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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e028511, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375615

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Adverse events (AEs) associated with short-term corticosteroid use for respiratory conditions in young children. DESIGN: Systematic review of primary studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase and regulatory agencies were searched September 2014; search was updated in 2017. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Children <6 years with acute respiratory condition, given inhaled (high-dose) or systemic corticosteroids up to 14 days. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: One reviewer extracted with another reviewer verifying data. Study selection and methodological quality (McHarm scale) involved duplicate independent reviews. We extracted AEs reported by study authors and used a categorisation model by organ systems. Meta-analyses used Peto ORs (pORs) and DerSimonian Laird inverse variance method utilising Mantel-Haenszel Q statistic, with 95% CI. Subgroup analyses were conducted for respiratory condition and dose. RESULTS: Eighty-five studies (11 505 children) were included; 68 were randomised trials. Methodological quality was poor overall due to lack of assessment and inadequate reporting of AEs. Meta-analysis (six studies; n=1373) found fewer cases of vomiting comparing oral dexamethasone with prednisone (pOR 0.29, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.48; I2=0%). The mean difference in change-from-baseline height after one year between inhaled corticosteroid and placebo was 0.10 cm (two studies, n=268; 95% CI -0.47 to 0.67). Results from five studies with heterogeneous interventions, comparators and measurements were not pooled; one study found a smaller mean change in height z-score with recurrent high-dose inhaled fluticasone over one year. No significant differences were found comparing systemic or inhaled corticosteroid with placebo, or between corticosteroids, for other AEs; CIs around estimates were often wide, due to small samples and few events. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that short-term high-dose inhaled or systemic corticosteroids use is not associated with an increase in AEs across organ systems. Uncertainties remain, particularly for recurrent use and growth outcomes, due to low study quality, poor reporting and imprecision.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e029024, 2019 06 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253625

RESUMEN

Data from clinical trials are needed to guide the safe and effective use of medicines in children. Clinical trials are challenging to design and implement in all populations, and children present additional considerations. Several regions including the UK, USA and Europe have established clinical trial infrastructure to capitalise on expertise and promote clinical trials enrolling children. Our objective is to describe the partnerships and operational considerations for the development of paediatric clinical trials infrastructure in Canada. We describe the design and conduct of four emergency room paediatric trials, with four separate sponsors, across four provinces in parallel. Operations discussed include multisite contract development, centralised risk-based data monitoring, ethical review and patient engagement. We conclude with lessons learnt, additional challenges and potential solutions to facilitate drug development for children in Canada.

3.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 20(7): e293-e300, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149966

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify the clinical findings available at the time of hospitalization from the emergency department that are associated with deterioration within 24 hours. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study. SETTING: A pediatric hospital in Ottawa, ON, Canada. PATIENTS: Children less than 18 years old who were hospitalized via the emergency department between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. Cases (n = 98) had an unplanned admission to the PICU or unexpected death on the hospital ward within 24 hours of hospitalization and controls (n = 196) did not. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN RESULTS: Ninety-eight children (53% boys; mean age 63.2 mo) required early unplanned admission to the PICU. Multivariable conditional logistic regression resulted in a model with five predictors reaching statistical significance: higher triage acuity score (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.7-10.2), tachypnea in the emergency department (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8-11.8), tachycardia in the emergency department (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.5), PICU consultation in the emergency department (odds ratio, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.1-57.7), and admission to a ward not typical for age and/or diagnosis (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.7-11.6). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified risk factors that should be included as potential predictor variables in future large, prospective studies to derive and validate a weighted scoring system to identify hospitalized children at high risk of early clinical deterioration.

4.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(8): 539-547, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182422

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines advise against pharmacotherapy in bronchiolitis. However, little is known about global variation in prescribing practices for bronchiolitis at discharge from emergency departments. We aimed to evaluate global variation in prescribing practice (ie, inhaled salbutamol, or oral or inhaled corticosteroids) for infants with bronchiolitis at discharge from emergency departments. METHODS: We did a planned secondary analysis of a multinational, retrospective cohort study of the Pediatric Emergency Research Networks. Previously healthy infants (aged <12 months) who were discharged with bronchiolitis between Jan 1 and Dec 31, 2013 from 38 emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Spain and Portugal, the UK and Ireland, and the USA were included. The primary outcome was pharmacotherapy prescription at discharge from the emergency department. Secondary outcomes were revisits to the emergency department or hospitalisations for bronchiolitis within 21 days of discharge. FINDINGS: Of 1566 infants discharged from the emergency department, 317 (20%) were prescribed pharmacotherapy. Corticosteroid prescriptions were infrequent, ranging from 0% (0 of 68 infants) in Spain and Portugal to 6% (25 of 452) in the USA. Salbutamol prescriptions ranged from 5% (22 of 432) in the UK and Ireland to 32% (146 of 452) in the USA. Compared with the UK and Ireland, the odds of prescription of pharmacotherapy were increased in Spain and Portugal (odds ratio [OR] 9·22, 95% CI 1·70-49·96), the USA (8·20, 2·79-24·11), Canada (5·17, 1·61-16·67), and Australia and New Zealand (1·21, 0·36-4·10). After adjustment for clustering by site, pharmacotherapy at discharge was associated with older age (per 1 month increase; OR 1·23, 95% CI 1·16-1·30), oxygen saturation (per 1% decrease from 100%; 1·09, 1·01-1·18), chest retractions (1·88, 1·26-2·79), network (p=0·00050), and site (p<0·00090). 303 (19%) of 1566 infants returned to the emergency department and 129 (43%) of 303 were hospitalised. Discharge pharmacotherapy was not associated with revisits (p=0·55) or subsequent hospitalisations (p=0·50). INTERPRETATION: Use of ineffective medications in infants with bronchiolitis at discharge from emergency departments is common, with large differences in prescribing practices between countries and emergency departments. Enhanced knowledge translation and deprescribing efforts are needed to optimise and unify the management of bronchiolitis. FUNDING: None.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are leading causes of pediatric acute renal failure. Identifying hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) risk factors is needed to guide care. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, historical-cohort study to identify features associated with development of HUS (primary outcome) and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) (secondary outcome) in STEC-infected children without HUS at initial presentation. Children <18 years who submitted STEC-positive specimens between January 2011 and December 2015 at a participating study institution were eligible. RESULTS: Of 927 STEC-infected children, 41 (4.4%) had HUS at presentation; of the remaining 886, 126 (14.2%) developed HUS. Predictors of HUS included younger age (OR: 0.77; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.85/year), leukocyte count ≥13.0x103/µL (2.54; 1.42, 4.54), higher hematocrit (1.83; 1.21, 2.77/5% increase) and serum creatinine (10.82; 1.49, 78.69/1 mg/dL increase), platelet count <250 ×103/µL (1.92; 1.02, 3.60), lower serum sodium (1.12; 1.02, 1.23/1 mmol/L decrease), and intravenous fluid administration initiated ≥4 days following diarrhea onset (2.50; 1.14, 5.46). A longer interval from diarrhea onset to index visit was associated with reduced HUS risk (0.70; 0.54, 0.90). RRT predictors included female sex (2.27; 1.14, 4.50), younger age (0.83; 0.74, 0.92/year), lower serum sodium (1.15; 1.04, 1.27/mmol/L decrease), higher leukocyte count ≥13.0x103/µL (2.35; 1.17, 4.72) and creatinine (7.75; 1.20, 50.16/1 mg/dL increase) concentrations, and initial intravenous fluid administration ≥4 days following diarrhea onset (2.71; 1.18, 6.21). CONCLUSIONS: The complex nature of STEC infection renders predicting its course a challenge. Risk factors we identified highlight the importance of avoiding dehydration and performing close clinical and laboratory monitoring.

6.
CJEM ; 21(1): 97-102, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898800

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Problematic alcohol use is associated with detrimental cognitive, physiological and social consequences. In the emergency department (ED), Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is the recommended approach to identify and treat adolescent alcohol-related concerns, but is underused by physicians. OBJECTIVE: This study examined pediatric emergency physicians' perceptions of adolescent drinking and treatment, and their current self-reported SBIRT practices. METHOD: Physicians in the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada database (n=245) received a 35-item questionnaire that was administered through a web-based platform and paper-based mail-outs. Recruitment followed a modified Dillman four-contact approach. RESULTS: From October 2016 to January 2017, 166 pediatric emergency physicians (46.4% males; mean age=43.6 years) completed the questionnaire. The response rate was 67.8%. Physicians recognized the need (65%) and responsibility (86%) to address adolescent alcohol problems. However, confidence in knowledge and abilities for SBIRT execution was low. Twenty-five percent of physicians reported never having practiced all, or part of, SBIRT while 1.3% reported consistent SBIRT delivery for adolescents with alcohol-related visits. More alcohol education and counselling experience was associated with higher SBIRT use; however, physicians generally reported to have received minimal alcohol training. SBIRT practices were also associated with physician perceptions of problematic alcohol use and its treatability. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric emergency physicians acknowledge the need to address problematic adolescent alcohol use, but routine SBIRT use is lacking. Strategies to educate physicians about SBIRT and enhance perceived self-competency may improve SBIRT use. Effectiveness trials to establish SBIRT impact on patient outcomes are also needed.

7.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e025630, 2018 12 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552284

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Asthma exacerbations are a leading cause of paediatric hospitalisations. Corticosteroids are key in the treatment of asthma exacerbations. Most current corticosteroids treatment regimens for children admitted with asthma exacerbation consist of a 5-day course of prednisone or prednisolone. However, these medications are associated with poor taste and significant vomiting, resulting in poor compliance with the treatment course. While some centres already use a short course of dexamethasone for treating children hospitalised with asthma, there is no evidence to support this practice in the inpatient population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-site, pragmatic, feasibility randomised controlled trial will determine the feasibility of a non-inferiority trial, comparing two treatment regimens for children admitted to the hospital and receiving asthma treatment. Children 18 months to 17 years presenting to a Canadian tertiary care centre will be randomised to receive either a short course of dexamethasone or a longer course of prednisone/prednisolone once admitted to the inpatient units. The primary clinical outcome for this feasibility study will be readmission to hospital or repeat emergency department visits, or unplanned visits to primary healthcare providers for asthma symptoms within 4 weeks of hospital discharge. Feasibility outcomes will include recruitment and allocation success, compliance with study procedures, retention rate, and safety and tolerability of study medications. We plan on recruiting 51 children, and between-group comparisons of the clinical outcome will be conducted to gain insights on probable effect sizes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research Ethics Board approval has been obtained for this study. The results of this study will inform a multisite trial comparing prednisone/prednisolone to dexamethasone in inpatient asthma treatment, which will have the potential to improve the delivery of asthma care, by improving compliance with a mainstay of treatment. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, organisations and meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03133897; Pre-results.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos/administración & dosificación , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Dexametasona/administración & dosificación , Glucocorticoides/administración & dosificación , Prednisolona/administración & dosificación , Prednisona/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Antiasmáticos/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Dexametasona/efectos adversos , Esquema de Medicación , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Equivalencia como Asunto , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios , Estudios de Factibilidad , Estudios de Seguimiento , Glucocorticoides/efectos adversos , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Prednisolona/efectos adversos , Prednisona/efectos adversos , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Pediatrics ; 142(3)2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126934

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early risk stratification of infants with bronchiolitis receiving airway support is critical for focusing appropriate therapies, yet the tools to risk categorize this subpopulation do not exist. Our objective was to identify predictors of "escalated care" in bronchiolitis. We hypothesized there would be a significant association between escalated care and predictors in the emergency department. We subsequently developed a risk score for escalated care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of previously healthy infants aged <12 months with bronchiolitis. Our primary outcome was escalated care (ie, hospitalization with high-flow nasal cannula, noninvasive or invasive ventilation, or intensive care admission). The predictors evaluated were age, prematurity, day of illness, poor feeding, dehydration, apnea, nasal flaring and/or grunting, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and retractions. RESULTS: Of 2722 patients, 261 (9.6%) received escalated care. Multivariable predictors of escalated care were oxygen saturation <90% (odds ratio [OR]: 8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-15.7]), nasal flaring and/or grunting (OR: 3.8 [95% CI 2.6-5.4]), apnea (OR: 3.0 [95% CI 1.9-4.8]), retractions (OR: 3.0 [95% CI 1.6-5.7]), age ≤2 months (OR: 2.1 [95% CI 1.5-3.0]), dehydration (OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.4-3.3]), and poor feeding (OR: 1.9 [95% CI 1.3-2.7]). One of 217 (0.5%) infants without predictors received escalated care. The risk score ranged from 0 to 14 points, with the estimated risk of escalated care from 0.46% (0 points) to 96.9% (14 points). The area under the curve was 85%. CONCLUSIONS: We identified variables measured in the emergency department predictive of escalated care in bronchiolitis and derived a risk score to stratify risk of this outcome. This score may be used to aid management and disposition decisions.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis/epidemiología , Bronquiolitis/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Internacionalidad , Bronquiolitis/diagnóstico , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
10.
Acad Emerg Med ; 25(12): 1365-1374, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature supports patient and public involvement in the design, prioritization, and dissemination of research and evidence-based medicine. The objectives of this project were to engage patients and families in developing a prioritized list of research topics for pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) and to compare results with prior research prioritization initiatives in the emergency department (ED) setting. METHODS: We utilized a systematic process to combine administrative data on frequency of patient presentations to the ED with multiple stakeholder input including an initial stakeholder survey followed by a modified Delphi consensus methodology consisting of two Web-based surveys and a face-to-face meeting. RESULTS: The prioritization process resulted in a ranked list of 15 research priorities. The top five priorities were mental health presentations, pain and sedation, practice tools, quality of care delivery, and resource utilization. Mental health, pain and sedation, clinical prediction rules, respiratory illnesses/wheeze, patient safety/medication error, and sepsis were identified as shared priorities with prior initiatives. Topics identified in our process that were not identified in prior work included resource utilization, ED communication, antibiotic stewardship, and patient/family adherence with recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: This work identifies key priorities for research in PEM. Comparing our results with prior initiatives in the ED setting identified shared research priorities and opportunities for collaboration among PEM research networks. This work in particular makes an important contribution to the existing literature by including the patient/family perspective missing from prior work.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Participación del Paciente , Medicina de Urgencia Pediátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Canadá , Niño , Conducta Cooperativa , Técnica Delfos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Pain ; 159(8): 1508-1517, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608509

RESUMEN

Appropriate pain measurement relies on the use of valid, reliable tools. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the psychometric properties of 3 self-reported pain scales commonly used in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The inclusion criteria were children aged 6 to 17 years presenting to the ED with a musculoskeletal injury and self-reported pain scores ≥30 mm on the mechanical Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Self-reported pain intensity was assessed using the mechanical VAS, Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), and Colour Analogue Scale (CAS). Convergent validity was assessed by Pearson correlations and the Bland-Altman method; responsiveness to change was assessed using paired sample t tests and standardized mean responses; and reliability was estimated using relative and absolute indices. A total of 456 participants were included, with a mean age of 11.9 years ± 2.7 and a majority were boys (252/456, 55.3%). Correlations between each pair of scales were 0.78 (VAS/FPS-R), 0.92 (VAS/CAS), and 0.79 (CAS/FPS-R). Limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) were -3.77 to 2.33 (VAS/FPS-R), -1.74 to 1.75 (VAS/CAS), and -2.21 to 3.62 (CAS/FPS-R). Responsiveness to change was demonstrated by significant differences in mean pain scores among the scales (P < 0.0001). Intraclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of repeatability estimates suggested acceptable reliability for the 3 scales at, respectively, 0.79 and ±2.29 (VAS), 0.82 and ±2.07 (CAS), and 0.76 and ±2.82 (FPS-R). The scales demonstrated good psychometric properties for children with acute pain in the ED. The VAS and CAS showed a strong convergent validity, whereas FPS-R was not in agreement with the other scales.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico , Dimensión del Dolor/métodos , Adolescente , Niño , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatría , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 54(4): 390-397, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111613

RESUMEN

AIM: Research has highlighted the potential role that hydration status may play in predicting outcomes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-infected children. Because little is known about the management of STEC-infected children in the pre-haemolytic uremic syndrome phase, we compared paediatric emergency medicine and nephrologist-stated management approaches to STEC-infected children. METHODS: Members of the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC; n = 228), the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee (PEM CRC; n = 221) and the Canadian Association of Pediatric Nephrologists (CAPN; n = 66) were surveyed. Five individualised e-mail requests containing a link to a 42-question web-based survey were sent to eligible participants. RESULTS: Of 496 potentially eligible participants, 276 (56%) submitted complete survey responses. In children with classic features of STEC infection, baseline haemoglobin/haematocrit is obtained by 54% of PERC, 41% of PEM CRC and 83% of CAPN members (P < 0.001), and baseline renal function is obtained by 51% of PERC, 38% of PEM CRC and 83% of CAPN members (P < 0.001). Intravenous fluids are more often recommended by nephrologists (28%) compared with PEM physicians (7%), P < 0.001. In children with known E. coli O157:H7 infection, nephrologists more commonly recommend clinical follow-up (P = 0.003), complete blood counts (P < 0.001) and renal function/electrolyte testing (P < 0.001). Intravenous fluid administration and admission are more commonly recommended by nephrologists (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Compared with paediatric nephrologists, paediatric emergency medicine physicians are less likely to perform baseline and follow-up blood tests and to administer intravascular volume expansion in children at risk of, and with confirmed, E. coli O157:H7 infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli/terapia , Escherichia coli O157 , Nefrólogos , Medicina de Urgencia Pediátrica , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Adolescente , Análisis Químico de la Sangre , Canadá , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Técnicas y Procedimientos Diagnósticos , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli O157/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urémico , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Pediatras , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
13.
Acad Emerg Med ; 25(5): 494-507, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960689

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive support technologies that support clinical decisions and practices in the emergency department (ED) have the potential to optimize patient care. However, limited uptake by clinicians can prevent successful implementation. A better understanding of acceptance of these technologies from the clinician perspective is needed. We conducted a scoping review to synthesize diverse, emerging evidence on clinicians' acceptance of point-of-care (POC) cognitive support technology in the ED. METHOD: We systematically searched 10 electronic databases and gray literature published from January 2006 to December 2016. Studies of any design assessing an ED-based POC cognitive support technology were considered eligible for inclusion. Studies were required to report outcome data for technology acceptance. Two reviewers independently screened studies for relevance and quality. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. A descriptive analysis of the features of POC cognitive support technology for each study is presented, illustrating trends in technology development and evaluation. A thematic analysis of clinician, technical, patient, and organizational factors associated with technology acceptance is also presented. RESULTS: Of the 1,563 references screened for eligibility, 24 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Most studies were published from 2011 onward (88%), scored high for methodologic quality (79%), and examined POC technologies that were novel and newly introduced into the study setting (63%). Physician use of POC technology was the most commonly studied (67%). Technology acceptance was frequently conceptualized and measured by factors related to clinician attitudes and beliefs. Experience with the technology, intention to use, and actual use were also more common outcome measures of technology acceptance. Across studies, perceived usefulness was the most noteworthy factor impacting technology acceptance, and clinicians generally had positive perceptions of the use of POC cognitive support technology in the ED. However, the actual use of POC cognitive support technology reported by clinicians was low-use, by proportion of patient cases, ranged from 30% to 59%. Of the 24 studies, only two studies investigated acceptance of POC cognitive support technology currently implemented in the ED, offering "real-world" clinical practice data. All other studies focused on acceptance of novel technologies. Technical aspects such as an unfriendly user interface, presentation of redundant or ambiguous information, and required user effort had a negative impact on acceptance. Patient expectations were also found to have a negative impact, while patient safety implications had a positive impact. Institutional support was also reported to impact technology acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this scoping review suggest that while ED clinicians acknowledge the utility and value of using POC cognitive support technology, actual use of such technology can be low. Further, few studies have evaluated the acceptance and use of POC technologies in routine care. Prospective studies that evaluate how ED clinicians appraise and consider POC technology use in clinical practice are now needed with diverse clinician samples. While this review identified multiple factors contributing to technology acceptance, determining how clinician, technical, patient, and organizational factors mediate or moderate acceptance should also be a priority.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas/organización & administración , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Cognición , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
Pediatrics ; 140(6)2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29184035

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies characterizing hospitalizations in bronchiolitis did not identify patients receiving evidence-based supportive therapies (EBSTs). We aimed to evaluate intersite and internetwork variation in receipt of ≥1 EBSTs during the hospital management of infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis in 38 emergency departments of pediatric emergency research networks in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. We hypothesized that there would be significant variation, adjusted for patient characteristics. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of previously healthy infants aged <12 months with bronchiolitis. Our primary outcome was that hospitalization occurred with EBST (ie, parenteral fluids, oxygen, or airway support). RESULTS: Out of 3725 participants, 1466 (39%) were hospitalized, and 1023 out of 1466 participants (69.8%) received EBST. The use of EBST varied by site (P < .001; range 6%-99%, median 23%), but not by network (P = .2). Significant multivariable predictors and their odds ratios (ORs) were as follows: age (0.9), oxygen saturation (1.3), apnea (3.4), dehydration (3.2), nasal flaring and/or grunting (2.4), poor feeding (2.1), chest retractions (1.9), and respiratory rate (1.2). The use of pharmacotherapy and radiography varied by network and site (P < .001), with respective intersite ranges 2% to 79% and 1.6% to 81%. Compared with Australia and New Zealand, the multivariable OR for the use of pharmacotherapy in Spain and Portugal was 22.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5-111), use in Canada was 11.5 (95% CI: 3.7-36), use in the United States was 6.8 (95% CI: 2.3-19.8), and use in the United Kingdom was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.4-4.2). Compared with United Kingdom, OR for radiography use in the United States was 4.9 (95% CI 2.0-12.2), use in Canada was 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6), use in Spain and Portugal was 2.4 (95% CI 0.6-9.8), and use in Australia and New Zealand was 1.8 (95% CI 0.7-4.7). CONCLUSIONS: More than 30% of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis received no EBST. The hospital site was a source of variation in all study outcomes, and the network also predicted the use of pharmacotherapy and radiography.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Aguda , Australia , Bronquiolitis/diagnóstico , Canadá , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Irlanda , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Portugal , Estudios Retrospectivos , España , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
15.
Pediatrics ; 140(5)2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021235

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-Is) are a common and painful condition among children that remains poorly treated in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to test the efficacy of a combination of an anti-inflammatory drug with an opioid for pain management of MSK-I in children presenting to the ED. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled children between 6 and 17 years presenting to the ED with an MSK-I and a pain score >29 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS). Participants were randomly assigned to oral morphine (0.2 mg/kg) + ibuprofen (10 mg/kg) (morphine + ibuprofen) or morphine (0.2 mg/kg) + placebo of ibuprofen or ibuprofen (10 mg/kg) + placebo of morphine. Primary outcome was children with VAS pain score <30 mm at 60 minutes postmedication administration. RESULTS: A total of 501 participants were enrolled and 456 were included in primary analyses (morphine + ibuprofen = 177; morphine = 188; ibuprofen = 91). Only 29.9% (morphine + ibuprofen), 29.3% (morphine), and 33.0% (ibuprofen) of participants achieved the primary outcome (P = .81). Mean VAS pain reduction at 60 minutes were -18.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.9 to -16.6) (morphine + ibuprofen), -17.0 (95% CI: -20.0 to -13.9) (morphine), -18.6 (95% CI: -22.9 to -14.2) (ibuprofen) (P = .69). Children in the morphine + ibuprofen group (P < .001) and in the morphine group (P < .001) experienced more side effects than those in the ibuprofen group. No serious adverse event was reported. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of morphine with ibuprofen did not provide adequate pain relief for children with MSK-I in the ED. None of the study medication provided an optimal pain management because most of children did not reach a mild pain score (NCT02064894).


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Administración Oral , Adolescente , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Niño , Método Doble Ciego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Morfina/administración & dosificación , Dimensión del Dolor/efectos de los fármacos , Dimensión del Dolor/métodos
16.
Lancet ; 389(10065): 211-224, 2017 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27549684

RESUMEN

Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract. Management is largely supportive, focusing on maintaining oxygenation and hydration of the patient. Evidence suggests no benefit from bronchodilator or corticosteroid use in infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis. Evidence for other treatments such as hypertonic saline is evolving but not clearly defined yet. For infants with severe disease, the insufficient available data suggest a role for high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure use in a monitored setting to prevent respiratory failure.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis Viral/diagnóstico , Bronquiolitis Viral/terapia , Pediatría , Bronquiolitis Viral/epidemiología , Bronquiolitis Viral/microbiología , Broncodilatadores/uso terapéutico , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Solución Salina Hipertónica
18.
Trials ; 17(1): 261, 2016 05 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27220675

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Up to 30 % of children with acute asthma are refractory to initial therapy, and 84 % of this subpopulation needs hospitalization. Finding safe, noninvasive, and effective strategies to treat this high-risk group would substantially decrease hospitalizations, healthcare costs, and the psycho-social burden of the disease. Whereas intravenous magnesium (Mg) is effective in severe refractory asthma, its use is sporadic due to safety concerns, with the main treatment goal being to prevent intensive care unit admission. In contrast, nebulized Mg is noninvasive, allows higher pulmonary drug concentrations, and has a much higher safety potential due to the lower rate of systemic delivery. Previous studies of inhaled Mg show disparate results due to the use of unknown/inefficient delivery methods and other methodological flaws. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a randomized double-blind controlled trial in seven Canadian pediatric Emergency Departments (two-center pilot 2011 to 2014, Canada-wide November 2014 to December 2017). The trial will include 816 otherwise healthy children who are 2 to 17 years old, having had at least one previous wheezing episode, have received systemic corticosteroids, and have a Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) ≥ 5 points after three salbutamol and ipratropium treatments for a current acute asthma exacerbation. Eligible consenting children will receive three experimental treatments of nebulized salbutamol with either 600 mg of Mg sulfate or placebo 20 min apart, using an Aeroneb Go nebulizer, which has been shown to maximize pulmonary delivery while maintaining safety. The primary outcome is hospitalization within 24 h of the start of the experimental therapy for persistent respiratory distress or supplemental oxygen. Secondary outcomes include all-cause hospitalization within 24 h, PRAM, vital signs, number of bronchodilator treatments by 240 min, and the association between the difference in the primary outcome between the groups, age, gender, baseline PRAM, atopy, and "viral induced wheeze" phenotype (Fig. 1). DISCUSSION: If effective, inhaled Mg may represent an effective strategy to minimize morbidity in pediatric refractory acute asthma. Unlike previous works, this trial targets nonresponders to optimized initial therapy who are the most likely to benefit from inhaled Mg. Future dissemination of results will include knowledge translation, incorporation into a Cochrane Review, presentation at scientific meetings, and a peer-reviewed publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCTO1429415 , registered 2 September 2011.


Asunto(s)
Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Protocolos Clínicos , Magnesio/administración & dosificación , Administración por Inhalación , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Método Doble Ciego , Humanos , Magnesio/efectos adversos
19.
CJEM ; 18(6): 443-452, 2016 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26906352

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospital admission for infants, but few studies have examined management of this condition in community hospital settings. We reviewed the management of children with bronchiolitis presenting to community hospitals in Ontario. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive cohort of infants less than 12 months old with bronchiolitis who presented to 28 Ontario community hospitals over a two-year period. Bronchiolitis was defined as first episode of wheezing associated with signs of an upper respiratory tract infection during respiratory syncytial virus season. RESULTS: Of 543 eligible children, 161 (29.7%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 22.3 to 37.0%) were admitted to hospital. Hospital admission rates varied widely (Interquartile Range 0%-40.3%). Bronchodilator use was widespread in the emergency department (ED) (79.7% of patients, 95% CI 75.0 to 84.5%) and on the inpatient wards (94.4% of patients, 95% CI 90.2 to 98.6%). Salbutamol was the most commonly used bronchodilator. At ED discharge 44.7% (95% CI 37.5 to 51.9%) of patients were prescribed a bronchodilator medication. Approximately one-third of ED patients (30.8%, 95% CI 22.7 to 38.8%), 50.3% (95% CI 37.7 to 63.0%) of inpatients, and 23.5% (95% CI 14.4 to 32.7) of patients discharged from the ED were treated with corticosteroids. The most common investigation obtained was a chest x-ray (60.2% of all children; 95% CI 51.9 to 68.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Infants with bronchiolitis receive medications and investigations for which there is little evidence of benefit. This suggests a need for knowledge translation strategies directed to community hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Albuterol/uso terapéutico , Bronquiolitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapéutico , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Bronquiolitis/diagnóstico , Bronquiolitis/epidemiología , Broncodilatadores/farmacología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Hospitales Comunitarios , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Ontario , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Pain Res Manag ; 2016: 5346819, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077923

RESUMEN

Background. Fear of adverse events and occurrence of side effects are commonly cited by families and physicians as obstructive to appropriate use of pain medication in children. We examined evidence comparing the safety profiles of three groups of oral medications, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids, to manage acute nonsurgical pain in children (<18 years) treated in ambulatory settings. Methods. A comprehensive search was performed to July 2015, including review of national data registries. Two reviewers screened articles for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. Risks (incidence rates) were pooled using a random effects model. Results. Forty-four studies were included; 23 reported on adverse events. Based on limited current evidence, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and opioids have similar nausea and vomiting profiles. Opioids have the greatest risk of central nervous system adverse events. Dual therapy with a nonopioid/opioid combination resulted in a lower risk of adverse events than opioids alone. Conclusions. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen have similar reported adverse effects and notably less adverse events than opioids. Dual therapy with a nonopioid/opioid combination confers a protective effect for adverse events over opioids alone. This research highlights challenges in assessing medication safety, including lack of more detailed information in registry data, and inconsistent reporting in trials.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Agudo/tratamiento farmacológico , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos/efectos adversos , Acetaminofén/administración & dosificación , Acetaminofén/efectos adversos , Dolor Agudo/diagnóstico , Analgésicos no Narcóticos/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos no Narcóticos/efectos adversos , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/efectos adversos , Niño , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Náusea/inducido químicamente , Náusea/diagnóstico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vómitos/inducido químicamente , Vómitos/diagnóstico
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