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Front Public Health ; 8: 86, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292772


Background: Ambulatory blood pressure is a potential tool for early detection of complications during pregnancy, but its utility in impoverished settings has not been assessed. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether maternal infections, nutrient deficiencies and inflammation (MINDI) were associated with four measures of maternal blood pressure (BP) and to determine their association with symphysis-fundal-height (SFH). Methods: Environmental and dietary factors, intake of iron and a multiple-nutrient supplement (MNS), markers of inflammation, protein, anemia, folate, vitamins B12, A and D status, and urogenital, skin, oral and intestinal nematode infections were measured in indigenous pregnant Panamanian women. Stepwise multiple linear and logistic regression models explored determinants of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hypotension (SBP < 100 and DBP < 60), mean arterial pressure (MAP), elevated MAP (eMAP), and pulse pressure (PP). Associations of BP with intestinal nematodes and with SFH Z scores (≥16 wk) were also explored. Results: Despite absence of high SBP or DBP, 11.2% of women had eMAP. Furthermore, 24.1% had hypotension. Linear regression showed that hookworm infection was associated with higher SBP (P = 0.049), DBP (P = 0.046), and MAP (P = 0.016), whereas Ascaris was associated with lower DBP (P = 0.018) and MAP (P = 0.028). Trichomonas was also associated with lower SBP (P < 0.0001) and MAP (P = 0.009). The presence of Trichuris (OR: 6.7, 95% CI 1.0-44.5) and folic acid deficiency (OR: 6.9, 95% CI 1.4-33.8) were associated with increased odds of eMAP. The odds of low BP was higher in the presence of Ascaris (OR: 3.63 ± 2.28, P = 0.040), but odds were lowered by MNS (OR: 0.35 ± 0.11, P = 0.001), more intake of animal-source foods/wk (OR: 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and by higher concentrations of IL-17 (OR: 0.87 ± 0.05, P = 0.016). Conclusion: MINDI were bi-directionally associated with blood pressure indicators. In this MINDI cohort, infections, nutrients and cytokines both raised, and lowered BP indices. The presence of eMAP identified pregnant women at risk of hypertension whereas low PP was associated with lower SFH. Therefore, MAP and PP may help in detecting women at risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in settings with limited access to technology.

Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 94, 2017 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571565


BACKGROUND: The usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a non-specific marker of inflammation during pregnancy and lactation is unclear in impoverished populations where co-existing infections and vitamin deficiencies are common. METHODS: This cross-sectional study in Panama recruited 120 pregnant and 99 lactating Ngäbe-Buglé women from 14 communities in rural Panama. Obstetric history, indoor wood smoke exposure, fieldwork, BMI, vitamins A, B12, D, and folic acid, and inflammation markers (CRP, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plateletcrit and cytokines) were measured. Multiple regressions explored both associations of CRP with other inflammatory markers and associations of CRP and elevated CRP based on trimester-specific cut-offs with maternal factors, infections and vitamin deficiencies. RESULTS: CRP was higher in pregnancy (51.4 ± 4.7 nmol/L) than lactation (27.8 ± 3.5 nmol/L) and was elevated above trimester specific cut-offs in 21% of pregnant and 30% of lactating women. Vitamin deficiencies were common (vitamin A 29.6%; vitamin D 68.5%; vitamin B12 68%; folic acid 25.5%) and over 50% of women had two or more concurrent deficiencies as well as multiple infections. Multiple regression models highlighted differences in variables associated with CRP between pregnancy and lactation. In pregnancy, CRP was positively associated with greater indoor wood smoke exposure, caries and hookworm and negatively associated with Ascaris and vaginal Lactobacillus and Bacteroides/Gardnerella scores. Consistent with this, greater wood smoke exposure, caries as well as higher diplococcal infection score increased the odds of trimester-elevated CRP concentrations whereas longer gestational age lowered the likelihood of a trimester-elevated CRP. During lactation, folic acid deficiency was associated with higher CRP whereas parity, number of eosinophils and Mobiluncus score were associated with lower CRP. Also, a higher BMI and Trichomonas vaginalis score increased the likelihood of an elevated CRP whereas higher parity and number of eosinophils were associated with lower likelihood of an elevated CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Infections both raise and lower CRP concentrations in pregnant and lactating mothers. Only folic acid deficiency during lactation was associated with higher CRP concentrations. Caution is required when interpreting CRP concentrations in pregnant and lactating women who have co-existing nutrient deficiencies and multiple infections.

Avitaminosis/epidemiología , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Avitaminosis/etiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Indios Centroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactancia , Panamá/epidemiología , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
Parasitology ; 143(8): 1043-54, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000494


This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity.

Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Ancylostomatoidea/fisiología , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris/fisiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Agricultura , Animales , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Preescolar , Demografía , Composición Familiar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Panamá , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Parasitology ; 142(12): 1543-54, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302902


This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Preescolar , Perros , Ambiente , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Higiene , Larva , Masculino , Panamá/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 92(6): 1100-10, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25825387


Interrelationships among bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites were explored in a cross-sectional survey of 213 pregnant and 99 lactating indigenous women. Prevalences in pregnancy and lactation, respectively, were: vaginitis (89.2%; 46.8%), vaginal trichomoniasis (75.3%; 91.1%), bacterial vaginosis (BV; 60.6%; 63.3%), hookworm (56.6%; 47.8%), asymptomatic bacteriuria/urinary tract infection (AB/UTI; 56.2%; 36.2%), cervicitis (33.3%; 6.3%), vaginal yeast (24.9%; 11.4%), Ascaris (32.5%; 17.4%), vaginal diplococci (20.4%; 31.6%), caries (19.7%; 18.2%), scabies (17.4%; 8.1%), and Trichuris (12.5%; 8.7%). Multiple regressions revealed positive associations during pregnancy (trichomoniasis and AB/UTI; diplococci and Ascaris) and lactation (yeast and scabies). Negative associations were detected in pregnancy (BV and trichomoniasis; hookworm and diplococci) and lactation (BV and yeast). Vaginal Lactobacillus reduced odds of diplococci in pregnancy and lactation, but increased Ascaris eggs per gram (epg) and odds of trichomoniasis in pregnancy and yeast in lactation. These associations raised a concern that treatment of one condition may increase the risk of another.

Enfermedades Urogenitales Femeninas/epidemiología , Indios Centroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Intestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de la Boca/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Intestinales/complicaciones , Parasitosis Intestinales/complicaciones , Lactancia , Enfermedades de la Boca/complicaciones , Enfermedades de la Boca/microbiología , Panamá/epidemiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Parasitarias del Embarazo/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/complicaciones , Frotis Vaginal , Adulto Joven
Pediátr. Panamá ; 42(1): 24-30, Abril-Mayo 2013.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-848904


Desde 1998, el Ministerio de Salud de Panamá desarrolla un programa nacional de suplementación con hierro de forma preventiva en grupos de riesgo. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar las prevalencia total de anemia y de anemia ferropriva en una muestra representativa nacional de lactantes, preescolares, escolares y embarazadas, pertenecientes a distritos prioritarios y escolares de distritos prioritarios y no prioritarios. Se determinaron Hb, VCM, zinc-protoporfirina, ferritina sérica, proteína C reactiva (PCR) y solubilidad de hemoglobina. La Anemia ferropriva se definió como anemia con dos o más indicadores de nutrición de hierro alterados. Dado que un alto porcentaje de los sujetos presentó una PCR elevada, se utilizó un punto de corte para la ferritina de 50 ug/l. La prevalencia de anemia fue 66% en niños de 9 a 15 meses de edad, 41.8% en niños de 16 a 59 meses, 6.3% en escolares y 23.4% en embarazadas, mientras la prevalencia de anemia ferropriva fue 48.8%, 20.3%, 2.5% y 9.4%, respectivamente en embarazadas. La portación de drepanocitosis fue <2.5%. Conclusión: La anemia ferropriva tiene una alta prevalencia y es la principal causa de anemia en lactantes y preescolares. En embarazadas y escolares los procesos infecciosos constituirían la principal etiología de la anemia. La baja prevalencia de anemia ferropriva en escolares y embarazada es atribuible a la efectividad de la suplementación con hierro. Se requiere de la mejoría de la efectividad del programa nacional de suplementación y medidas destinadas a disminuir la incidencia de infecciones para reducir la prevalencia global de anemia en la población panameña.

From 1998, the Ministry of Health of Panama has a national program of prophylactic iron supplementation of risk groups. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence anemia and of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in a national representative sample of infants, preschool children and pregnant women from high-priority districts and scholar children from high-priority and not high-priority districts. Hb, MCV, zinc-protoporphyrin, serum ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin solubility were measured. IDA was defined as anemia plus two or more abnormal iron nutrition status. Since most of the subjects presented a high CRP, a 50 ug/l cutoff was used for serum ferritin. The prevalence of anemia was 66% in children from 9 to 15 months of age, 41.8% in children of 16 to 59 months, 6.3% in school children and 23.4% in pregnant women, whereas IDA prevalence was 48.8%, 20.3%, 2.5% and 9.4%, respectively. Sickle-cell trait was found in <2.5 % of the subjects. Conclusion, IDA was highly prevalent and the main cause of anemia in infants and preschool children. Infectious processes would constitute the main etiology of anemia in school children and pregnant women. The low prevalence of IDA in scholars and pregnant women is attributable to the effectiveness of the iron supplementation. The improvement of the effectiveness of the national iron supplementation program together with measures to diminish the incidence of infections are required to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the Panamanian population.