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1.
Environ Res ; 186: 109550, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335433

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although there is evidence in experimental model systems that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is linked with congenital heart defects (CHDs), few studies have examined the association in humans. We conducted a case-control study to examine the association between maternal exposure to PAHs and CHDs in offspring using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1997-2011). METHODS: We obtained detailed information on maternal occupation during the month before to three months after conception. Expert raters, masked to case-control status, assessed job descriptions to assign categorical levels of exposure. Categories were quantitatively mapped to estimate cumulative exposure to PAHs, incorporating exposure intensity, frequency, work duration, and work hours. Quartiles were generated for cumulative maternal exposure to PAHs. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for quartiles of PAH exposure and six CHD groupings (e.g. conotruncal) and specific subtypes (e.g. tetralogy of Fallot [ToF]). Final models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, anticonvulsant use, folic acid supplementation, and study center. RESULTS: There were 4,775 case and 7,734 control infants eligible for the study. The prevalence of occupational exposure to PAHs was 10.2% among both case and control mothers. In adjusted analysis, compared to mothers with no occupational PAH exposure, those in the highest quartile of exposure were more likely to have offspring in the conotruncal heart defects group (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.00-2.00), and with ToF (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.21-2.78). CONCLUSIONS: Women in the highest quartile of estimated cumulative occupational PAH exposure during early pregnancy were more likely to have offspring with conotruncal heart defects, specifically ToF, compared to women with no occupational PAH exposure. Other comparisons between PAHs and other CHDs subgroups did not show any statistically precise associations.

2.
Pain ; 158(4): 740-746, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301860

RESUMEN

Medical case management has improved in the past few decades, changing the dynamic interaction between depression and prevalent medical diseases. It is relevant to describe the comorbidity between depression and medical diseases to further improve the effectiveness of case management. We analyzed the data of adults aged 20 years and older, who completed depression screening as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005 to 2012. Depression was ascertained using the Patient Health Questionnaire, a 9-item screening instrument asking about the frequency of depression symptoms over the past 2 weeks. Comorbid diseases were assessed in a self-reported personal interview on doctor-diagnosed health conditions. The associations between depression and medical diseases were limited to the diseases with painful somatic symptoms. Reported from 19.78% of men and 27.84% of women, arthritis was the most prevalent chronic disease, and was the only one consistently associated with depression. The odds ratio of moderate to severe depression was 1.65 (95% confidence interval = 1.12-2.44) for men and 2.11 (1.63-2.99) for women with arthritis compared with their counterparts free of arthritis. Moderate/severe depression was associated with a history of heart disease among men (2.45 [1.19-5.06]) and angina/angina pectoris among women (2.13 [1.07-4.26]). No associations were found between depression and cancer/malignancy, either among men or women. The potential impact of pain management on depression prevention among general population is substantial; more efforts are needed to assess chronic pain to facilitate timely prevention and treatment of depression and comorbid medical conditions.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Dolor/epidemiología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Síntomas sin Explicación Médica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/psicología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 10(4): 399-407, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26395058

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and arthritis are leading chronic conditions, but comorbidity of these conditions and their interaction leading to depression have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which excess body weight effect-modifies the relationship between arthritis and depressive symptoms. METHODS: We used the data of 8677 men and 8820 women aged 20 or older, who completed a depression screening and general medical condition interview as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2012. Depression was ascertained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); a PHQ-9 score of 15 or higher was defined as indicative of depression. RESULTS: Arthritis was reported in 26.5% (SE=0.9) of men and 36.9% (SE=1.4) of women. The association between depression and arthritis was not significant among healthy weight women, but significant among overweight and obese women. The prevalence ratios (PRs) of depression among arthritis-free women were 1.00 (reference) for healthy weight, 1.43 (0.85-2.42) for overweight, and 1.99 (1.23-3.23) for obese women. For women with arthritis, the PRs were 1.16 (0.63-2.12) for healthy weight, 3.80 (2.24-6.45) for overweight and 3.73 (2.30-6.05) for obese women. The intensifying effect from excessive body weight on the association between arthritis and depression was less salient among men than women. CONCLUSIONS: The association between arthritis and depression is intensified significantly by increased body weight, in particular, among women.


Asunto(s)
Artritis/complicaciones , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Depresión/etiología , Trastorno Depresivo/etiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
4.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 110(11): 637-648, 2016 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28115686

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence suggests that inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may affect diarrheal and helminthic infection in women disproportionately. We systematically searched PubMed in June 2014 (updated 2016) and the WHO website, for relevant articles. METHODS: Articles dealing with the public health relevance of helminthic and diarrheal diseases, and highlighting the role of gender in WASH were included. Where possible, we carried out a meta-analysis. RESULTS: In studies of individuals 5 years or older, cholera showed lower prevalence in males (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34-0.94), while Schistosoma mansoni (1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.67), Schistosoma japonicum (1.52; 95% CI 1.13-2.05), hookworm (1.43; 95% CI 1.07-1.89) and all forms of infectious diarrhea (1.21; 95% CI 1.06-1.38) showed a higher prevalence in males. When studies included all participants, S. mansoni and S. japonicum showed higher prevalence with males (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.27-1.55 and 1.84; 95% CI 1.27-2.67, respectively). Prevalence of Trichiuris and hookworm infection showed effect modification with continent. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of gender differences in infection may reflect differences in gender norms, suggesting that policy changes at the regional level may help ameliorate gender related disparities in helminthic and diarrheal disease prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea , Helmintiasis , Higiene , Abastecimiento de Agua , Diarrea/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
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