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1.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(4): 6-11, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722135

RESUMEN

α-Lipoic acid (also known as thioctic acid) is a natural vitamin-like compound. Lipoic acid contains asymmetrical carbon, which causes the presence of two possible optical isomers (enantiomers): R-lipoic acid (levogyrate isomer) and S-lipoic acid (rightspinning isomer). Lipoic acid functions as a cofactor for several important mitochondrial multienzyme complexes, enhances the uptake of glucose by the cells, and modulates the activity of various signaling molecules and transcription factors. It was shown that α-lipoic acid and its derivative, dihydrolipoic acid, have a direct antioxidant effect due to the neutralization of reactive oxygen species that are destructive to DNA, proteins and lipids of cells. Dihydrolipoic acid enhances the antioxidant properties of ascorbic acid, glutathione and ubiquinone. Available evidence suggests that supplementation with lipoic acid reduces the symptoms of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Results from randomized controlled trials show that high doses of lipoic acid can improve the glycemic profile of subjects with metabolic disorders. Lipoic acid can be used to control body weight in people with obesity. R-Lipoic acid is synthesized in the human body and is contained in foods in a form covalently associated with lysine (lipoyllysine). Its dose in dietary supplements significantly exceeds the amount in the diet. Most dietary supplements contain a racemic mixture of R- and S-lipoic acid.

2.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(1): 72-78, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592844

RESUMEN

Alteration of food patterns leads to changes in nutritional status, thus contributing to the development of non-communicable diseases accounting for over a half of all causes of death of the population of our country. Poor working conditions and occupational hazards play an important role in inducing metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of joint studies conducted by two Healthy Nutrition Centers located in the cities of Yekaterinburg and Moscow was to assess the diet and nutritional status of workers at two industrial enterprises of the Sverdlovsk Region. The total of 347 unrefined copper production workers (Plant 1) and 267 iron ore miners (Plant 2) were included in the study (the average age was 45.7±0.4 and 50.4±0.6 years, respectively). The study design envisaged a study of actual nutrition by a frequency method, anthropometric indices, total body composition by bio-impedancemetry, and nutritional status biomarkers using biochemical blood indices. The workers' diet was characterized by a high energy value (more than 2,500 kcal/day) with an excess of total and saturated fats (40.7-41.0 and 15.2-15.3% by the calorie content) as well as mono- and disaccharides (19.0-21.0% by the calorie content). Vitamins C and A consumption of the iron ore miners was 78% (p<0.01) and 27% (p<0.05) lower than that of the unrefined copper production workers, respectively. High (>1.0) waist to hip ratios were estimated in 28.5% of the workers. Obesity (BMI>25.0 kg/m2) was established in 36-42% of our subjects and the fat mass excess - in 81% of them. High serum concentrations of low-density lipoproteins were measured in 28 and 35% of the workers of both plants, respectively. The metabolic syndrome was identified in 27.0% of Plant 1 workers and in 44.2% of Plant 2 miners, whereas cardiovascular diseases were diagnosed in 25.9 and 56.5% of the workers, respectively. The effect of genetic factors (rs993609 polymorphism of FTO gene and Trp64Arg polymorphism in ADRB3 gene) on the development of obesity and metabolic disorders was demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía , Metalurgia , Minería , Estado Nutricional , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/genética , Síndrome Metabólico/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólico/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/metabolismo , Circunferencia de la Cintura
3.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(2): 17-23, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592864

RESUMEN

The results of assessing the sufficiency of folic acid of the residents of the Moscow region have been presented depending on rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism and rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism. A total of 326 people were examined, including 74 men and 252 women aged 20 to 65 years. The results of determining the level of folic acid in blood serum showed insufficiency of this vitamin among the population of the Moscow region of the Russian Federation. The expressed vitamin deficit (level <3,0 ng/ml) was detected in 24.2% of the surveyed residents, in 22.8% folic acid level was at the lower bound of the norm (3.0-4.5 ng/ml). The results of genotyping showed a statistically significant association of low folic acid level with rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism in carriers of A allele of rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism both in the homozygous state (genotype AA) and in the heterozygous (genotype AT) state, OR=4.26; CI (1.40-12.9), p=0.008, as well as with rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism in carriers of the T allele of rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism both in the homozygous (genotype TT) and heterozygous (CT genotype) state, OR=3.29; CI (1.07-10.1), p=0.03. In carriers of 3 alleles of risk of folic acid deficiency [rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism and rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism (genotypes CT/AA and TT/AT)] blood serum level of folic acid was below the norm, that indicated folate deficiency in this category of persons.


Asunto(s)
Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Deficiencia de Ácido Fólico/sangre , Deficiencia de Ácido Fólico/genética , Ácido Fólico/sangre , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Reductasa (NADPH2)/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Anciano , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Reductasa (NADPH2)/metabolismo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Moscú
4.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(3): 45-50, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592879

RESUMEN

The research was conducted with participation of the perlite production workers with professional eczema (165 people in the main group and 152 from the control group without skin pathology). The effectiveness of the use of a specialized prophylactic food in the diet of workers was assessed on the basis of the study of the dynamics of the indicators of nutritional and clinical status. Inclusion of kissel, containing pectin, vitamin A (300% from RDA), vitamin E and zinc (40% from RDA), biologically active substances of plant origin in the diet of the examined against the background of the course of complex therapy, has resulted in a positive influence on individual laboratory values, demonstrating the optimization of metabolic processes, which characterize the pathogenesis of skin inflammation. Thus, the concentration of ascorbic acid in blood serum statistically significant (p<0.05) increased by 30.0%, tocopherol - by 36.3%, carotenoids - by 27.3%, phosphorus - by 28.9%, calcium level elevated by 16.3% (p<0.10). There was a decrease in the level of MDA in blood serum by 12.3% (p<0.05) and an increase in catalase activity by 12.2% (p>0.05). There was a tendency to reduce itching, infiltration, erythematous and eczematous manifestations of the disease. The data obtained make it possible to consider the use of a specialized food product of dietary preventive nutrition by workers in pearlite production as a mean to enhance the body's adaptive reserves and to prevent the occurrence, progression and development of occupational skin diseases (eczema) in the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Óxido de Aluminio/efectos adversos , Industria Química , Eccema , Análisis de los Alimentos , Alimentos Especializados , Estado Nutricional , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Silicio/efectos adversos , Eccema/sangre , Eccema/inducido químicamente , Eccema/dietoterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
5.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(4): 69-77, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570960

RESUMEN

The review presents data on the characteristics of construction of the diet of older persons. It is shown that inadequate nutrition is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout and others that contribute to premature aging. Optimization of the diet should be considered as one of the areas of prevention and rehabilitation of these diseases and the prevention of premature aging. Attention is drawn to the age peculiar properties of the energy value of the diet, the content and the ratio of macronutrients in it. Modern data on the recommended daily intake of micronutrients -vitamins, minerals and trace elements for the elderly are presented. From the positions of the theory of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and high-calorie nutrition, it is considered expedient to include products containing antioxidant ingredients: vitamins, trace elements and minor biologically active food components in the diet.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento Prematuro/dietoterapia , Envejecimiento Prematuro/prevención & control , Ingestión de Energía , Micronutrientes/uso terapéutico , Estado Nutricional , Estrés Oxidativo , Anciano , Envejecimiento Prematuro/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/efectos adversos
6.
Kardiologiia ; (10): 34-44, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359215

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: to assess the impact of preventive counseling with focus on diet modification on lipid and metabolic parameters in patients with high / very high cardiovascular (CV) risk who visited Health centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective randomized controlled study of patients aged 40 to 65 years with high/very high CV risk (≥5% according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation scale [SCORE]) and any 2 criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients were 1:1 randomized into 2 groups. The intervention group (n=50) received comprehensive preventive counseling with focus on diet modification followed by remote preventive counseling by phone every two weeks for the first 3 months after enrollment (a total of 6 sessions). The control group (n=50) received usual care in Health centers which also included basic preventive counseling. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (women 82%, age 59.74±4.66 years) were randomized. At baseline 81% of patients had high and 19% - very high CV risk. The groups were well balanced according to demographic and clinical features. At 1 year of follow-up patients from the intervention group experienced significant improvement of metabolic parameters compared with controls: their diastolic blood pressure (BP) decreased by 5.62±7.7 mm Hg, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) - by 0.5±0.83 and 0.46±0.62 mmol/l, respectively. Both groups experienced statistically and clinically significant decreases in systolic BP (intervention, - 17.76±16.2 mm Hg, control, - 13.44±15.6 mm Hg; both groups p.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Anciano , LDL-Colesterol , Consejo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Vopr Pitan ; 86(3): 32-39, 2017.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645860

RESUMEN

It is known that particular qualities of the prevalence of obesity, characteristic for the population of the Far North, are connected with the presence of genetic polymorphisms. The association of two polymorphisms (rs993609 of FTO gene and rs659366 of UCP2 gene) with obesity was studied in 175 people living on the territory of the Russian Arctic (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District). The incidence of obesity risk allele (A) of FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism in the surveyed population of the Arctic (30.8%) was lower by 15% than that of the population of the central regions of Russia, Caucasian Americans and Europeans, but was higher by 18-20% than in Alaska inhabitants. The frequency of the A allele of the FTO gene was significantly 1.4-fold lower in indigenous Arctic people than in the alien population (p<0.05), that had significantly higher content of body fat (by 12%) than the indigenous population, including the Nenets (p<0.05). Рositive association had been identified between T allele rs659366 polymorphism of UCP2 gene and obesity risk in the surveyed who lived in the Arctic zone. Thus, the inhabitants of the Far North revealed the presence of genetic variants that contribute to heat production.

8.
Vopr Pitan ; 86(3): 83-91, 2017.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645867

RESUMEN

The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to estimate vitamin D, B2, A, E, ß-carotene (BC) status in rural residents, living in Russian Arctic (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area). 216 healthy adults (166 women, 50 men, 45.4±0.8 years old; BMI 27.5±0.5 kg/m2), 76% aboriginal ethnicity and 24% non-aboriginals subjects have been surveyed in spring 2016. Nenets were 72% among the surveyed, Russians - 14%, other ethnic groups - 14%. A total of 69 and 78% of subjects had 25(OH)D and BC blood serum concentrations less than the recommended target threshold of 30 ng/ml and 20 µg/dL respectively. Deficiency of vitamins B2, A and E, when blood serum concentrations of riboflavin <5 ng/ml, retinol <30 µg/dL and tocopherols <0.8 mg/dL, were found in 34, 15 and 13% of participants, respectively. The indigenous population was better supplied with vitamins D and B2. The lack of these vitamins was detected 1.3 and 1.8 fold less often (p<0.05) than in the non-aboriginals; whereas non-aboriginals were better provided with vitamin A and BC: the deficiency of these micronutrients was detected 3.1 and 1.8 fold less often (p<0.05) than in the inhabitants. In general, only 2.4% of those surveyed were sufficiently supplied with all 4 studied vitamins and BC. The frequency of deficit of one or two vitamins was revealed in 62.2%, combined deficiency of 3 or more vitamins was detected in 35.4%. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of combined multivitamin deficiencies among the indigenous and non-aboriginals. High incidence of vitamin A deficiency in the indigenous female population (21%) along with insufficiency of vitamin B2 in female non-aboriginals (48%), the lack of vitamin E in men (22%) and vitamin D and BC in 70-78% of the surveyed dictate the need for targeted enrichment of the diet of people living in extreme conditions of the Russian Arctic with multivitamin complexes.

9.
Vopr Pitan ; 86(5): 11-16, 2017.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695622

RESUMEN

Arctic zone refers to the territories that are uncomfortable for living and working of people. Ecological features of the Far North have contributed to the adaptation of the indigenous population to the conditions of the external environment, which manifested in the peculiarities of nutrition and nutritional status, which is also related to the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the population of the Arctic zone. The study of nutrition and the nutritional status of 180 people (78.9% woman и 21.1% man) living in the Far North was conducted. The data obtained indicate that the prevalence of overweight and obesity (62.7%) among the surveyed people living in the Arctic zone, was higher than among Russian people (average 57.3%). Indigenous people (mean age - 45.6±1.3 years) compared with alien population (45.1±2.6 years old) had lower BMI (27.2±0.5 vs 28.8±1.3 kg/m2) and a smaller hips along with significantly (p<0.05) lower relative fat body mass (31.9±0.9 vs 35.4±1.4 kg), lean (67.1±0.8 vs 64.6±0.9 kg) and bone body mass, as well as exchange at rest (1329.9±16.0 vs 1455.4±44.0 kcal). Indigenous population consumed significantly more bakery products and fish (1.5-2.2 fold), and less - dairy products and vegetables (1.7-2.0 fold). Thus, the peculiarities of the nutritional status of the indigenous and alien populations of the Arctic seem to be associated with the traditions of nutrition and lifestyle.

10.
Vopr Pitan ; 85(4): 29-34, 2016.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381017

RESUMEN

The genetic factor plays a significant role in the development of obesity, by present time the association of hundreds genetic polymorphisms with the risk of this disease is established. However, the combined influence of genetic polymorphisms remains practically unstudied. We aimed to investigate the combined effect SNP rs9939609 (gene FTO) and rs4994 (gene ADRB3) polymorphisms on risk of obesity. A case-control study was conducted, including255 obese case (BMI>30 kg/m2) and 427 non obese controls (BMI<30 kg/m2). Genotyping was performed using allele-specific amplification, detection results in real time using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphic sites. It has been shown, that presence of one mutant allele of rs9939609 (gene FTO) and rs4994 (gene ADRB3) leads to statistically significant association with obesity. Presence of two mutant alleles in different polymorphic variants increases risk of obesity by 15%, presence of three mutant alleles - by 2.63 fold. The quantity surveyed, suffering obesity, increased depending on the number of mutant alleles in studied genetic polymorphisms. Presence of one or two mutant alleles in one polymorphic variant increased the number of patients with obesity by 13.4%, presence of two or three mutant alleles in different polymorphic variants -by 18-19%.


Asunto(s)
Alelos , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Mutación , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Vopr Pitan ; 85(4): 61-7, 2016.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381024

RESUMEN

Evaluation of vitamin status in healthy individuals (68 men and 70 women) aged from 18 to 60 years (median - 37 years), residents of Moscow and the Moscow region has been performed by means of determination of vitamin C, A, E, B2, B12 and folic acid level in blood serum. The nutrition was investigated by questionnaire method on frequency of food consumption. Both diet of men and women had excessive fat content (41.7 and 42.7% of total calories), saturated fatty acids (14.1 and 13.6%), added sugars (11.1 and 11.0%), sodium, and had lack of dietary fiber (2.5-fold reduced level comparing with RDA). Daily intake of vitamin B1 was 1.37±0.04 mg for men and 1.06±0.07 mg for women, vitamin B2 - respectively 1.72±0.06 and 1.62±0.07 mg, niacin - 18.5±0.72 and 14.8±0.88 mg and did not reach the optimal level. All persons were sufficiently supplied with vitamins A, C, E and B12: mean and median of blood serum level of retinol, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and cobalamins were in the range of optimum values. The lack of vitamins A and B12 has not been found in any person. The frequency of vitamin C and E insufficiency was insignificant and amounted to 2 and 8% respectively. The lack of vitamin B2, and ß-carotene was most pronounced and took place in about a half of individuals. Only 34% of healthy people of working age were sufficiently supplied with all vitamins. A combined lack of two vitamins was detected in 26%, of three vitamins - in 8%. Women were better supplied with riboflavin and ß-carotene. The blood serum level of ß-carotene and vitamin E was significantly higher in individuals older than 30 years compared with persons of younger age. Individuals with overweight or obesity were worse supplied with ß-carotene and folate. A negative correlation was detected between the levels of serum folate and homocysteine concentration (r=-0.262, p<0.05). A positive correlation has been revealed between the concentration of folic acid and the level of HDL-C (r=0.356, p<0.01), and iron (r=0.378, p<0.05).


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vitaminas , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Moscú , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/farmacocinética
12.
Vopr Pitan ; 85(5): 5-12, 2016.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381296

RESUMEN

The review analyzed genetic polymorphisms contribute to the development of non-communicable diseases among the inhabitants of the Arctic. It is known that the area belongs to the arctic areas of discomfort for living and employment rights. Ecological features of the Far North have contributed to the adaptation of the indigenous population to environmental conditions, which manifested itself in particular in the power features that provide a low prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Active development of the Arctic zone and the associated lifestyle changes in the population, including the nature of power, caused a change in the prevalence and trends of non-communicable diseases, which has its own characteristics in comparison with the ethnic groups living in more southern latitudes. These features, as follows from the results of a number of studies to be associated, including the presence of genetic polymorphisms characteristic of the population of the Arctic zone.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/genética , Enfermedades Metabólicas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiones Árticas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Metabólicas/epidemiología
13.
Vopr Pitan ; 85(3): 42-48, 2016.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645902

RESUMEN

The study involved 104 people living in the Moscow region, including 18 men and 86 women aged 18 to 67 years. Genotyping of rs4994 ADRB3 polymorphisms was performed using allele-specific amplification, with result detection in real time and using TaqMan-probes complementary to polymorphic DNA regions. The frequency of the mutant allele in individuals was 8.0%, while the Trp64Trp genotype was detected in 84.0% of cases, Trp64Ar - in 16.0%, AA - in 19.0%. Compared with men with genotype Trp64Trp, the men with the Trp64Ar polymorphisms (rs4994) of ADRB3 gene had significantly lower energy expenditure at rest value, calculated per kg of body muscle mass that was associated with higher fat mass, levels of blood serum leptin and LDL cholesterol. The data obtained suggested that leptin could be a possible intermediary contributing to the association between the rs4994 polymorphism of ADRB3 gene and energy disbalance.

14.
Vopr Pitan ; 84(1): 44-9, 2015.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26402942

RESUMEN

1112 people from Moscow region have been surveyed. Genotyping of rs659366 polymorphism UCP2 gene was performed using allele-specific amplification, result detection in real time and using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphic sites. The study of rs659366 polymorphism of the UCP2 gene has showed that 36.9% of patients had genotype AA, 46.7%--genotype AG, and 16.5%--genotype GG. The frequency of allele A was 60.2%, allele G--39.8%. BMI, value of fat mass, visceral fat area, serum glucose and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in carriers of A allele in the homozygous and heterozygous state than in carriers of G allele in the homozygous state. Frequency of A allele compared with G allele in obese patients (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2) was: OR--1.52; CI (1.24-1.86), p = 0.001, and in diabetes mellitus type 2--OR--1.22; CI (0.910-1.622), p = 0.19.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Canales Iónicos/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriales/genética , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Heterocigoto , Homocigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Moscú/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Proteína Desacopladora 2
15.
Vopr Pitan ; 84(2): 4-9, 2015.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841550

RESUMEN

The study involved 1,050 people living in the Moscow region, including 311 men and 739 women. Genotyping of KCNJ11 rs5219 polymorphisms was performed using allele-specific amplification, result detection in real time and using TaqMan-probes complementary to polymorphic DNA regions. Results of the study of KCN11 rs5219 gene polymorphism showed that 14.2% of the patients had TT genotype, 44.8%--CT genotype, 41.0%--CC genotype. The frequency of the mutant T alele was 36.6%, C allele--63.4%. The frequency of the T allele didn't significantly differ in individuals with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and individuals with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 (38.8% and 35.7%, respectively), OR--1.14; CI (0.907-1.439), p = 0.26. At the same time, the amount of energy expenditure at rest, calculated per kg lean body weight, and serum content of uric acid in were significantly higher in individuals with KCNJ11 rs5219 polymorphism, both in homo-, and in the heterozygous type. The frequency of the T allele and TT genotype in patients with hyperglycemia was higher than in the comparison group. Genotype TT is associated with type 2 diabetes (OR = 2.35, CI: 1.018-5.43, p = 0.04).


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Canales de Potasio de Rectificación Interna/genética , Índice de Masa Corporal , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Moscú , Obesidad/epidemiología , Ácido Úrico/sangre
16.
Vopr Pitan ; 84(5): 64-75, 2015.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29363932

RESUMEN

Supply with vitamins C, A, E and B2 of 61 high school students (38 girls and 23 boys, aged 18­22 years, body mass index ­ 23.0±0.6 kg/m2) by means of determination of blood plasma concentration of ascorbic acid, retinol and carotenoids, tocopherols and riboflavin has been investigated in the period from May to September. All students were well supplied with vitamin C (only 2 boys had a reduced level of ascorbic acid) and vitamin A. Decreased level of carotenoids was more common in boys (48 versus 24% in girls). 20% of the students were insufficiently supplied with vitamin E, 38% ­ with vitamin B2. 39% of students (50% girls and 22% boys) were adequately provided with all studied vitamins. 5% of the students had a combined deficiency of 3 vitamins, 20% ­ 2 vitamins. Student's sufficiency with vitamins B2, C, A, E, carotenoids did not depend on the season. Diet intake of vitamins C, A, carotenoids and vitamin B2 has been calculated basing on the data on the frequency of food consumption during the previous month. Reduced consumption relatively to the Russia RDA of vitamins В2, C and А took place in 63, 54 and 46% of the students respectively. The lack of vitamin B2 in the diet was most pronounced, the value of probabilistic risk corresponded to the average level in 34% of students. Average probabilistic risk of inadequate intake of vitamin A was present in 17% of students, vitamin C ­ 6%. Coincidence of the results of vitamin C and A status assessment obtained by calculation of vitamin diet intake and by biochemical methods (concentration of vitamins in the blood plasma) was 94 and 83%. These methods are interchangeable if you select the value of the average probability of risk failure intake of these vitamins as a criterion. Proportion of coinciding results of the estimation of vitamin B2 status was 56%. Special well-designed studies on larger sample surveyed are needed for the final output of the interchangeability of methods to assess riboflavin status.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/administración & dosificación , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacocinética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes , Vitamina A/administración & dosificación , Vitamina A/farmacocinética , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación , Vitaminas/farmacocinética
17.
Vopr Pitan ; 84(5): 95-101, 2015.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364613

RESUMEN

When planning your diet regime is desirable to focus on the natural feeding behavior of the person. However, many aspects of eating behavior are not studied. The aim of this work was to study the changes of diet calorie and nutrient composition depending on the body mass index (BMI), time of day, week cycle phase: weekends/weekdays, and the availability of rational installation in nutrition. The study involved 67 women aged 29 to 49 years with a BMI of 18.3 to 34.2 kg/m2. Macronutrient composition and energy value of the diet were evaluated by analyzing the food diaries, which were filled by all respondents continuously for 8 workdays and 4 weekends. The results of this study showed no significant correlation between BMI and calorie intake, while a positive correlation was observed between BMI and fat component of the diet (r=0.362, p≤0.05). It was also found that the restriction of food intake in the evening (after 8 pm) did not lead to a decrease in total daily energy value of the diet, and was characterized by the consumption in the evening about 31% of the total fat intake. Diet energy value was significantly higher on weekends than during the week and was 2376±394 against 1940±402 kcal (p<0.05). According to the data obtained, compliance «restriction of supply in the evening¼ does not lead to a significant reduction in daily caloric intake.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Valor Nutritivo/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
Vopr Pitan ; 84(6): 141-50, 2015.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378109

RESUMEN

The diet of population consisting of natural products is quite adequate and even excessive of energy consumption, but is not able to meet fully the need of organism in a number of micronutrients. Due to lack of sun exposure and long presence indoors endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by ultraviolet radiation does not provide the body's need for this vitamin. Intake of vitaminmineral supplements (VMS) is appropriate because combined deficiency of vitamins and minerals takes place in population. Prophylactic doses (equal to physiological needs) provide a diet completeness and reduce the risk of vitamin deficiency and its consequences. The high incidence of combined deficiency of vitamins among population and the existence of vitamin interactions are the basis for the application of the multivitamins. The simultaneous intake of vitamins is more physiological, their combination is more effective than a separate or isolated destination of each of them. Efficacy of the VMS has been shown in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. The main requirements for the VMS are full list of vitamins and minerals, the lack of which is detected most frequently, in doses covering the needs of organism. For the health of the pregnant woman and her unborn child preference should be given for complexes, containing DHA and/or probiotics along with vitamins. The principles of the selection of the composition and vitamin doses in the VMS for using patients suffering from various pathologies should be based on data on the patient's sufficiency with vitamins, the understanding of the role of vitamin deficiency in the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as on the composition of the diet and its modifications.


Asunto(s)
Avitaminosis/dietoterapia , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Minerales/uso terapéutico , Fenómenos Fisiologicos de la Nutrición Prenatal , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Avitaminosis/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo
19.
Vopr Pitan ; 84(4): 97-104, 2015.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26852537

RESUMEN

A total of 104 people, among them were 18 men and 86 women aged 18 to 67 years--people in the Moscow region of the Russian Federation, in the sanatorium treatment. Association embodiment rs9939609 FTO obesity was studied using allele-specific amplification, detection results in real time using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphisms. The frequency of the mutant allele in individuals was 47.0%, while the TT genotype was detected in 25.0% of cases, AT--in 56.0%, AA.0%. In men, prevalence rates of obesity risk allele (A) is higher than in women. In individuals with obesity (BMI over 30 kg/m2) indicated the presence of more AA genotypes (2 7.8%) compared to individuals with a body mass index of less than 30 kg/m2 (14.1%) and a high frequency of occurrence (54.2 versus 43.0%) risk allele A. Compared with individuals with genotype TT, the examinees with the AA genotype rs9939609 FTO gene was significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass. The same patients energy expenditure at rest value, calculated per kg of lean body mass or muscle, was slightly less than with TT genotype. In individuals with the AA genotype rs9939609 FTO gene compared with the TT genotype had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and serum iron in the background significantly elevated concentrations of uric acid. Thus, the evaluation of patients with the use of innovative technologies in a spa treatment allows their personal alimentary correction for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases.


Asunto(s)
Alelos , Genotipo , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Federación de Rusia , Factores Sexuales , Circunferencia de la Cintura
20.
Vopr Pitan ; 83(2): 35-41, 2014.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25059067

RESUMEN

Recent studies have shown a significant association with obesity polymorphisms: rs9939609 gene due to fat mass and obesity FTO in European and some Asian and African American populations Trp64Arg ADRB3 gene in several European populations. Association of variants rs9939609 and Trp64Arg obesity was studied in 1244 the inhabitants of Moscow and Sverdlovsk regions. Genotyping was performed using allele-specific amplification, detection results in real time using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphic sites. The frequency of the mutant allele of the FTO gene in the population of Moscow and Sverdlovsk region was 45.1%, with the TT genotype was detected in 30.2% of cases, AT--49.5%, AA--20.3%. Women had the presence of the mutant allele more likely than men (48.4 vs. 42.5%). People with obesity were more genotypes AA (26.3%) and AT (52.8%) compared to the surveyed with a BMI of less than 30 kg/m2 (respectively 18.1 and 50.7%). A significantly higher incidence of risk allele A was found in individuals with obesity (52.6 and 43.4%). The presence of the mutant allele of the gene ADRB3 among the population of Moscow and Sverdlovsk regions was noted in 7.4% of cases. While 15.5% of patients had a heterozygous genotype Trp64Arg ADRB3, that is consistent with international research. The frequency of the risk allele and genotype Arg64 Trp64Arg in women (9.3 and 18.5%) was significantly higher than men (6.2 and 12.2%). The presence of the mutant allele and genotype Trp64Arg ADRB3 (respectively, 9.1 and 18.1%) were significantly more marked in the examined obese compared with those with a body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 (7.4 and 14.9%), but these differences were not statistically significant. The results of these studies suggest that genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 genotype and Trp64Arg ADRB3 contribute to the development of obesity among residents of Moscow and Sverdlovsk Region of Russia. The risk of obesity increases in the case of combined polymorphisms in both genes.


Asunto(s)
Mutación Missense , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/genética , Alelos , Dioxigenasa FTO Dependiente de Alfa-Cetoglutarato , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología
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