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1.
mBio ; 12(5): e0170821, 2021 Oct 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544276

RESUMEN

The methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8 thrives in acidic geothermal ecosystems that are characterized by high degassing of methane (CH4), H2, H2S, and by relatively high lanthanide concentrations. Lanthanides (atomic numbers 57 to 71) are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, including mobile phones. Remarkably, the same elements are actively taken up by methanotrophs/methylotrophs in a range of environments, since their XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenases require lanthanides as a metal cofactor. Lanthanide-dependent enzymes seem to prefer the lighter lanthanides (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium), as slower methanotrophic/methylotrophic growth is observed in medium supplemented with only heavier lanthanides. Here, we purified XoxF1 from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8, which was grown in medium supplemented with neodymium as the sole lanthanide. The neodymium occupancy of the enzyme is 94.5% ± 2.0%, and through X-ray crystallography, we reveal that the structure of the active site shows interesting differences from the active sites of other methanol dehydrogenases, such as an additional aspartate residue in close proximity to the lanthanide. Nd-XoxF1 oxidizes methanol at a maximum rate of metabolism (Vmax) of 0.15 ± 0.01 µmol · min-1 · mg protein-1 and an affinity constant (Km) of 1.4 ± 0.6 µM. The structural analysis of this neodymium-containing XoxF1-type methanol dehydrogenase will expand our knowledge in the exciting new field of lanthanide biochemistry. IMPORTANCE Lanthanides comprise a group of 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71 that are essential in a variety of high-tech devices, such as mobile phones, but were considered biologically inert for a long time. The biological relevance of lanthanides became evident when the acidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, isolated from a volcanic mud pot, could only grow when lanthanides were supplied to the growth medium. We expanded knowledge in the exciting and rapidly developing field of lanthanide biochemistry by the purification and characterization of a neodymium-containing methanol dehydrogenase from a thermoacidophilic methanotroph.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 666929, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093485

RESUMEN

Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs are a group of aerobic bacteria isolated from volcanic environments. They are acidophiles, characterized by the presence of a particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and a XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). Metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from the soil of Favara Grande, a geothermal area on Pantelleria Island, Italy, revealed the presence of two verrucomicrobial Metagenome Assembled Genomes (MAGs). One of these MAGs did not phylogenetically classify within any existing genus. After extensive analysis of the MAG, we propose the name of "Candidatus Methylacidithermus pantelleriae" PQ17 gen. nov. sp. nov. The MAG consisted of 2,466,655 bp, 71 contigs and 3,127 predicted coding sequences. Completeness was found at 98.6% and contamination at 1.3%. Genes encoding the pMMO and XoxF-MDH were identified. Inorganic carbon fixation might use the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle since all genes were identified. The serine and ribulose monophosphate pathways were incomplete. The detoxification of formaldehyde could follow the tetrahydrofolate pathway. Furthermore, "Ca. Methylacidithermus pantelleriae" might be capable of nitric oxide reduction but genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction and nitrogen fixation were not identified. Unlike other verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, genes encoding for enzymes involved in hydrogen oxidation could not be found. In conclusion, the discovery of this new MAG expands the diversity and metabolism of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(13): e0004321, 2021 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893122

RESUMEN

Methane and ammonia have to be removed from wastewater treatment effluent in order to discharge it to receiving water bodies. A potential solution for this is a combination of simultaneous ammonia and methane oxidation by anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) bacteria and nitrite/nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-damo) microorganisms. When applied, these microorganisms will be exposed to oxygen, but little is known about the effect of a low concentration of oxygen on a culture containing these microorganisms. In this study, a stable coculture containing anammox and N-damo microorganisms in a laboratory scale bioreactor was established under oxygen limitation. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) was used to directly measure the in situ simultaneous activity of N-damo, anammox, and aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. In addition, batch tests revealed that the bioreactor also harbored aerobic methanotrophs and anaerobic methanogens. Together with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and metagenomics, these results indicate that the combination of N-damo and anammox activity under the continuous supply of limiting oxygen concentrations is feasible and can be implemented for the removal of methane and ammonia from anaerobic digester effluents. IMPORTANCE Nitrogen in wastewater leads to eutrophication of the receiving water bodies, and methane is a potent greenhouse gas; it is therefore important that these are removed from wastewater. A potential solution for the simultaneous removal of nitrogenous compounds and methane is the application of a combination of nitrite/nitrate-dependent methane oxidation (N-damo) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (annamox). In order to do so, it is important to investigate the effect of oxygen on these two anaerobic processes. In this study, we investigate the effect of a continuous oxygen supply on the activity of an anaerobic methane- and ammonia-oxidizing coculture. The findings presented in this study are important for the potential application of these two microbial processes in wastewater treatment.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Oxígeno , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Aerobiosis , Anaerobiosis , Archaea/metabolismo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Reactores Biológicos , Oxidación-Reducción
4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 637762, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643272

RESUMEN

The Favara Grande is a geothermal area located on Pantelleria Island, Italy. The area is characterized high temperatures in the top layer of the soil (60°C), low pH (3-5) and hydrothermal gas emissions mainly composed of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and hydrogen (H2). These geothermal features may provide a suitable niche for the growth of chemolithotrophic thermoacidophiles, including the lanthanide-dependent methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. In this study, we started enrichment cultures inoculated with soil of the Favara Grande at 50 and 60°C with CH4 as energy source and medium containing sufficient lanthanides at pH 3 and 5. From these cultures, a verrucomicrobial methanotroph could be isolated via serial dilution and floating filters techniques. The genome of strain AP8 was sequenced and based on phylogenetic analysis we propose to name this new species Methylacidimicrobium thermophilum AP8. The transcriptome data at µmax (0.051 ± 0.001 h-1, doubling time ~14 h) of the new strain showed a high expression of the pmoCAB2 operon encoding the membrane-bound methane monooxygenase and of the gene xoxF1, encoding the lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenase. A second pmoCAB operon and xoxF2 gene were not expressed. The physiology of strain AP8 was further investigated and revealed an optimal growth in a pH range of 3-5 at 50°C, representing the first thermophilic strain of the genus Methylacidimicrobium. Moreover, strain AP8 had a KS(app) for methane of 8 ± 1 µM. Beside methane, a type 1b [NiFe] hydrogenase enabled hydrogen oxidation at oxygen concentrations up to 1%. Taken together, our results expand the knowledge on the characteristics and adaptations of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in hydrothermal environments and add a new thermophilic strain to the genus Methylacidimicrobium.

5.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 114(3): 313-324, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566237

RESUMEN

The genus Methylobacter is considered an important and often dominant group of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria in many oxic ecosystems, where members of this genus contribute to the reduction of CH4 emissions. Metagenomic studies of the upper oxic layers of geothermal soils of the Favara Grande, Pantelleria, Italy, revealed the presence of various methane-oxidizing bacteria, and resulted in a near complete metagenome assembled genome (MAG) of an aerobic methanotroph, which was classified as a Methylobacter species. In this study, the Methylobacter sp. B2 MAG was used to investigate its metabolic potential and phylogenetic affiliation. The MAG has a size of 4,086,539 bp, consists of 134 contigs and 3955 genes were found, of which 3902 were protein coding genes. All genes for CH4 oxidation to CO2 were detected, including pmoCAB encoding particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and xoxF encoding a methanol dehydrogenase. No gene encoding a formaldehyde dehydrogenase was present and the formaldehyde to formate conversion follows the tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) pathway. "Ca. Methylobacter favarea" B2 uses the Ribulose-Mono-Phosphate (RuMP) pathway for carbon fixation. Analysis of the MAG indicates that Na+/H+ antiporters and the urease system might be important in the maintenance of pH homeostasis of this strain to cope with acidic conditions. So far, thermoacidophilic Methylobacter species have not been isolated, however this study indicates that members of the genus Methylobacter can be found in distinct ecosystems and their presence is not restricted to freshwater or marine sediments.


Asunto(s)
Methylococcaceae , Suelo , ADN Bacteriano , Ecosistema , Metano , Methylococcaceae/genética , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
6.
FEMS Microbiol Rev ; 45(5)2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524112

RESUMEN

Methanotrophs are an important group of microorganisms that counteract methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane-oxidising bacteria of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria have been studied for over a century, while methanotrophs of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are a more recent discovery. Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs are extremophiles that live in very acidic geothermal ecosystems. Currently, more than a dozen strains have been isolated, belonging to the genera Methylacidiphilum and Methylacidimicrobium. Initially, these methanotrophs were thought to be metabolically confined. However, genomic analyses and physiological and biochemical experiments over the past years revealed that verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, as well as proteobacterial methanotrophs, are much more metabolically versatile than previously assumed. Several inorganic gases and other molecules present in acidic geothermal ecosystems can be utilised, such as methane, hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, ammonium, nitrogen gas and perhaps also hydrogen sulfide. Verrucomicrobial methanotrophs could therefore represent key players in multiple volcanic nutrient cycles and in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal ecosystems. Here, we summarise the current knowledge on verrucomicrobial methanotrophs with respect to their metabolic versatility and discuss the factors that determine their diversity in their natural environment. In addition, key metabolic, morphological and ecological characteristics of verrucomicrobial and proteobacterial methanotrophs are reviewed.

7.
ISME J ; 15(4): 1150-1164, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303933

RESUMEN

Ammonia oxidation was considered impossible under highly acidic conditions, as the protonation of ammonia leads to decreased substrate availability and formation of toxic nitrogenous compounds. Recently, some studies described archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers growing at pH as low as 4, while environmental studies observed nitrification at even lower pH values. In this work, we report on the discovery, cultivation, and physiological, genomic, and transcriptomic characterization of a novel gammaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacterium enriched via continuous bioreactor cultivation from an acidic air biofilter that was able to grow and oxidize ammonia at pH 2.5. This microorganism has a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle, using ammonia as energy source. The observed growth rate on ammonia was 0.196 day-1, with a doubling time of 3.5 days. The strain also displayed ureolytic activity and cultivation with urea as ammonia source resulted in a growth rate of 0.104 day-1 and a doubling time of 6.7 days. A high ammonia affinity (Km(app) = 147 ± 14 nM) and high tolerance to toxic nitric oxide could represent an adaptation to acidic environments. Electron microscopic analysis showed coccoid cell morphology with a large amount of intracytoplasmic membrane stacks, typical of gammaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers. Furthermore, genome and transcriptome analysis showed the presence and expression of diagnostic genes for nitrifiers (amoCAB, hao, nor, ure, cbbLS), but no nirK was identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this strain belonged to a novel bacterial genus, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Nitrosacidococcus tergens" sp. RJ19.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Microbiología del Suelo , Archaea , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Nitrificación , Oxidación-Reducción , Filogenia
8.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 604485, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381099

RESUMEN

Volcanic areas emit a number of gases including methane and other short chain alkanes, that may serve as energy source for the prevailing microorganisms. The verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV was isolated from a volcanic mud pot, and is able to grow under thermoacidophilic conditions on different gaseous substrates. Its genome contains three operons encoding a particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), the enzyme that converts methane to methanol. The expression of two of these pmo operons is subjected to oxygen-dependent regulation, whereas the expression of the third copy (pmoCAB3) has, so far, never been reported. In this study we investigated the ability of strain SolV to utilize short-chain alkanes and monitored the expression of the pmo operons under different conditions. In batch cultures and in carbon-limited continuous cultures, strain SolV was able to oxidize and grow on C1-C3 compounds. Oxidation of ethane did occur simultaneously with methane, while propane consumption only started once methane and ethane became limited. Butane oxidation was not observed. Transcriptome data showed that pmoCAB1 and pmoCAB3 were induced in the absence of methane and the expression of pmoCAB3 increased upon propane addition. Together the results of our study unprecedently show that a pMMO-containing methanotroph is able to co-metabolize other gaseous hydrocarbons, beside methane. Moreover, it expands the substrate spectrum of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs, supporting their high metabolic flexibility and adaptation to the harsh and dynamic conditions in volcanic ecosystems.

9.
mSystems ; 5(6)2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144309

RESUMEN

Volcanic and geothermal environments are characterized by low pH, high temperatures, and gas emissions consisting of mainly CO2 and varied CH4, H2S, and H2 contents which allow the formation of chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities. To determine the link between the emitted gases and the microbial community composition, geochemical and metagenomic analysis were performed. Soil samples of the geothermic region Favara Grande (Pantelleria, Italy) were taken at various depths (1 to 50 cm). Analysis of the gas composition revealed that CH4 and H2 have the potential to serve as the driving forces for the microbial community. Our metagenomic analysis revealed a high relative abundance of Bacteria in the top layer (1 to 10 cm), but the relative abundance of Archaea increased with depth from 32% to 70%. In particular, a putative hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaeon, related to Methanocella conradii, appeared to have a high relative abundance (63%) in deeper layers. A variety of [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes were detected, showing that H2 was an important electron donor for microaerobic microorganisms in the upper layers. Furthermore, the bacterial population included verrucomicrobial and proteobacterial methanotrophs, the former showing an up to 7.8 times higher relative abundance. Analysis of the metabolic potential of this microbial community showed a clear capacity to oxidize CH4 aerobically, as several genes for distinct particulate methane monooxygenases and lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases (XoxF-type) were retrieved. Analysis of the CO2 fixation pathways showed the presence of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, and the (reverse) tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the latter being the most represented carbon fixation pathway. This study indicates that the methane emissions in the Favara Grande might be a combination of geothermal activity and biological processes and further provides insights into the diversity of the microbial population thriving on CH4 and H2 IMPORTANCE The Favara Grande nature reserve on the volcanic island of Pantelleria (Italy) is known for its geothermal gas emissions and high soil temperatures. These volcanic soil ecosystems represent "hot spots" of greenhouse gas emissions. The unique community might be shaped by the hostile conditions in the ecosystem, and it is involved in the cycling of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Our metagenome study revealed that most of the microorganisms in this extreme environment are only distantly related to cultivated bacteria. The results obtained profoundly increased the understanding of these natural hot spots of greenhouse gas production/degradation and will help to enrich and isolate the microbial key players. After isolation, it will become possible to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which they adapt to extreme (thermo/acidophilic) conditions, and this may lead to new green enzymatic catalysts and technologies for industry.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24459-24463, 2020 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913059

RESUMEN

Aerobic and nitrite-dependent methanotrophs make a living from oxidizing methane via methanol to carbon dioxide. In addition, these microorganisms cometabolize ammonia due to its structural similarities to methane. The first step in both of these processes is catalyzed by methane monooxygenase, which converts methane or ammonia into methanol or hydroxylamine, respectively. Methanotrophs use methanol for energy conservation, whereas toxic hydroxylamine is a potent inhibitor that needs to be rapidly removed. It is suggested that many methanotrophs encode a hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (mHAO) in their genome to remove hydroxylamine, although biochemical evidence for this is lacking. HAOs also play a crucial role in the metabolism of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizers by converting hydroxylamine to nitric oxide (NO). Here, we purified an HAO from the thermophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV and characterized its kinetic properties. This mHAO possesses the characteristic P460 chromophore and is active up to at least 80 °C. It catalyzes the rapid oxidation of hydroxylamine to NO. In methanotrophs, mHAO efficiently removes hydroxylamine, which severely inhibits calcium-dependent, and as we show here, lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases, which are more prevalent in the environment. Our results indicate that mHAO allows methanotrophs to thrive under high ammonia concentrations in natural and engineered ecosystems, such as those observed in rice paddy fields, landfills, or volcanic mud pots, by preventing the accumulation of inhibitory hydroxylamine. Under oxic conditions, methanotrophs mainly oxidize ammonia to nitrite, whereas in hypoxic and anoxic environments reduction of both ammonia-derived nitrite and NO could lead to nitrous oxide (N2O) production.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/enzimología , Proteínas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Oxidación-Reducción , Oxidorreductasas/química , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Verrucomicrobia/genética , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(18)2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631865

RESUMEN

Industrial methanol production converts methane from natural gas into methanol through a multistep chemical process. Biological methane-to-methanol conversion under moderate conditions and using biogas would be more environmentally friendly. Methanotrophs, bacteria that use methane as an energy source, convert methane into methanol in a single step catalyzed by the enzyme methane monooxygenase, but inhibition of methanol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the subsequent conversion of methanol into formaldehyde, is a major challenge. In this study, we used the thermoacidophilic methanotroph "Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum" SolV for biological methanol production. This bacterium possesses a XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase that is dependent on rare earth elements for activity. By using a cultivation medium nearly devoid of lanthanides, we reduced methanol dehydrogenase activity and obtained a continuous methanol-producing microbial culture. The methanol production rate and conversion efficiency were growth-rate dependent. A maximal conversion efficiency of 63% mol methanol produced per mol methane consumed was obtained at a relatively high growth rate, with a methanol production rate of 0.88 mmol/g (dry weight)/h. This study demonstrates that methanotrophs can be used for continuous methanol production. Full-scale application will require additional increases in the titer, production rate, and efficiency, which can be achieved by further decreasing the lanthanide concentration through the use of increased biomass concentrations and novel reactor designs to supply sufficient gases, including methane, oxygen, and hydrogen.IMPORTANCE The production of methanol, an important chemical, is completely dependent on natural gas. The current multistep chemical process uses high temperature and pressure to convert methane in natural gas to methanol. In this study, we used the methanotroph "Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum" SolV to achieve continuous methanol production from methane as the substrate. The production rate was highly dependent on the growth rate of this microorganism, and high conversion efficiencies were obtained. Using microorganisms for the production of methanol might enable the use of more sustainable sources of methane, such as biogas, rather than natural gas.


Asunto(s)
Metano/metabolismo , Metanol/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/crecimiento & desarrollo
12.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 951, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508778

RESUMEN

Volcanic and geothermal areas are hot and often acidic environments that emit geothermal gasses, including H2, CO and CO2. Geothermal gasses mix with air, creating conditions where thermoacidophilic aerobic H2- and CO-oxidizing microorganisms could thrive. Here, we describe the isolation of two Kyrpidia spormannii strains, which can grow autotrophically by oxidizing H2 and CO with oxygen. These strains, FAVT5 and COOX1, were isolated from the geothermal soils of the Favara Grande on Pantelleria Island, Italy. Extended physiology studies were performed with K. spormannii FAVT5, and showed that this strain grows optimally at 55°C and pH 5.0. The highest growth rate is obtained using H2 as energy source (µmax 0.19 ± 0.02 h-1, doubling time 3.6 h). K. spormannii FAVT5 can additionally grow on a variety of organic substrates, including some alcohols, volatile fatty acids and amino acids. The genome of each strain encodes for two O2-tolerant hydrogenases belonging to [NiFe] group 2a hydrogenases and transcriptome studies using K. spormannii FAVT5 showed that both hydrogenases are expressed under H2 limiting conditions. So far no Firmicutes except K. spormannii FAVT5 have been reported to exhibit a high affinity for H2, with a Ks of 327 ± 24 nM. The genomes of each strain encode for one putative CO dehydrogenase, belonging to Form II aerobic CO dehydrogenases. The genomic potential and physiological properties of these Kyrpidia strains seem to be quite well adapted to thrive in the harsh environmental volcanic conditions.

13.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(16)2020 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299887

RESUMEN

Methylacidimicrobium cyclopophantes 3B and Methylacidimicrobium tartarophylax 4AC are Gram-negative rod-shaped mesophilic methanotrophs isolated from soil samples with low pH at the Solfatara Crater, near Naples, Italy. The genomes of these extremophilic verrucomicrobia were sequenced using Illumina technology, and both species possess one pmoCAB operon and two xoxF genes.

14.
ISME J ; 14(5): 1223-1232, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042101

RESUMEN

The trace amounts (0.53 ppmv) of atmospheric hydrogen gas (H2) can be utilized by microorganisms to persist during dormancy. This process is catalyzed by certain Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and is estimated to convert 75 × 1012 g H2 annually, which is half of the total atmospheric H2. This rapid atmospheric H2 turnover is hypothesized to be catalyzed by high-affinity [NiFe] hydrogenases. However, apparent high-affinity H2 oxidation has only been shown in whole cells, rather than for the purified enzyme. Here, we show that the membrane-associated hydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV possesses a high apparent affinity (Km(app) = 140 nM) for H2 and that methanotrophs can oxidize subatmospheric H2. Our findings add to the evidence that the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is accountable for atmospheric H2 oxidation and that it therefore could be a strong controlling factor in the global H2 cycle. We show that the isolated enzyme possesses a lower affinity (Km = 300 nM) for H2 than the membrane-associated enzyme. Hence, the membrane association seems essential for a high affinity for H2. The enzyme is extremely thermostable and remains folded up to 95 °C. Strain SolV is the only known organism in which the group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenase is responsible for rapid growth on H2 as sole energy source as well as oxidation of subatmospheric H2. The ability to conserve energy from H2 could increase fitness of verrucomicrobial methanotrophs in geothermal ecosystems with varying CH4 fluxes. We propose that H2 oxidation can enhance growth of methanotrophs in aerated methane-driven ecosystems. Group 1h [NiFe] hydrogenases could therefore contribute to mitigation of global warming, since CH4 is an important and extremely potent greenhouse gas.


Asunto(s)
Verrucomicrobia/fisiología , Ecosistema , Hidrógeno , Hidrogenasas/metabolismo , Metano , Oxidación-Reducción , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo
15.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 25(2): 199-212, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060650

RESUMEN

Methanol dehydrogenases (MDH) have recently taken the spotlight with the discovery that a large portion of these enzymes in nature utilize lanthanides in their active sites. The kinetic parameters of these enzymes are determined with a spectrophotometric assay first described by Anthony and Zatman 55 years ago. This artificial assay uses alkylated phenazines, such as phenazine ethosulfate (PES) or phenazine methosulfate (PMS), as primary electron acceptors (EAs) and the electron transfer is further coupled to a dye. However, many groups have reported problems concerning the bleaching of the assay mixture in the absence of MDH and the reproducibility of those assays. Hence, the comparison of kinetic data among MDH enzymes of different species is often cumbersome. Using mass spectrometry, UV-Vis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we show that the side reactions of the assay mixture are mainly due to the degradation of assay components. Light-induced demethylation (yielding formaldehyde and phenazine in the case of PMS) or oxidation of PES or PMS as well as a reaction with assay components (ammonia, cyanide) can occur. We suggest here a protocol to avoid these side reactions. Further, we describe a modified synthesis protocol for obtaining the alternative electron acceptor, Wurster's blue (WB), which serves both as EA and dye. The investigation of two lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases from Methylorubrum extorquens AM1 and Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV with WB, along with handling recommendations, is presented. Lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. Understanding the chemistry of artificial electron acceptors and redox dyes can yield more reproducible results.


Asunto(s)
2,6-Dicloroindofenol/química , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/química , Electrones , Metosulfato de Metilfenazonio/química , Fenazinas/química , Tetrametilfenilendiamina/química , 2,6-Dicloroindofenol/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/metabolismo , Methylobacterium extorquens/enzimología , Metosulfato de Metilfenazonio/metabolismo , Estructura Molecular , Fenazinas/metabolismo , Tetrametilfenilendiamina/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/enzimología
16.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2352, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681216

RESUMEN

Emissions of the strong greenhouse gas methane (CH4) to the atmosphere are mitigated by methanotrophic microorganisms. Methanotrophs found in extremely acidic geothermal systems belong to the phylum Verrucomicrobia. Thermophilic verrucomicrobial methanotrophs from the genus Methylacidiphilum can grow autotrophically on hydrogen gas (H2), but it is unknown whether this also holds for their mesophilic counterparts from the genus Methylacidimicrobium. To determine this, we examined H2 consumption and CO2 fixation by the mesophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidimicrobium tartarophylax 4AC. We found that strain 4AC grows autotrophically on H2 with a maximum growth rate of 0.0048 h-1 and a yield of 2.1 g dry weight⋅mol H2 -1, which is about 12 and 41% compared to the growth rate and yield on methane, respectively. The genome of strain 4AC only encodes for an oxygen-sensitive group 1b [NiFe] hydrogenase and H2 is respired only when oxygen concentrations are below 40 µM. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic comparison of methanotrophs revealed diverse [NiFe] hydrogenases, presumably with varying oxygen sensitivity and affinity for H2, which could drive niche differentiation. Our results show that both thermophilic and mesophilic verrucomicrobial methanotrophs can grow as autotrophs on H2 as a sole energy source. Our results suggest that verrucomicrobial methanotrophs are particularly well-equipped to thrive in hostile volcanic ecosystems, since they can consume H2 as additional energy source.

17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1867(6): 595-603, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954577

RESUMEN

Methanotrophs play a prominent role in the global carbon cycle, by oxidizing the potent greenhouse gas methane to CO2. Methane is first converted into methanol by methane monooxygenase. This methanol is subsequently oxidized by either a calcium-dependent MxaF-type or a lanthanide-dependent XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). Electrons from methanol oxidation are shuttled to a cytochrome redox partner, termed cytochrome cL. Here, the cytochrome cL homolog from the thermoacidophilic methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV was characterized. SolV cytochrome cGJ is a fusion of a XoxG cytochrome and a periplasmic binding protein XoxJ. Here we show that XoxGJ functions as the direct electron acceptor of its corresponding XoxF-type MDH and can sustain methanol turnover, when a secondary cytochrome is present as final electron acceptor. SolV cytochrome cGJ (XoxGJ) further displays a unique, red-shifted absorbance spectrum, with a Soret and Q bands at 440, 553 and 595 nm in the reduced state, respectively. VTVH-MCD spectroscopy revealed the presence of a low spin iron heme and the data further shows that the heme group exhibits minimal ruffling. The midpoint potential Em,pH7 of +240 mV is similar to other cytochrome cL type proteins but remarkably, the midpoint potential of cytochrome cGJ was not influenced by lowering the pH. Cytochrome cGJ represents the first example of a cytochrome from a strictly lanthanide-dependent methylotrophic microorganism.


Asunto(s)
Citocromos c/química , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Citocromos c/genética , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno/efectos de los fármacos , Elementos de la Serie de los Lantanoides/metabolismo , Operón , Verrucomicrobia/genética
18.
Chemistry ; 25(37): 8760-8768, 2019 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908783

RESUMEN

We report the first electrochemical study of a lanthanoid-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Eu-MDH) from the acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV with its own physiological cytochrome cGJ electron acceptor. Eu-MDH harbours a redox active 2,7,9-tricarboxypyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) cofactor which is non-covalently bound but coordinates trivalent lanthanoid elements including Eu3+ . Eu-MDH and the cytochrome were co-adsorbed with the biopolymer chitosan and cast onto a mercaptoundecanol (MU) monolayer modified Au working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry of cytochrome cGJ reveals a well-defined quasi-reversible FeIII/II redox couple at +255 mV vs. NHE at pH 7.5 and this response is pH independent. The reversible one-electron response of the cytochrome cGJ transforms into a sigmoidal catalytic wave in the presence of Eu-MDH and its substrates (methanol or formaldehyde). The catalytic current was pH-dependent and pH 7.3 was found to be optimal. Kinetic parameters (pH dependence, activation energy) obtained by electrochemistry show the same trends as those obtained from an artificial phenazine ethosulfate/dichlorophenol indophenol assay.


Asunto(s)
Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/metabolismo , Citocromos c/química , Europio/química , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/química , Biocatálisis , Dominio Catalítico , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Electrodos , Cinética , Metanol/química , Metanol/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Cofactor PQQ/química , Cofactor PQQ/metabolismo , Espectrofotometría , Especificidad por Sustrato , Temperatura , Verrucomicrobia/enzimología
19.
Dalton Trans ; 47(31): 10463-10472, 2018 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020281

RESUMEN

Interest in the bioinorganic chemistry of lanthanides is growing rapidly as more and more lanthanide-dependent bacteria are being discovered. Especially the earlier lanthanides have been shown to be preferentially utilized by bacteria that need these Lewis acids as cofactors in their alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes. Here, we investigate the impact of the lanthanide ions lanthanum(iii) to lutetium(iii) (excluding Pm) on the catalytic parameters (vmax, KM, kcat/KM) of a methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) isolated from Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. Kinetic experiments and DFT calculations were used to discuss why only the earlier lanthanides (La-Gd) promote high MDH activity. Impact of Lewis acidity, coordination number preferences, stability constants and other properties that are a direct result of the lanthanide contraction are discussed in light of the two proposed mechanisms for MDH.


Asunto(s)
Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/química , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/aislamiento & purificación , Complejos de Coordinación/química , Elementos de la Serie de los Lantanoides/química , Metanol/metabolismo , Catálisis , Dominio Catalítico , Cinética , Estructura Molecular , Polietilenglicoles/química , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Agua/química
20.
Chembiochem ; 2018 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524328

RESUMEN

Since the discovery of the biological relevance of rare earth elements (REEs) for numerous different bacteria, questions concerning the advantages of REEs in the active sites of methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs) over calcium(II) and of why bacteria prefer light REEs have been a subject of debate. Here we report the cultivation and purification of the strictly REE-dependent methanotrophic bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV with europium(III), as well as structural and kinetic analyses of the first methanol dehydrogenase incorporating Eu in the active site. Crystal structure determination of the Eu-MDH demonstrated that overall no major structural changes were induced by conversion to this REE. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements were used to determine optimal conditions for kinetic assays, whereas inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) showed 70 % incorporation of Eu in the enzyme. Our studies explain why bacterial growth of SolV in the presence of Eu3+ is significantly slower than in the presence of La3+ /Ce3+ /Pr3+ : Eu-MDH possesses a decreased catalytic efficiency. Although REEs have similar properties, the differences in ionic radii and coordination numbers across the series significantly impact MDH efficiency.

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