discoveries was that the neutrophilic population is not homogeneous. Neutrophilic polarization leads to divergent phenotypes (e.g., a pro- and antitumor profile) that are dynamic subpopulations with distinct phenotypical and functional abilities. Moreover, there is emerging evidence indicating that neutrophils expressing CD64 favor systemic inflammation during ENL. In the present review, neutrophilic involvement in leprosy is discussed with a particular focus on ENL and the potential of neutrophils as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

J Med Microbiol ; 60(Pt 10): 1441-6, 2011 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21596907


We performed genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present in skin biopsy samples that were collected during the first and the second disease occurrences from eight leprosy patients, seven of whom were diagnosed as suffering from disease relapse. Sequence analysis of part of the M. leprae rpoB, folP1, gyrB and gyrA genes did not show genetic change that supported the presence of drug-resistant bacilli. However, we observed a synonymous nucleotide change at position 297 of gyrA among five of these patients, one presenting C to T (CgyrAT) and four presenting T to C (TgyrAC) at this position. Additional genotyping by analysis of the four short tandem repeats GAA, GTA9, AT17 and TA18 showed that the gyrA single nucleotide polymorphism change was accompanied by a change in short tandem repeat genotype. Our data suggest that leprosy relapse in these patients, living in an area endemic for leprosy, could be caused by M. leprae with a genotype different from the one that caused initial disease.

Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/microbiología , Tipificación Molecular , Mycobacterium leprae/clasificación , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Biopsia , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Recurrencia , Secuencias Repetitivas de Ácidos Nucleicos , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Piel/microbiología
Int. J. Lepr ; 69(3): 177-186, Sept., 2001. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | Hanseníase | ID: han-26734


This paper aims to describe the histomorphologic features of skin biopsies of single lesion leprosy patients recruited at outpatient clinics in four Brazilian states in the Northeast (Amazonas and Rondonia), Southeast (Rio de Janeiro) and Center-West (Goiás) between October 1997 and December 1998. Patients clinically diagnosed as single skin lesion paucibacillary (SSL-PB) leprosy had a standard 4-mm punch biopsy taken from the lesion before rifampin, ofloxacin, minocycline (ROM) therapy. The features of the cellular inflammatory infiltrates, the presence of nerve involvement and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were used to categorize SSL-PB biopsies into different histopathological groups. Two-hundred-seventy-eight (93.0%) out of 299 patients had a skin biopsy available. Seven single lesion patients were diagnosed as BL or LL leprosy types (MB) by the histopathological exams and 12 cases were excluded due to other skin diseases. Therefore, 259 patients had skin lesions with histomorphological features compatible with PB leprosy categorized as follows: 33.6% (N = 87) of the biopsies represented well-circumscribed epithelioid cell granuloma (Group 1); 21.6% (N = 56) less-circumscribed epithelioid cell granuloma (Group 2); 12.0% (N = 31) were described as mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate permeated with epithelioid cells (Group 3), and 29.7% (N = 77) had perivascular/periadnexal mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate (Group 4). Minimal/no morphological alteration in the skin was detected in only 8 (3.1%) SSL-PB patients categorized as Group 5, who were considered to have leprosy by clinical parameters. SSL-PB leprosy patients recruited in a multicentric study presented histomorphology readings comprising the whole PB leprosy spectrum but also a few MB cases. These results indicate heterogeneity among SSL-PB patients, with a predominance of well-circumscribed and less-circumscribed epithelioid cell granulomas (Groups 1 and 2) in the sites studied and the heterogeneity of local cellular immune response. (AU)

Humanos , Lepra/etnología , Lepra/fisiopatología