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1.
Cancer Res ; 81(4): 1087-1100, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822745

RESUMEN

Endocrine resistance (EnR) in advanced prostate cancer is fatal. EnR can be mediated by androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, with AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7) arguably the most clinically important variant. In this study, we determined proteins key to generating AR-V7, validated our findings using clinical samples, and studied splicing regulatory mechanisms in prostate cancer models. Triangulation studies identified JMJD6 as a key regulator of AR-V7, as evidenced by its upregulation with in vitro EnR, its downregulation alongside AR-V7 by bromodomain inhibition, and its identification as a top hit of a targeted siRNA screen of spliceosome-related genes. JMJD6 protein levels increased (P < 0.001) with castration resistance and were associated with higher AR-V7 levels and shorter survival (P = 0.048). JMJD6 knockdown reduced prostate cancer cell growth, AR-V7 levels, and recruitment of U2AF65 to AR pre-mRNA. Mutagenesis studies suggested that JMJD6 activity is key to the generation of AR-V7, with the catalytic machinery residing within a druggable pocket. Taken together, these data highlight the relationship between JMJD6 and AR-V7 in advanced prostate cancer and support further evaluation of JMJD6 as a therapeutic target in this disease. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies JMJD6 as being critical for the generation of AR-V7 in prostate cancer, where it may serve as a tractable target for therapeutic intervention.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1426, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658518

RESUMEN

Metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) comprises a spectrum of diverse phenotypes. However, the extent of inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity is not established. Here we use digital spatial profiling (DSP) technology to quantitate transcript and protein abundance in spatially-distinct regions of mPCs. By assessing multiple discrete areas across multiple metastases, we find a high level of intra-patient homogeneity with respect to tumor phenotype. However, there are notable exceptions including tumors comprised of regions with high and low androgen receptor (AR) and neuroendocrine activity. While the vast majority of metastases examined are devoid of significant inflammatory infiltrates and lack PD1, PD-L1 and CTLA4, the B7-H3/CD276 immune checkpoint protein is highly expressed, particularly in mPCs with high AR activity. Our results demonstrate the utility of DSP for accurately classifying tumor phenotype, assessing tumor heterogeneity, and identifying aspects of tumor biology involving the immunological composition of metastases.


Asunto(s)
Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Antígenos B7/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Receptor 2 Celular del Virus de la Hepatitis A/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Adhesión en Parafina , Fenotipo , Receptor de Muerte Celular Programada 1/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Análisis de Matrices Tisulares , Transcriptoma
3.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100240, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384381

RESUMEN

Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to be androgen receptor (AR) driven. Inhibition of AR signaling in CRPC could be advanced using state-of-the-art biophysical and biochemical techniques. Structural characterization of AR and its complexes by cryo-electron microscopy would advance the development of N-terminal domain (NTD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD) antagonists. The structural basis of AR function is unlikely to be determined by any single structure due to the intrinsic disorder of its NTD, which not only interacts with coregulators but likely accounts for the constitutive activity of AR-splice variants (SV), which lack the LBD and emerge in CRPC. Using different AR constructs lacking the LBD, their effects on protein folding, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity could reveal how interdomain coupling explains the activity of AR-SVs. The AR also interacts with coregulators that promote chromatin looping. Elucidating the mechanisms involved can identify vulnerabilities to treat CRPC, which do not involve targeting the AR. Phosphorylation of the AR coactivator MED-1 by CDK7 is one mechanism that can be blocked by the use of CDK7 inhibitors. CRPC gains resistance to AR signaling inhibitors (ARSI). Drug resistance may involve AR-SVs, but their role requires their reliable quantification by SILAC-mass spectrometry during disease progression. ARSI drug resistance also occurs by intratumoral androgen biosynthesis catalyzed by AKR1C3 (type 5 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), which is unique in that its acts as a coactivator of AR. Novel bifunctional inhibitors that competitively inhibit AKR1C3 and block its coactivator function could be developed using reverse-micelle NMR and fragment-based drug discovery.

4.
Front Oncol ; 10: 580617, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163409

RESUMEN

Metabolic reprogramming is associated with re/activation and antagonism of androgen receptor (AR) signaling that drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression to castration resistance, respectively. In particular, AR signaling influences the fates of citrate that uniquely characterizes normal and malignant prostatic metabolism (i.e., mitochondrial export and extracellular secretion in normal prostate, mitochondrial retention and oxidation to support oxidative phenotype of primary PCa, and extra-mitochondrial interconversion into acetyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis and epigenetics in the advanced PCa). The emergence of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) involves reactivation of AR signaling, which is then further targeted by androgen synthesis inhibitors (abiraterone) and AR-ligand inhibitors (enzalutamide, apalutamide, and daroglutamide). However, based on AR dependency, two distinct metabolic and cellular adaptations contribute to development of resistance to these agents and progression to aggressive and lethal disease, with the tumor ultimately becoming highly glycolytic and with imaging by a tracer of tumor energetics, 18F-fluorodoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Another major resistance mechanism involves a lineage alteration into AR-indifferent carcinoma such a neuroendocrine which is diagnostically characterized by robust 18F-FDG uptake and loss of AR signaling. PCa is also characterized by metabolic alterations such as fatty acid and polyamine metabolism depending on AR signaling. In some cases, AR targeting induces rather than suppresses these alterations in cellular metabolism and energetics, which can be explored as therapeutic targets in lethal CRPC.

5.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 19(4): 1059-1069, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054790

RESUMEN

Androgen deprivation therapy and second-generation androgen receptor signaling inhibitors such as enzalutamide are standard treatments for advanced/metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, most men develop resistance and relapse; signaling via insulin-like growth factor (IGF) has been implicated in castration-resistant prostate cancer. We evaluated the antitumor activity of xentuzumab (IGF ligand-neutralizing antibody), alone and in combination with enzalutamide, in prostate cancer cell lines (VCaP, DuCaP, MDA PCa 2b, LNCaP, and PC-3) using established in vitro assays, and in vivo, using LuCaP 96CR, a prostate cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. Xentuzumab + enzalutamide reduced the viability of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-expressing VCaP, DuCaP, and MDA PCa 2b cells more than either single agent, and increased antiproliferative activity and apoptosis induction in VCaP. Xentuzumab or xentuzumab + enzalutamide inhibited IGF type 1 receptor and AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) phosphorylation in VCaP, DuCaP, and MDA PCa 2b cells; xentuzumab had no effect on AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in PTEN-null LNCaP or PC-3 cells. Knockdown of PTEN led to loss of antiproliferative activity of xentuzumab and reduced activity of xentuzumab + enzalutamide in VCaP cells. Xentuzumab + enzalutamide inhibited the growth of castration-resistant LuCaP 96CR PDX with acquired resistance to enzalutamide, and improved survival in vivo The data suggest that xentuzumab + enzalutamide combination therapy may overcome castration resistance and could be effective in patients who are resistant to enzalutamide alone. PTEN status as a biomarker of responsiveness to combination therapy needs further investigation.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1965-1976, 2020 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932493

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a lethal stage of the disease that emerges when endocrine therapies are no longer effective at suppressing activity of the androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor. The purpose of this study was to identify genomic mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of CRPC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used whole-genome and targeted DNA-sequencing approaches to identify mechanisms underlying CRPC in an aggregate cohort of 272 prostate cancer patients. We analyzed structural rearrangements at the genome-wide level and carried out a detailed structural rearrangement analysis of the AR locus. We used genome engineering to perform experimental modeling of AR gene rearrangements and long-read RNA sequencing to analyze effects on expression of AR and truncated AR variants (AR-V). RESULTS: AR was among the most frequently rearranged genes in CRPC tumors. AR gene rearrangements promoted expression of diverse AR-V species. AR gene rearrangements occurring in the context of AR amplification correlated with AR overexpression. Cell lines with experimentally derived AR gene rearrangements displayed high expression of tumor-specific AR-Vs and were resistant to endocrine therapies, including the AR antagonist enzalutamide. CONCLUSIONS: AR gene rearrangements are an important mechanism of resistance to endocrine therapies in CRPC.

10.
JCI Insight ; 4(19)2019 10 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503550

RESUMEN

Clinical trials of high-dose androgen (HDA) therapy for prostate cancer (PC) have shown promising efficacy but are limited by lack of criteria to identify likely responders. To elucidate factors that govern the growth-repressive effects of HDAs, we applied an unbiased integrative approach using genetic screens and transcriptional profiling of PC cells with or without demonstrated phenotypic sensitivity to androgen-mediated growth repression. Through this comprehensive analysis, we identified genetic events and related signaling networks that determine the response to both HDA and androgen withdrawal. We applied these findings to develop a gene signature that may serve as an early indicator of treatment response and identify men with tumors that are amenable to HDA therapy.


Asunto(s)
Andrógenos/farmacología , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Línea Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Genes p53/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Unión a Retinoblastoma/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/genética
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(503)2019 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366581

RESUMEN

The androgen receptor (AR) is a driver of cellular differentiation and prostate cancer development. An extensive body of work has linked these normal and aberrant cellular processes to mRNA transcription; however, the extent to which AR regulates posttranscriptional gene regulation remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AR uses the translation machinery to shape the cellular proteome. We show that AR is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and identify an unexpected relationship between AR and the process of translation initiation in vivo. This is mediated through direct transcriptional control of the translation inhibitor 4EBP1. We demonstrate that lowering AR abundance increases the assembly of the eIF4F translation initiation complex, which drives enhanced tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, we uncover a network of pro-proliferation mRNAs characterized by a guanine-rich cis-regulatory element that is particularly sensitive to eIF4F hyperactivity. Using both genetic and pharmacologic methods, we demonstrate that dissociation of the eIF4F complex reverses the proliferation program, resulting in decreased tumor growth and improved survival in preclinical models. Our findings reveal a druggable nexus that functionally links the processes of mRNA transcription and translation initiation in an emerging class of lethal AR-deficient prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Regulón/fisiología , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Animales , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferación Celular/genética , Proliferación Celular/fisiología , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Intrones/genética , Masculino , Ratones , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Regulón/genética
13.
Eur Urol ; 76(5): 676-685, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036442

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Detection of androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) mRNA in circulating tumour cells (CTCs) is associated with worse outcome in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, studies rarely report comparisons with CTC counts and biopsy AR-V7 protein expression. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reproducibility of AdnaTest CTC AR-V7 testing, and associations with clinical characteristics, CellSearch CTC counts, tumour biopsy AR-V7 protein expression and overall survival (OS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: CTC AR-V7 status was determined for 227 peripheral blood samples, from 181 mCRPC patients with CTC counts (202 samples; 136 patients) and matched mCRPC biopsies (65 samples; 58 patients). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: CTC AR-V7 status was associated with clinical characteristics, CTC counts, and tissue biopsy AR-V7 protein expression. The association of CTC AR-V7 status and other baseline variables with OS was determined. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the samples, 35% were CTC+/AR-V7+. CTC+/AR-V7+ samples had higher CellSearch CTC counts (median CTC; interquartile range [IQR]: 60, 19-184 vs 9, 2-64; Mann-Whitney test p<0.001) and biopsy AR-V7 protein expression (median H-score, IQR: 100, 63-148 vs 15, 0-113; Mann-Whitney test p=0.004) than CTC+/AR-V7- samples. However, both CTC- (63%) and CTC+/AR-V7- (62%) patients had detectable AR-V7 protein in contemporaneous biopsies. After accounting for baseline characteristics, there was shorter OS in CTC+/AR-V7+ patients than in CTC- patients (hazard ratio [HR] 2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-3.71; p=0.02); surprisingly, there was no evidence that CTC+/AR-V7+ patients had worse OS than CTC+/AR-V7- patients (HR 1.26; 95% CI 0.73-2.17; p=0.4). A limitation of this study was the heterogeneity of treatment received. CONCLUSIONS: Studies reporting the prognostic relevance of CTC AR-V7 status must account for CTC counts. Discordant CTC AR-V7 results and AR-V7 protein expression in matched, same-patient biopsies are reported. PATIENT SUMMARY: Liquid biopsies that determine circulating tumour cell androgen receptor splice variant-7 status have the potential to impact treatment decisions in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Robust clinical qualification of these assays is required before their routine use.


Asunto(s)
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Empalme Alternativo , Biopsia/métodos , Recuento de Células/métodos , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Técnicas Genéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Metástasis de la Neoplasia/genética , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patología , Pronóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/patología , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 81: 34-39, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002955

RESUMEN

Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly used to monitor patients with low-risk prostate cancer; however, approximately 50% of AS patients experience disease reclassification requiring definitive treatment and little is known about patient characteristics that modify the risk of reclassification. Obesity may be one of the major contributing factors. The Prostate Cancer Active Lifestyle Study (PALS) is a clinical trial evaluating the impact of weight loss among overweight/obese (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) men with clinically localized prostate cancer on AS. Two hundred participants will be randomized to either the PALS intervention, a 6-month structured diet and exercise program adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program followed by 6 months of maintenance, or control (general diet and physical activity guidelines delivered in a single session). The PALS intervention involves one-on-one instruction with a registered dietitian and exercise physiologist to achieve the study goal of loss of 7% of baseline weight. Participation is coordinated so that the 6-month time point coincides with the participants' standard-of-care AS prostate biopsy. Primary outcomes will evaluate the intervention effects on circulating and tissue markers of glucose and insulin regulation, health-related quality of life and pathologic upgrading on follow-up prostate biopsies. Additional analyses will determine whether changes in weight and glucose regulation can be sustained for 6 months after the end of instruction. Findings from this trial may have wide reaching implications for men diagnosed with clinically-localized prostate cancer by providing an active lifestyle-based approach to improve prostate cancer patient outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/terapia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Programas de Reducción de Peso/métodos , Anciano , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/terapia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Calidad de Vida , Proyectos de Investigación , Espera Vigilante
15.
Cancer Cell ; 35(3): 401-413.e6, 2019 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773341

RESUMEN

Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) benefits patients with early disease, but becomes ineffective as PCa progresses to a castration-resistant state (CRPC). Initially CRPC remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, often through increased expression of full-length AR (ARfl) or expression of dominantly active splice variants such as ARv7. We show in ARv7-dependent CRPC models that ARv7 binds together with ARfl to repress transcription of a set of growth-suppressive genes. Expression of the ARv7-repressed targets and ARv7 protein expression are negatively correlated and predicts for outcome in PCa patients. Our results provide insights into the role of ARv7 in CRPC and define a set of potential biomarkers for tumors dependent on ARv7.


Asunto(s)
Empalme Alternativo , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/metabolismo , Análisis de Matrices Tisulares , Transcripción Genética
16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(6): 1696-1698, 2019 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591516

RESUMEN

Circulating tumor cells' (CTC) biomarkers may become indicators for selection of therapy. The presence of androgen receptor (AR)-variant-positive CTCs may be markers indicating the need for switching therapy. Methods for AR-variant mRNA isolation from CTCs and confirmation of expression are critical factors needed for these techniques to be clinically applicable.See related article by Tagawa et al., p. 1880.


Asunto(s)
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración , Humanos , Masculino , ARN Mensajero , Receptores Androgénicos , Taxoides
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(2): 631-640, 2019 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578319

RESUMEN

A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is dysregulation of lipid metabolism via overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) develops resistance to inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) signaling through a variety of mechanisms, including the emergence of the constitutively active AR variant V7 (AR-V7). Here, we developed an FASN inhibitor (IPI-9119) and demonstrated that selective FASN inhibition antagonizes CRPC growth through metabolic reprogramming and results in reduced protein expression and transcriptional activity of both full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7. Activation of the reticulum endoplasmic stress response resulting in reduced protein synthesis was involved in IPI-9119-mediated inhibition of the AR pathway. In vivo, IPI-9119 reduced growth of AR-V7-driven CRPC xenografts and human mCRPC-derived organoids and enhanced the efficacy of enzalutamide in CRPC cells. In human mCRPC, both FASN and AR-FL were detected in 87% of metastases. AR-V7 was found in 39% of bone metastases and consistently coexpressed with FASN. In patients treated with enzalutamide and/or abiraterone FASN/AR-V7 double-positive metastases were found in 77% of cases. These findings provide a compelling rationale for the use of FASN inhibitors in mCRPCs, including those overexpressing AR-V7.


Asunto(s)
Lipogénesis , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/metabolismo , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Acido Graso Sintasa Tipo I/antagonistas & inhibidores , Acido Graso Sintasa Tipo I/genética , Acido Graso Sintasa Tipo I/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/patología , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
18.
J Clin Invest ; 129(1): 192-208, 2019 01 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334814

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsies have demonstrated that the constitutively active androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) associates with reduced response and overall survival from endocrine therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, these studies provide little information pertaining to AR-V7 expression in prostate cancer (PC) tissue. METHODS: Following generation and validation of a potentially novel AR-V7 antibody for IHC, AR-V7 protein expression was determined for 358 primary prostate samples and 293 metastatic biopsies. Associations with disease progression, full-length androgen receptor (AR-FL) expression, response to therapy, and gene expression were determined. RESULTS: We demonstrated that AR-V7 protein is rarely expressed (<1%) in primary PC but is frequently detected (75% of cases) following androgen deprivation therapy, with further significant (P = 0.020) increase in expression following abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide therapy. In CRPC, AR-V7 expression is predominantly (94% of cases) nuclear and correlates with AR-FL expression (P ≤ 0.001) and AR copy number (P = 0.026). However, dissociation of expression was observed, suggesting that mRNA splicing remains crucial for AR-V7 generation. AR-V7 expression was heterogeneous between different metastases from a patient, although AR-V7 expression was similar within a metastasis. Moreover, AR-V7 expression correlated with a unique 59-gene signature in CRPC, including HOXB13, a critical coregulator of AR-V7 function. Finally, AR-V7-negative disease associated with better prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses (100% vs. 54%, P = 0.03) and overall survival (74.3 vs. 25.2 months, hazard ratio 0.23 [0.07-0.79], P = 0.02) from endocrine therapies (pre-chemotherapy). CONCLUSION: This study provides impetus to develop therapies that abrogate AR-V7 signaling to improve our understanding of AR-V7 biology and to confirm the clinical significance of AR-V7. FUNDING: Work at the University of Washington and in the Plymate and Nelson laboratories is supported by the Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program (W81XWH-14-2-0183, W81XWH-12-PCRP-TIA, W81XWH-15-1-0430, and W81XWH-13-2-0070), the Pacific Northwest Prostate Cancer SPORE (P50CA97186), the Institute for Prostate Cancer Research, the Veterans Affairs Research Program, the NIH/National Cancer Institute (P01CA163227), and the Prostate Cancer Foundation. Work in the de Bono laboratory was supported by funding from the Movember Foundation/Prostate Cancer UK (CEO13-2-002), the US Department of Defense (W81XWH-13-2-0093), the Prostate Cancer Foundation (20131017 and 20131017-1), Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C-AACR-DT0712), Cancer Research UK (CRM108X-A25144), and the UK Department of Health through an Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre grant (ECMC-CRM064X).


Asunto(s)
Empalme Alternativo , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biosíntesis , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/metabolismo , Receptores Androgénicos/biosíntesis , Animales , Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Ratones SCID , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/patología , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
20.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 15(11): 663-675, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135575

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (AR-Vs) have been implicated in the development and progression of metastatic prostate cancer. AR-Vs are truncated isoforms of the AR, a subset of which lack a ligand-binding domain and remain constitutively active in the absence of circulating androgens, thus promoting cancer cell proliferation. Consequently, AR-Vs have been proposed to contribute not only to resistance to anti-androgen therapies but also to resistance to radiotherapy in patients receiving combination therapy by promoting DNA repair. AR-Vs, such as AR-V7, have been associated with unfavourable clinical outcomes in patients; however, attempts to specifically inhibit or prevent the formation of AR-Vs have, to date, been unsuccessful. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies are desperately needed to address the oncogenic effects of AR-Vs, which can drive lethal forms of prostate cancer. Disruption of alternative splicing through modulation of the spliceosome is one such potential therapeutic avenue; however, our understanding of the biology of the spliceosome and how it contributes to prostate cancer remains incomplete, as reflected in the dearth of spliceosome-targeted therapeutic agents. In this Review, the authors outline the current understanding of the role of the spliceosome in the progression of prostate cancer and explore the therapeutic utility of manipulating alternative splicing to improve patient care.


Asunto(s)
Carcinogénesis/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Empalme Alternativo/genética , Proliferación Celular/genética , Reparación del ADN/genética , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Empalmosomas/genética
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