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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528453

RESUMEN

In everyday practice, surgeons have to deal with bone atrophy. These rehabilitations are even more complex in the posterior mandible, and it is still unclear in the literature which fixed rehabilitation option is best. The purpose of this article was to help oral surgeons to choose the proper and updated treatment for their atrophic patients. Posterior mandible bone atrophies were divided into four main groups depending on the bone height measured above the inferior alveolar nerve: (1) ≤ 4 mm; (2) > 4 mm ≤ 5 mm; (3) > 5 mm ≤ 6 mm; (4) > 6 mm < 7 mm. Different approaches were proposed for each group, considering patient expectations. If ≤ 4 mm of bone height was available, guided bone regeneration was used as the adequate approach. For bone heights > 4 mm and ≤ 6 mm, the "sandwich" technique and/or short implants were used, depending on esthetics. In cases with > 6 mm and < 7 mm above the mandibular canal, short implants might be the proper option. The authors' clinical experience and the literature were considered in order to suggest a possible correct treatment decision based on the residual bone height in the posterior mandible.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Atrofia/patología , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/patología , Mandíbula/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198070

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI) is a pathological entity with an unclear etiology (e.g., overheating during implant insertion, residual infection of the tooth replaced by the implant or the endodontic lesion of neighboring teeth) and an extremely low prevalence and has been scarcely investigated. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional survey was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of Italian implantologists regarding RPI. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was sent via email to implantologists randomly selected, including a section about demographic information and questions related to RPI origin, radiographic representation, symptoms and treatment options. All questions were multiple answer and close-ended. Binomial logistic regression was performed to investigate the relationship between correct answers and the following independent variables: age, years of experience and number of dental implants placed per year. RESULTS: In total, 475 implantologists completed the questionnaire, with a response rate of 46.3%. Based on the results of the study, incorrect answers were associated with less experienced participants (<80 implants/year) for all questions evaluated, with the exception of treatment strategies. Furthermore, 26.7% of the survey takers did not recognize radiographic representation of RPI and 35.5% picked "implant removal" when asked about treatment modality. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of participants were able to recognize symptoms and indicated the probable causes of RPI; however, around 30% of them showed very limited knowledge of available management strategies.

3.
Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent ; 40(6): e235-e240, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151196

RESUMEN

This case report describes the rehabilitation of an extremely atrophic posterior mandible using 4-mm ultrashort implants and reports clinical and radiographic outcomes 7 years after loading. The patient refused to undergo any other treatment, from the removable prosthesis to the reconstructive surgery, and asked for a fixed, minimally invasive solution in the shortest possible time. The residual bone height above the alveolar nerve was an average of about 5 mm, so it was decided to treat the patient with four 4-mm ultrashort implants. Within the limitations of this case report, this procedure appears successful at 7 years after loading in this specific case and could reduce invasiveness, rehabilitative times, and costs. However, longer follow-ups on a large number of patients coming from randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary before making more reliable recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/cirugía , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(12): 956-961, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239159

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW: The authors describe 3 cases of retrograde peri-implantitis associated with residual cysts and their successful surgical and regenerative management. Implants were originally placed with both immediate and delayed protocols. CASE DESCRIPTION: Three patients sought treatment at the authors' specialist private practices with the chief symptoms of pain and swelling in association with implant-retained restorations. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings supported the diagnoses of infected residual cysts. The lesions were enucleated in toto, the implant surfaces were decontaminated, and bone regeneration procedures were carried out. Long-term recall visits, ranging from 3 through 10 years, confirmed successful retention of all implants treated accordingly. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The authors describe an unusual clinical manifestation and emphasize the role of local procedures during implant placement in areas compromised with infection, cysts, or both and the importance of long-term recall visits.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925998

RESUMEN

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes of guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures in the rehabilitation of partially edentulous atrophic arches. A total of 58 patients were included with a follow-up of 3 to 7 years after loading. Data seem to indicate that GBR with nonresorbable membranes can be a good clinical choice and suggest that it could be used to vertically reconstruct no more than 6 mm of bone in the posterior mandible. However, this technique remains difficult and requires expert surgeons.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Regeneración Ósea , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Membranas Artificiales , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(4): e449-e454, jul. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-196495

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the authors was to examine the abutment-fixture interface in Morse-type conical implants in order to verify gaps at this level using a new microscopical approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, 20 abutment-fixture complexes were prepared by sectioning (longitudinal and cross-sectional to the long axis) with a microtome and then with a focused ion beam (FIB). This is a micrometric machine tool that uses gallium ions to abrade circumscribed areas to dig deeper into the cuts obtained with the microtome in order to eliminate cut-induced artifacts. This is because the FIB abrasion is practically free from artifacts, which are normally generated by the action of the microtome blades or other techniques. Samples were then observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: The observation of the abraded parts with the FIB permitted measurement of the real gap between the implant-abutment components. A variable amount of gap was retrieved (from 0 to 3 μm) by the observations, confirming the non-hermetic nature of the connection. It has to be pointed out that in approximately 65% of cases, the gap accounted for less than 1 μm. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data confirmed that the analyzed connection system allowed for minimal gap. However, from the evidence of the present analysis, it cannot be assumed that the 2 parts of a Morse-type conical implant are fused in 1 piece, which would create a perfectly matched hermetic connection


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Implante Dental-Pilar/métodos , Implantación Dental Endoósea/métodos , Propiedades de Superficie , Valores de Referencia , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559036

RESUMEN

This case report describes the minimally invasive full fixed rehabilitation of a totally edentulous severely atrophic mandible. The patient refused to undergo any other treatment, from the reconstructive surgery to the removable prosthesis, and asked for a fixed minimally invasive solution in the shortest possible time. Considering that the posterior mandibular bone was inadequate in height and that the interforaminal bone was only 4.3 to 5 mm in height, the patient received four 4-mm-ultrashort implants in the interforaminal area that were immediately loaded. Within all the limitations of this case report this procedure in this specific case appears successful through 2 years of loading.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Arcada Edéntula/cirugía , Atrofia , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Prótesis de Recubrimiento , Humanos , Mandíbula/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Braz Oral Res ; 33(suppl 1): e072, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576956

RESUMEN

Different surgical treatment strategies for peri-implantitis with the use of graft material and membranes have been suggested without any longitudinal remarkable success rate. The present preliminary study was aimed to analyze a new clinical approach based on the disinfection of the implant connection, the disinfection of the implant surface and GBR approach in the treatment of circumferential and semi-circumferential bony defect resulting from peri-implantitis. Six consecutive patients were selected for the present study. After removal of factors that could potentially influence peri-implant pathology, the prosthetic rehabilitation was always removed and a full thickness flap was elevated to allow access to the peri-implant defect and the exposed implant surface. Once the defect was degranulated and the implant surface cleaned, a mixture (50:50) of autogenous bone and allograft was used. Guided bone regeneration technique using membranes was adopted and the flaps were closed for a submerged healing. Six months thereafter, a new re-opening procedure was performed and cleaned superstructures and crowns were repositioned. Patients were followed for one year thereafter and recalled for a customized oral hygiene every three months. Radiological and periodontal analysis was performed before surgery and every six months. The studied procedure was associated with a pronounced increase in REC and CAL with stable peri-implant conditions at 6 and 12 months. PI, BOP and PD values were significantly reduced both at 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, a mean PD gain of 4.5 mm and a bone loss reduction of 5.1 mm was obtained. Within the limitation of the present preliminary study, the proposed technique might represent a promising result for treatment of circumferential and semi-circumferential bone defects around implants affected by peri-implantitis.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Desinfección/métodos , Periimplantitis/cirugía , Regeneración Ósea , Prótesis Anclada al Hueso , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Periimplantitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Prospectivos , Radiografía Dental , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Propiedades de Superficie , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Implant Dent ; 28(4): 388-399, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344018

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In the past 10 years, long-term studies have demonstrated that guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a successful and reliable technique for vertical and horizontal ridge augmentation, but strict and rigorous protocols must be adopted. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Because no reports have yet been published with statements and clinical recommendations for GBR, a closed meeting of all authors was organized to discuss this matter during a GBR symposium held in Bologna (Italy) in October 2016. The authors focused on the findings of systematic and narrative reviews, prepared before the meeting, covering aspects of the clinical management of GBR techniques. Successively, a discussion based on the scientific evidence and on the experts' opinions led to the formulation of statements, clinical recommendations, and implications for future research. RESULTS: To avoid complications and to optimize outcomes, the following factors should be considered by clinicians: patient selection; analysis of defect type; blood supply; antibiotic treatment; flap passivation; delayed implant placement; combination of autogenous bone and xenograft or allograft; rigorous fixation of membranes; removal after 6 to 9 months; analysis of complications; soft-tissue management; and high care in scarred sites and in esthetic areas. CONCLUSIONS: The present consensus report reviewed the scientific evidence and provided specific guidelines and recommendations for clinical practice and the different approaches to GBR techniques to ensure surgical success and predictable outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Regeneración Ósea , Consenso , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Regeneración Tisular Guiada Periodontal , Humanos
10.
Int J Oral Implantol (Berl) ; 12(1): 25-37, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116186

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 5-mm short dental implants could be an alternative to augmentation with anorganic bovine bone and placement of at least 10-mm long implants in posterior atrophic jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with bilateral atrophic mandibles (5 to 7 mm bone height above the mandibular canal) and 15 patients with bilateral atrophic maxillae (4 to 6 mm bone height below the maxillary sinus), and bone thickness of at least 8 mm, were randomised according to a split-mouth design to receive one to three 5-mm short implants or at least 10-mm long implants in augmented bone. Mandibles were vertically augmented with interpositional bone blocks and maxillary sinuses with particulated bone via a lateral window. Implants were placed after 4 months, submerged and loaded, after another 4 months, with provisional prostheses. Four months later, definitive provisionally cemented prostheses were delivered. Outcome measures were: prosthesis and implant failures, any complication and peri-implant marginal bone level changes. RESULTS: In five augmented mandibles the planned 10-mm long implants could not be placed and shorter implants (7.0 and 8.5 mm) had to be used instead. Five years after loading, six patients, five treated in the mandible and one in the maxilla, dropped out. Three prostheses (one mandibular and two maxillary) failed in the short-implant group versus none in the long-implant group. In mandibles one long implant failed versus two short implants in one patient. In maxillae one long implant failed versus three short implants in two patients. There were no statistically significant differences in implant (n = 26; P = 1.00, difference = 3.85%, 95% CI: -12.95% to 20.64%) and prosthetic (n = 26; P = 0.250, difference = 11.54%, 95% CI: -0.74% to 23.82%) failures. Eleven patients had 16 complications at short implants (one patient accounted for six complications) and 12 patients had 14 complications at long implants. There were no statistically significant differences in complications (n = 28; P = 1.00, difference = -3.57%, 95% CI: -30.65% to 23.51%). Five years after loading, patients with mandibular implants lost on average 1.72 mm at short implants and 2.10 mm at long implants of peri-implant marginal bone. This difference was statistically significant (difference = 0.37 ± 0.43 mm; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.68 mm; P = 0.022). In maxillae, patients lost on average 1.31 mm at short implants and 1.79 mm at long implants. This difference was statistically significant (difference = 0.48 ± 0.43 mm; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.74 mm; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Five years after loading, 5-mm short implants achieved similar results to longer implants in augmented bone. The choice of short implants might be preferable to vertical bone augmentation, especially in mandibles, since the treatment is faster and cheaper.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Arcada Edéntula , Animales , Bovinos , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Humanos
11.
Int J Oral Implantol (Berl) ; 12(1): 39-54, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116187

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 5 × 5 mm dental implants with a novel nanostructured calcium-incorporated titanium surface could be an alternative to implants at least 10-mm long placed in bone augmented with bone substitutes in posterior atrophic jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with atrophic posterior (premolar and molar areas) mandibles having 5- to 7-mm bone height above the mandibular canal, and 40 patients with atrophic maxillae having 4- to 6-mm bone height below the maxillary sinus, were randomised according to a parallel-group design to receive one to three 5-mm implants or one to three at least 10-mm long implants in augmented bone at two centres. All implants had a diameter of 5 mm. Mandibles were vertically augmented with interpositional bovine bone blocks covered with resorbable barriers. Implants were placed after 4 months. Maxillary sinuses were augmented with particulated porcine bone via a lateral window covered with resorbable barriers and implants were placed simultaneously. All implants were submerged and loaded after 4 months with provisional prostheses. Four months later, definitive screw-retained or provisionally cemented metal-ceramic or zirconia prostheses were delivered. Patients were followed to 5 years post-loading and the outcome measures were: prosthesis and implant failures, any complication and peri-implant marginal bone level changes. RESULTS: Sixteen patients dropped out before the 5-year evaluation (four short mandibles, three short maxillae, six augmented mandibles and three augmented maxillae). In mandibles, two grafted patients were not prosthetically rehabilitated because of multiple complications, and three implants failed in the same patient (one was a replacement implant) versus one patient who lost his short implant and crown 2 years after loading. In maxillae one short implant failed with its provisional crown 3 months post-loading. There were no statistically significant differences in prostheses (difference in proportion = -0.003; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.13; P = 1.000) and implant failures (difference in proportion = -0.03; 95% CI: -0.17 to 0.09; P = 0.609) up to 5 years after loading. Significantly more complications occurred at mandibular grafted sites: 17 augmented patients were affected by complications versus nine patients treated with short implants in mandibles (difference in proportion = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.62; P = 0.013). In the maxilla seven sinus-elevated patients versus two patients treated with short implants were affected by complications, the difference not being statistically significant (difference in proportion = 0.25; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.49; P = 0.128). Patients with mandibular short implants lost on average 1.22 mm of peri-implant bone at 5 years and patients with 10-mm or longer mandibular implants lost 1.70 mm. Patients with maxillary short implants lost on average 1.25 mm of peri-implant bone at 5 years and patients with 10-mm or longer maxillary implants lost 1.73 mm. Longer implants showed a greater bone loss up to 5 years after loading than short implants both in maxillae (mean difference: -0.48 mm; 95% CI: -0.89 to -0.07 mm; P = 0.024) and in mandibles (mean difference: -0.48 mm; 95% CI: -0.79 to -0.18 mm; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Five years after loading, 5 × 5 mm implants achieved similar results to longer implants placed in augmented bone. Short implants might be a preferable choice to bone augmentation especially in posterior mandibles since the treatment is faster, cheaper and associated with less morbidity; however, 10-year post-loading data are necessary before making reliable recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Titanio , Animales , Bovinos , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Humanos
12.
Int J Oral Implantol (Berl) ; 12(1): 57-72, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116188

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 6-mm-long by 4-mm-wide dental implants could be an alternative to implants at least 10-mm long placed in bone augmented with bone substitutes in posterior atrophic jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 patients with bilateral atrophic mandibles and 20 patients with bilateral atrophic maxillae, having 5 to 7 mm of bone height below the maxillary sinus or 6 to 8 mm above the mandibular canal, had their sides of the jaws randomly allocated according to a split-mouth design. They were allocated to receive one to three 6-mm-long and 4-mm-wide implants, or implants at least 10-mm long in augmented bone by two different surgeons in different centres. Mandibles were vertically augmented with interpositional equine bone blocks and resorbable barriers, and implants were placed 3 months later. Maxillary sinuses were augmented with particulated porcine bone via a lateral window and implants were placed simultaneously. All implants were submerged and loaded, after 4 months, with provisional prostheses. Four months later, definitive prostheses were delivered. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, any complication and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone level changes. The follow-up was 5 years after loading for all patients. RESULTS: Eight patients (five treated in mandibles and three in maxillae) dropped out before the 5-year post-loading follow-up. Four short implants (two maxillary and two mandibular) affected by peri-implantitis failed together with their prostheses versus three mandibular prostheses which could not be placed on implants at least 10-mm long due to graft failures; one was associated with the loss of three implants because of infection. There were no statistically significant differences in implant (P = 1.0) and prosthesis failures (P = 1.0). In total, 19 complications occurred in 14 patients at augmented sites versus five complications in four patients with 6-mm-long implants (P = 0.118). More complications occurred at grafted sites both in mandibles (P = 0.727), and maxillae (P = 0.063), although the differences were not statistically significant. In mandibles, patients with 6-mm-long implants lost an average of 1.34 ± 0.35 mm of peri-implant bone at 5 years versus 2.11 ± 0.59 mm in patients with implants at least 10-mm long. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference = 0.77 ± 0.70 mm; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.21 mm; P = 0.003). In maxillae, patients with 6-mm-long implants lost an average of 1.52 ± 0.47 mm of peri-implant bone at 5 years versus 1.85 ± 0.51 mm in patients with implants at least 10-mm long. The difference was statistically significant (mean difference = 0.33 ± 0.36 mm; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.53 mm; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Results at 5 years after loading indicate that 6-mm-long implants with a conventional diameter of 4 mm achieved similar results to longer implants placed in augmented bone. Short implants might be a preferable choice to bone augmentation, especially in posterior mandibles since the treatment was faster, cheaper and associated with less morbidity. However, 10-year post-loading data are necessary before making reliable recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Animales , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Caballos , Humanos
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4386709, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891457

RESUMEN

Although the number of complications and failures in bone augmentation procedures is still relatively high, these problems remain poorly documented. Moreover, the literature concerning reconstructive techniques and the treatment of their complications in the anterior areas rarely considers the final esthetic result. The aim of this paper is to propose a new classification of bone augmentation complications in the esthetic area, providing treatment guidelines useful for the management of these cases. Failures of bony regeneration procedures can be mainly divided into partial failures and complete failures. A partial failure can be solved with a corrective surgical intervention: this second surgery can have success or may not be able to provide the desired esthetic result. When the bone reconstructive procedure fails totally, a complete failure occurs and the whole procedure has to be repeated. This new intervention can have success but also this new reconstructive surgery can fail in the same way as the first, causing important damage and a compromise solution that will hardly be acceptable from an esthetic point of view. Bone augmentation techniques are not completely predictable and are not always able to guarantee the expected result, especially in the atrophic anterior maxilla. Complications and failures can often occur and this possibility must always be clearly explained to those patients with high esthetic demands and expectations.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar/clasificación , Estética Dental , Maxilar/patología , Maxilar/cirugía , Atrofia , Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Regeneración Ósea , Resorción Ósea/patología , Coronas , Implantes Dentales , Porcelana Dental/química , Humanos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33(supl.1): e072, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039315

RESUMEN

Abstract Different surgical treatment strategies for peri-implantitis with the use of graft material and membranes have been suggested without any longitudinal remarkable success rate. The present preliminary study was aimed to analyze a new clinical approach based on the disinfection of the implant connection, the disinfection of the implant surface and GBR approach in the treatment of circumferential and semi-circumferential bony defect resulting from peri-implantitis. Six consecutive patients were selected for the present study. After removal of factors that could potentially influence peri-implant pathology, the prosthetic rehabilitation was always removed and a full thickness flap was elevated to allow access to the peri-implant defect and the exposed implant surface. Once the defect was degranulated and the implant surface cleaned, a mixture (50:50) of autogenous bone and allograft was used. Guided bone regeneration technique using membranes was adopted and the flaps were closed for a submerged healing. Six months thereafter, a new re-opening procedure was performed and cleaned superstructures and crowns were repositioned. Patients were followed for one year thereafter and recalled for a customized oral hygiene every three months. Radiological and periodontal analysis was performed before surgery and every six months. The studied procedure was associated with a pronounced increase in REC and CAL with stable peri-implant conditions at 6 and 12 months. PI, BOP and PD values were significantly reduced both at 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, a mean PD gain of 4.5 mm and a bone loss reduction of 5.1 mm was obtained. Within the limitation of the present preliminary study, the proposed technique might represent a promising result for treatment of circumferential and semi-circumferential bone defects around implants affected by peri-implantitis.

15.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 11(4): 385-395, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515480

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 6.6-mm long implants could be a suitable alternative to longer implants placed in vertically augmented atrophic posterior mandibles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty partially edentulous patients having 7 to 8 mm of residual crestal height and at least 5.5-mm thickness measured on computed tomography scans above the mandibular canal were randomly allocated according to a parallel-group design either to receive one to three submerged 6.6-mm long implants or 9.6-mm or longer implants (30 patients per group) placed in vertically augmented bone. Bone was augmented with interpositional anorganic bovine bone blocks fixed with titanium plates and covered with resorbable barriers. Grafts were left to heal for 5 months before implant placement. Four months after implant placement, provisional acrylic prostheses were delivered, replaced, after 4 months, by definitive metal-ceramic prostheses. Outcome measures were: prosthesis and implant failures, complications, and radiographic peri-implant marginal bone level changes. Patients were followed up to 8 years after loading. RESULTS: Eight years after loading 12 patients dropped out, five from the short implant group and seven from the augmented group. The augmentation procedure failed in two patients and only 6.6-mm long implants could be inserted. There were no statistically significant differences for prosthesis and implant failures. Four prostheses failed in three patients of the short implant group versus three prostheses in three patients of the augmented group (Fisher exact test P = 1.000; difference in proportions = 0.01; 95% CI: -0.19 to 0.22). Five short implants failed in three patients versus three long implants in three patients (Fisher exact test P = 1.000; difference in proportions = 0.01; 95% CI: -0.19 to 0.22). There were statistically more complications in augmented patients (27 complications in 22 augmented patients versus 9 complications in 8 patients of the short implant group) (Fisher exact test P < 0.001; difference in proportions = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.79). Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone in a statistically significant way. Eight years after loading, short implant group patients lost an average of 1.58 mm of peri-implant bone compared with 2.46 mm in the augmented group. Short implants experienced statistically significantly less bone loss (0.88 mm, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.26 mm) than long implants. CONCLUSIONS: When residual bone height over the mandibular canal is between 7 and 8 mm, 6.6-mm short implants are an interesting alternative to vertical augmentation in posterior atrophic mandibles since the treatment is faster, cheaper and associated with less morbidity.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Arcada Parcialmente Edéntula , Mandíbula , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Humanos , Arcada Parcialmente Edéntula/cirugía , Titanio , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 33(6): 1247-1254, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427955

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this vitro study was to reproduce and evaluate the response of bone and bacteria to traditional and innovative implant surfaces with difference wettability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred fifty-two samples made of grade 4 titanium with different coating (machined [MAC]; double-etched, Ti-AE; zirconium nitride [Ti-ZrN]) were used for this in vitro study. Disks were divided into test (bioactivated using plasma of argon) and control group (untreated). To assess the surface morphology of the specimens, representative images were acquired via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Murine preosteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) were used to study the biologic response in vitro, while the quantification of protein adsorption was achieved through the incubation of the titanium samples in a 2% solution of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The sterilized titanium disks were then colonized by bacterial species from a single sputum sample obtained from a healthy volunteer. For every analysis, 24 disks were used (12 for each group). RESULTS: SEM and topographic analyses demonstrated a Sa value of 0.33 (Ti-ZrN), 0.34 (MAC), and 0.62 (Ti-AE). Compared with the control groups, plasma treatment significantly increased the protein adsorption level on all the different titanium surfaces (5.88 ± 0.21 vs 7.85 ± 0.21, 7.13 ± 0.14 vs 9.74 ± 0.65, 4.41 ± 0.62 vs 6.13 ± 0.52, respectively, for MAC, Ti-treated, and Ti-ZrN). Similar behavior was described for cell adhesion (27.67 ± 2.03 vs 58.00 ± 20.13, 116.67 ± 12.02 vs 159.33 ± 8.09, 52.00 ± 4.73 vs 78.33 ± 4.67, respectively, for MAC, Ti-treated, and Ti-ZrN). Plasma treatment significantly augmented the number of CFU only in MAC and ZrN samples. CONCLUSION: With the limitations of this in vitro study, the following conclusions could be drawn: (1) rough implant surfaces present a higher adhesion and proliferation of preosteoblastic cells and bacterial biofilm; (2) rough implant surfaces benefited the most by the plasma of argon treatment.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión Bacteriana/fisiología , Biopelículas , Adhesión Celular/fisiología , Proliferación Celular/fisiología , Implantes Dentales/microbiología , Osteoblastos/citología , Circonio/química , Animales , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Humanos , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Propiedades de Superficie , Humectabilidad
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 2908484, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140692

RESUMEN

Novel one-piece implants with concave smooth neck have been introduced to promote the formation of a thick mucosal layer and preserve marginal bone. A retrospective study on 70 patients with 1- to 6-year follow-up was carried out. Cumulative survival rates were assessed. Variations of marginal bone level were measured on periapical radiographs as distance of the implant-abutment junction from the bone crest. Influence of different variables on treatment outcome was evaluated. Cumulative success rate after 6 years was 99.4 % at implant level and 98.6 % at patient level. Marginal bone level changed in a significant way over time. After 4 months, an increase of radiographic bone level of 0.173 ± 1.088 mm at implant level and 0.18 ± 1.019 mm at patient level was recorded. Mean marginal bone loss after 5 years was 0.573 ± 0.966 mm at implant level and 0.783 ± 1.213 mm at patient level. Age, sex, smoking habits, implant sites, implant lengths and diameters, prosthetic retentions, and timing of loading did not influence marginal bone remodeling in a statistically significant way. At 4-year follow-up partial restorations lost a mean of 0.96 mm of more marginal bone compared with single restorations. This difference was statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Implantación Dental Endoósea , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Adulto , Anciano , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Implantes Dentales de Diente Único , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
18.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 11(2): 145-161, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806663

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcome of immediately loaded cross-arch maxillary prostheses supported by zygomatic implants vs conventional implants placed in augmented bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 71 edentulous patients with severely atrophic maxillas without sufficient bone volumes for placing dental implants, or when it was possible to place only two implants in the anterior area (minimal diameter 3.5 mm and length of 8 mm) and less than 4 mm of bone height subantrally, were randomised according to a parallel group design to receive zygomatic implants (35 patients) to be loaded immediately vs grafting with a xenograft, followed after 6 months of graft consolidation by placement of six to eight conventional dental implants submerged for 4 months (36 patients). For immediate loading, zygomatic implants had to be inserted with an insertion torque superior to 40 Ncm. Screw-retained metal reinforced acrylic provisional prostheses were provided, to be replaced by definitive Procera Implant Bridge Titanium prostheses (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden), with ceramic or acrylic veneer materials 4 months after initial loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis, implant and augmentation failures, any complications, quality of life (OHIP-14), patients' number of days with total or partial impaired activity, time to function and number of dental visits, assessed by independent assessors. Patients were followed up to 1 year after loading. RESULTS: No augmentation procedure failed. Five patients dropped out from the augmentation group. Six prostheses could not be delivered or failed in the augmentation group vs one prosthesis in the zygomatic group, the difference being statistically significant (difference in proportions = -16.5%; P = 0.045; 95% CI: -0.34 to -0.01). Eight patients lost 35 implants in the augmentation group vs two patients who lost four zygomatic implants, the difference being statistically significant (difference in proportions = -20.1%; P = 0.037; 95% CI: -0.38 to -0.02). A total of 14 augmented patients were affected by 22 complications, vs 28 zygomatic patients (40 complications), the difference being statistically significant (difference in proportions = 34.8%; P = 0.005; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.54). The 1-year OHIP-14 score was 3.93 ± 5.86 for augmented patients and 3.97 ± 4.32 for zygomatic patients with no statistically significant differences between groups (mean difference = 0.04; 95% CI: -2.56 to 2.65; P = 0.747). Both groups had significantly improved OHIP-14 scores from before rehabilitation (P < 0.001 for both augmented and zygomatic patients). On average, the number of days of total infirmity was 7.42 ± 3.17 for the augmented group and 7.17 ± 1.96 for the zygomatic group, the difference not being statistically significant (mean difference = -0.25; 95% CI: -1.52 to 1.02; P = 0.692). The number of days of partial infirmity were on average 14.24 ± 4.64 for the augmented group and 12.17 ± 3.82 for the zygomatic group, the difference being statistically significant (mean difference = -2.07; 95% CI: -4.12 to -0.02; P = 0.048). The mean number of days that needed to have a functional prosthesis was 444.32 ± 207.86 for augmented patients and 1.34 ± 2.27 for zygomatic patients, the difference being statistically significant (mean difference = -442.98; 95% CI: -513.10 to -372.86; P < 0.001). The average number of dental visits was 19.72 ± 12.22 for augmented patients and 15.12 ± 5.76 for zygomatic patients, the difference not being statistically significant (mean difference = -4.61; 95% CI: -9.31 to 0.92; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary 1-year post-loading data suggest that immediately loaded zygomatic implants were associated with statistically significantly fewer prosthetic failures (one vs six patients), implant failures (two vs eight patients) and time needed to functional loading (1.3 days vs 444.3 days) when compared to augmentation procedures and conventionally loaded dental implants. Even if more complications were reported for zygomatic implants, they proved to be a better rehabilitation modality for severely atrophic maxillae. Long-term data are absolutely needed to confirm or dispute these preliminary results.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental , Maxilar/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Atrofia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Cigoma
19.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 11(2): 235-240, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806670

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To present a case of a woman referred for the management of displacement of one implant in her right posterior mandible that had occurred three days previously. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After implant placement, the practitioner was no longer able to detect the implant and inserted a second one at the same site without taking a control radiograph. At the end of surgery, when a radiograph was finally taken, the first implant appeared displaced into the mandible body. The patient suffered total paresthesia on the right lower lip and chin. A flap was raised and bone osteotomies were performed on the lateral side of the mandible to create a rectangular cortical bone window that was removed. The implant was stuck by the second implant placed coronally, and only after unscrewing this second implant was it possible to remove the first one. RESULTS: After 18 months, the patient recovered full sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: In cases of implant displacement, it is always recommended that appropriate radiographs are performed to visualise where the implants could have been displaced in order to avoid more serious consequences.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Mandíbula , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
Eur J Oral Implantol ; 11(1): 11-28, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557398

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcome of immediately loaded cross-arch maxillary prostheses supported by zygomatic implants vs conventional implants placed in augmented bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 71 edentulous patients with severely atrophic maxillas, who did not have sufficient bone volume to place dental implants or when it was possible to place only two implants in the front area (minimal diameter 3.5 mm and length of 8 mm) and less than 4.0 mm of bone height subantrally, were randomised according to a parallel group design. They (35 patients) received zygomatic implants to be loaded immediately vs grafting with a xenograft, followed, after 6 months of graft consolidation, by the placement of six to eight conventional dental implants, submerged for 4 months (36 patients). To be loaded immediately, zygomatic implants had to be inserted with an insertion torque superior to 40 Ncm. Screw-retained, metal-reinforced, acrylic provisional prostheses were provided to be replaced by definitive Procera Implant Bridge Titanium prostheses (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) with ceramic or acrylic veneer materials 4 months after initial loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis, implant and augmentation failures, any complications, quality of life (OHIP-14), the number of days that patients experienced total or partial impaired activity, time to function, and number of dental visits, assessed by independent assessors. Patients were followed up to 4 months after loading. RESULTS: No augmentation procedure failed. Three patients dropped out from the augmentation group. Six prostheses could not be delivered or failed in the augmentation group vs one prosthesis in the zygomatic group, the difference being statistically significant (difference in proportions = 15.32%; P = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.23 to 31.7). Eight patients lost 35 implants in the augmentation group vs three implants in one patient from the zygomatic group, the difference being statistically significant (difference in proportions = 21.38%; P = 0.001; 95% CI: 3.53 to 39.61). In total, 14 augmented patients were affected by 20 complications vs 26 zygomatic patients (35 complications), the difference being statistically significant (difference in proportions = 31.87%; P = 0.008; 95% CI: 6.48 to 53.37). The OHIP-14 score was 3.68 ± 5.41 for augmented patients and 4.97 ± 5.79 for zygomatic patients, with no statistically significant differences between groups (mean difference = 1.29; 95%CI -1.60 to 4.18; P = 0.439). Both groups had significantly improved OHIP-14 scores from before rehabilitation (P < 0.001 for both augmented and zygomatic patients). The number of days of total infirmity was, on average, 7.42 ± 3.17 for the augmented group and 7.17 ± 1.96 for the zygomatic group, the difference not being statistically significant (mean difference = -0.25; 95% CI: -1.52 to 1.02; P = 0.692). Days of partial infirmity were on average 14.24 ± 4.64 for the augmented group and 12.17 ± 3.82 for the zygomatic group, the difference being statistically significant (mean difference = -2.07; 95% CI: -4.12 to -0.02; P = 0.048). The mean number of days to have a functional prosthesis was 444.32 ± 207.86 for augmented patients and 1.34 ± 2.27 for zygomatic patients, the difference being statistically significant (mean difference = -442.9; 95% CI: -513.10 to -372.86; P < 0.001). The average number of dental visits was 16.79 ± 10.88 for augmented patients and 12.58 ± 5.21 for zygomatic patients, the difference not being statistically significant (mean difference = -4.21; 95% CI -8.48 to 0.06; P = 0.053). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary 4-months post-loading data suggest zygomatic implants were associated with statistically significantly less prosthetic (one vs six patients) and implant failures (one patient lost three implants versus 35 implants in eight patients) as well as time needed to functional loading (1.3 days vs 444.3 days) when compared with augmentation procedures and conventionally loaded dental implants. Even if more complications were reported for zygomatic implants, which were solved spontaneously or could be handled, zygomatic implants proved to be a better rehabilitation modality for severely atrophic maxillae. Long-term data are essential to confirm or dispute these preliminary results. Conflict of interest statement: This study was originally supported by Nobel Biocare, the manufacturer of the implants, and the provisional and definitive prosthetic components used in this study, which were provided free for the patients. However, before any results were known, Nobel Biocare withdrew the financial support and recruitment had to be stopped. Tecnoss (Giaveno, Torino, Italy) kindly donated the bone substitutes and the membranes, whereas Global D (Brignais, France) donated the osteosynthesis screws. Data property belonged to the authors and by no means did the manufacturers interfere with the publication of the results.


Asunto(s)
Aumento de la Cresta Alveolar/métodos , Implantación Dental Endoósea/métodos , Implantes Dentales , Cigoma/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/patología , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/cirugía , Atrofia/patología , Atrofia/cirugía , Sustitutos de Huesos/uso terapéutico , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Femenino , Xenoinjertos , Humanos , Carga Inmediata del Implante Dental , Arcada Edéntula/rehabilitación , Masculino , Maxilar/patología , Maxilar/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Resultado del Tratamiento
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