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1.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495280

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Policymakers wishing to encourage smokers unable to quit to switch to using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) also need to consider how to deter ENDS use among non-smokers. We examined whether reduced-risk messages could increase ENDS' appeal among smokers and if increased-risk messages could decrease appeal among susceptible non-smokers, occasional and former smokers. METHODOLOGY: An online discrete choice experiment tested three attributes: information message, nicotine content (0 mg or 3 mg) and flavour (tobacco, menthol or fruit). The sample comprised 352 current smokers, 118 occasional and former smokers, and 216 ENDS-susceptible never smokers. Smokers viewed reduced-risk messages that encouraged switching to ENDS, while other groups viewed increased-risk messages that discouraged ENDS use. All groups saw a typical addiction warning. We analysed the data by estimating multinomial logit regression and adjusted latent class analysis models. RESULTS: Relative to no message, reduced risk-messages increased the appeal of ENDS uptake among one class of smokers (33.5%) but decreased appeal among other smokers. However, among all smokers, reduced-risk messages increased preference more than a dissuasive addiction warning. By contrast, among occasional or former smokers, and susceptible non-smokers, all information messages discouraging ENDS use, including an addiction warning, decreased preference relative to no message. CONCLUSIONS: On-pack relative-risk messages about ENDS could make transition more attractive to smokers while increased-risk messages could deter ENDS uptake among susceptible non-smokers, occasional and former smokers. Communicating diverse messages via discrete channels could recognise heterogeneity among and between smokers and non-smokers.

2.
Addict Behav ; 112: 106565, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795737

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Growing rates of e-cigarette use among youth have reached epidemic proportions. Media messages have been deployed to counteract this trend, but their evaluations are lacking. We assessed youth's and parents' reactions to various existing e-cigarette prevention messages. METHODS: In 2019, 12 focus groups were conducted with youth (n = 63) and parents (n = 27). Participants discussed their reactions to 9 existing messages with various topics. RESULTS: Information on chemicals in e-cigarettes was seen as new and scary, but unknown chemical names created confusion. Youth appreciated novel ways to visualize health effects of e-cigarettes (parasites in the body) and nicotine's effect on behavior (mood swings), but they cautioned that some of these effects (irritability) are not always caused by nicotine. Some participants did not know if e-cigarette companies were "Big Tobacco." Some found it hard to argue with the financial costs of vaping, but others did not think they were too great. Participants recommended messages featuring testimonials from diverse adolescents and messages aimed at youth who are struggling with addiction to e-cigarettes. CONCLUSION: Messages would be particularly effective if they featured real youth and did not look like adults created them for youth. Another area that is currently not covered in media messages is talking to youth who are using e-cigarettes and might be already addicted but do not know where to turn for help. These adolescents need to be referred to resources for cessation.

3.
4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245339

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In October 2019, a heated tobacco product (HTP) IQOS debuted in the United States. This study examined young adults' attention and cognitions in response to an IQOS ad that carried two mandated textual health warnings (Surgeon General's warning and nicotine warning), and how their vaping and smoking status may interact with attention patterns to affect attitude and intention to use IQOS. METHODS: In November 2019, college students (N=164) viewed IQOS' first U.S. magazine ad and two distractor ads. Viewing patterns were recorded with eye-tracking. Masked recall and aided recognition, attitude and intention towards IQOS use were later assessed with self-report. OLS regressions and moderated mediation analyses examined the associations between visual attention and viewers' cognitions about IQOS use. RESULTS: Promotional content attracted significantly more attention compared to the warnings. Attention to the Surgeon General's warning but not to the nicotine warning was associated with recall and recognition of the warning's content. For ever-vapers, greater attention allocation to the promotional content in the IQOS ad was associated with more favorable attitude toward IQOS use, which was in turn positively associated with intention to use IQOS. Attention allocation to the warnings did not affect attitude or intentions, regardless of tobacco use status. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed the effects of IQOS promotional content overshadowed the two health warnings in influencing young people's attitude and intention to use IQOS. Young adults who vaped were more vulnerable to HTP advertising with respect to future use and vaping may be a gateway to HTP use. IMPLICATIONS: This is the first eye-tracking study examining attention and cognitions associated with the new IQOS ad exposure among young adults. Promotional content in the ad attracted significantly more attention than the two warnings combined. Attention to the Surgeon General's warning but not to the nicotine warning was associated with recall and recognition of the warning's content. Greater attention allocation to the promotional content led to more favorable attitude toward IQOS use which was associated with increased intention to use IQOS for ever vapers. However, greater attention allocation to the warnings did not affect attitude or intentions to use IQOS.

5.
Health Commun ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124482

RESUMEN

To better understand the processing of e-cigarette prevention messages, we conducted a content analysis of 1,968 participants' open-ended responses to one of four messages, which focused on industry manipulation (Big tobacco), financial and psychological cost of vaping (Can't afford), harmful chemicals in e-cigarettes (Formaldehyde), or uncertainty about the ingredients of e-liquids (Top secret). Health Belief Model (HBM) and perceived message effectiveness (PME) constructs were coded and the frequency of each variable was compared across message conditions. Among the HBM constructs, perceived health threat had the most mentions overall (38.8%). Self-efficacy of staying away from vaping had the fewest mentions across all messages (0.56%). For PME, participants more frequently mentioned message perceptions (15.75% positive message perceptions, 8.38% negative) than effect perceptions (3.46% positive effect perceptions, 1.37% negative). Big tobacco received the highest number of mentions for positive message perceptions and Formaldehyde received the highest number of mentions for positive effect perceptions. Future anti-vaping messages are recommended to address the efficacy element and to combine different themes to communicate harms of e-cigarettes.

6.
Tob Control ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046582

RESUMEN

When tobacco products are marketed with modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) claims, consumers may infer additional health benefits not directly stated in the claims. We propose a typology of seven potential 'halo effects' (ie, an unintended generalisation) that may occur with MRTP marketing. Evidence currently exists that some of these types of halo effects occur after exposure to MRTP claims. These generalisations are likely unavoidable in certain situations and may sometimes produce accurate inferences. However, some halo effects may be problematic if they mislead consumers into false inferences and result in unintended consequences that have a negative public health impact (eg, reinitiation, dual tobacco product use). To help mitigate unintended consequences and guide regulatory decisions about MRTP claims, we encourage researchers studying MRTP claims to test for halo effects. Regulatory agencies should include potential unintended consequences associated with halo effects when assessing individual-level and population-level health impacts of MRTP claims. Moreover, tobacco manufacturers should be required to report both premarket and postmarket surveillance of halo effects to relevant regulatory agencies. If MRTP claims are to play a role in tobacco harm reduction, it is imperative that they be communicated and interpreted in ways that minimise harms and maximise public health benefits.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240611, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085686

RESUMEN

There has been an upsurge of e-cigarette use in the United States in recent years. While e-cigarettes may contain lower levels of toxic chemicals than combusted cigarettes, they still pose serious health hazards, including increased risk for heart and respiratory disease. Despite these risks, public awareness of the health harms of e-cigarettes remains low. Thus, it is important to educate the public about the potential harms of e-cigarettes. This study took themes commonly found in antismoking messages and used them to develop messages about harms of e-cigarettes. A national sample of 2801 current smokers and nonsmokers (aged 18+ years) were randomized to view one of four e-cigarette messages (harmful effect of chemicals, uncertainty about ingredients, distrust of big tobacco, or cost of vaping) or a control message (bottled water ad). Participants' reactions to the messages and behavioral intentions were assessed immediately following the exposure. MANOVA examined effects of the messages on blocks of the outcome variables and univariate analyses estimated adjusted means for each experimental condition for each outcome. The message about harmful chemicals was perceived as the most informative and effective and elicited the highest levels of negative emotions (Ps<0.05). However, on measures of actual effectiveness, the other messages performed equally well. Specifically, messages with different themes (harmful chemicals, uncertainty about ingredients, anti-industry, or financial cost) increased perceived risk of e-cigarettes, support for e-cigarette control, and lowered self-exempting beliefs and intentions to use e-cigarettes (Ps<0.05). Themes commonly used in anti-smoking messages may be effective in educating the public about the potential harm of e-cigarettes. The observed differential effects of the messages suggest the need to use multiple themes in a public education campaign about e-cigarettes.

8.
Am J Health Behav ; 44(4): 473-487, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553028

RESUMEN

Objectives: Conversations about pictorial cigarette health warning labels (HWLs) encourage quit attempts, and prior research suggests prevalence of these conversations varies by ethnicity. We assessed the frequency of conversations about text-only HWLs among Latino and non-Latino white smokers and the relationship between conversations and subsequent quit attempts. Methods: Latino and non-Latino white adult smokers in the United States (N = 4403) were surveyed every 4 months over 2 years. Surveys queried smoking behaviors, recent quit attempts, HWL responses, including HWL conversations, and socio-demographic variables. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models regressed the frequency of HWL conversations on study variables. Logistic GEE models regressed quit attempts at follow-up surveys on responses from the prior wave, including frequency of HWL conversations and their interaction with ethnicity. Results: Spanish preference Latinos reported the most HWL conversations (85%), followed by English preference Latinos (59%), and non-Latino Whites (35%). More frequent HWL conversations predicted subsequent quit attempts (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.32, 2.30), but ethnicity did not moderate this effect. Conclusions: Latinos appear to talk more frequently about HWLs than non-Latino Whites but are no more likely to quit as a result. Cessation campaigns should use messages that encourage conversations about quitting.

9.
Tob Control ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546665

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco companies claim that a large proportion of the population perceives potential modified risk tobacco products as equally or more harmful than cigarettes, and argue misperceptions need to be corrected using modified risk claims. However, the studies they cite predominantly use one specific measurement of comparative risk. We analysed a representative sample of US adult smokers and non-smokers to examine whether the proportion who report e-cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes differs depending on how the comparative risk questions were presented. METHODS: We analysed data from the 2017 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey. Comparative risk of cigarettes and e-cigarettes was measured in two ways: direct (single question) and indirect (by measuring perceived risk of both in separate questions and then subtracting the scores from each other). RESULTS: When asked to compare harms of e-cigarettes and cigarettes directly (single question), 33.9% of participants identified e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes, 36.4% reported equal harm, 4.3% said e-cigarettes were more harmful and 25.3% said 'I don't know'. When asked indirectly (separate questions), 42.1% identified e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes, 23.8% said they were of equal harm, 7.1% perceived e-cigarettes to be more harmful and 27.1% did not know. CONCLUSION: Our study offers evidence to suggest the need to use both direct and indirect risk questions when assessing the public's perceptions of harms associated with novel tobacco products.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e17104, 2020 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348288

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As user modification can alter the addictiveness and toxicity of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), more research is needed to understand the types, motivations, risks, and information sources that lead to these product alterations. YouTube has been identified as a major platform where ENDS users obtain and share information about ENDS products and modifications. However, a comprehensive study of ENDS modification videos on YouTube is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the content of YouTube videos depicting modifications of ENDS. METHODS: YouTube was searched in March 2019 to identify videos depicting ENDS modifications. Search terms were derived from interviews with ENDS users and current literature. We used 28 search phrases that combined the words vape and vaping with modification-related key terms (eg, custom build, modification, and dripping). The final sample included 168 videos. RESULTS: Videos were 1 to 108 min long (median 9.55). Presenters were largely male (117/168, 69.6%), white (94/168, 56.0%), and older than 25 years (94/168, 56.0%). Most videos gave how to instructions (148/168, 88.1%), but few offered warnings (30/168, 17.9%) or mentioned commercial alternatives to modifications they presented (16/168, 9.5%). The ENDS devices most often featured were drippers (63/168, 37.5%) and refillable tanks (37/168, 22.0%). The most often modified ENDS components were coils (82/168, 48.8%) and e-liquids (34/168, 20.2%), which included adding other substances, such as cannabis, to the e-liquids (6/168, 3.6%). Most videos portrayed ENDS modifications positively (106/168, 63.1% positive; 60/168, 35.7% neutral; and 2/168, 1.2% negative) and were either neutral or positive in their overall portrayal of ENDS devices (78/168, 46.4% positive; 89/168, 53.0% neutral; and 1/168, 0.6% negative). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several concerning trends in popular YouTube videos on ENDS modifications, including lack of warnings, the addition of marijuana derivatives to e-liquids, and the positive portrayal of ENDS devices and modifications. By identifying the types of modifications (coil and e-liquid being the most prevalent), this study sets an agenda for research on the effects of modifications.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024230

RESUMEN

Users' modifications to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) products could increase initiation, inhibit cessation, or change the toxicity of the product. This study aims to begin to identify consumers' common ENDS modification behaviors. We conducted audio-recorded, in-depth one-on-one interviews with 13 adult ENDS users in the metropolitan Atlanta area, who self-reported extensive modification experience. Modifications to coils, batteries, and e-liquids were commonly mentioned. Participants indicated that users modified devices to produce large clouds, change levels of nicotine delivery, alter tastes of e-liquids, and experience different throat hits. Because manufacturers have changed product characteristics to be in line with consumer preferences, interviewees indicated that fewer users currently engage in modifications to coils and batteries compared to the more widespread practice a few years ago. Hobbyists continue to perform modifications and many users continue to misuse or abuse e-liquids, despite the view that fewer users currently alter their ENDS than in the past. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory actions that limit certain product characteristics may unintentionally increase the likelihood that users will once again make more extensive modifications to their products, and this should be considered as part of the FDA's regulatory decision-making process.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Adolescente , Adulto , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Gusto , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
13.
Tob Control ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047101

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Many smokers who begin using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) report vaping in settings where they would not have smoked and believe secondhand aerosol (SHA) is simply steam. However, current understanding of how ENDS users differentiate between secondhand smoke and SHA, or how vaping norms develop, is limited. METHODS: We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 39 current ENDS users (dual users and former smokers, now exclusive ENDS users) from New Zealand to explore participants' perceptions of SHA. We probed how these perceptions arose and examined implications for vaping practices and policy. We managed the data using NVivo V.11 and used a thematic analysis approach to interpret the transcripts. RESULTS: Participants had limited understanding of SHA, its constituents or its possible effects on others. They drew on the absence of harm information, and their sensory experiences and perceptions of others' views of vaping, to support the conclusion that SHA posed few, if any, risks to bystanders. Yet despite this perception, some felt they should recognise others' rights to clean air and most would not vape around children to avoid setting an example. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of trusted information, participants used sensory heuristics to rationalise their ENDS practices. Policy-makers face the challenge of correcting misperceptions about SHA without deterring full transition from smoking to ENDS use. They could consider including vaping in current smoke-free area policies; this measure would signal that SHA is not harmless, and could protect clean-air settings and reduce potential normalisation of vaping among non-smokers.

14.
Tob Control ; 29(5): 496-501, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420374

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cigarette pictorial warning labels (PWLs) could produce stronger quit intentions than text-only warning labels (TWLs) due to greater emotional arousal. Yet, it remains unclear whether PWLs that elicit different levels of emotions produce different outcomes. To better understand the role of negative emotions in the effects of PWLs, this study developed two sets of PWLs arousing different emotional levels (high vs low) but equally high on informativeness and compared them to each other and to the current TWLs. METHODS: Adult US smokers (n=1503) were randomised to view nine high-emotion-arousing or low-emotion-arousing PWLs or TWLs. After each label, participants reported the negative emotions they felt while looking at the label. After seeing all the labels, participants reported their intentions to quit smoking. Mediation analyses tested whether message condition influenced quit intentions indirectly through negative emotions. RESULTS: Compared with TWLs, PWLs produced higher levels of negative emotions (b=0.27, SE=0.04, p<0.001). Compared with low-emotion arousing PWLs, high-emotion-arousing PWLs produced higher levels of negative emotions (b=0.24, SE=0.07, p<0.001). Higher negative emotions predicted stronger quit intentions (b=0.20, SE=0.03, p<0.001). Negative emotions mediated the effects of PWLs versus TWLs and high-emotion-arousing versus low- emotion-arousing PWLs on quit intentions. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide additional evidence for negative emotions as the mechanism through which PWLs motivate smokers to consider quitting. The findings call on the Food and Drug Administration to design and implement high-emotion-arousing cigarette warning labels.

15.
Tob Control ; 29(2): 217-223, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040224

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Communicating to smokers that e-cigarettes deliver lower levels of harmful chemicals than combusted cigarettes is a challenging issue. This study qualitatively explored smokers' interpretations of messages communicating the risk of e-cigarettes relative to cigarettes (comparative risk messages). METHOD: We developed 12 print comparative risk messages and evaluated them in 12 focus groups with 72 adult smokers (18+ years old) in Atlanta, Georgia. RESULTS: Participants interpreted uncertainty about health effects of e-cigarettes as an indicator of significant unknown risks, which some believed to be potentially more severe than the known effects of cigarettes (such as cancer and heart disease). Also, participants were sceptical about the lower risk claims. Some participants misinterpreted what 'switching completely' or 'switching 100% of the time' means, perceiving switching from e-cigarettes to combusted cigarettes as comparable with the use of both products. When chemicals in e-cigarettes were mentioned (eg, nicotine or formaldehyde), participants viewed e-cigarettes as very harmful and had difficulty reconciling this belief with the reduced risk claim. Comparative risk messages emphasising smoking risks were perceived as effective. Participants also appreciated being given an option to switch if they cannot quit. Participants suggested the inclusion of more facts and statistics and a credible message source (eg, public health agencies) to increase message effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Comparative risk messages may be more acceptable to smokers if they show direct comparisons of the number of toxic chemicals in cigarettes and e-cigarettes, are attributed to a credible source(s), and emphasise smoking risks.

16.
Tob Control ; 29(6): 663-671, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641058

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The US Food and Drug Administration requires e-cigarettes to carry a nicotine addiction warning. This research compared the effects of messages communicating comparative risk of electronic and combusted cigarettes (CR messages) with and without the mandated warning and tested the effects of showing a nicotine fact sheet (NFS) before exposure to CR messages with warning. METHOD: In an online experiment, 1528 US adult smokers were randomised to one of four conditions: (1) three CR messages, (2) three CR messages in condition one with an addiction warning, (3) an NFS followed by the three messages in condition 2 and (4) control messages. Outcomes included message reactions and perceived effectiveness, e-cigarette-related and cigarette-related beliefs and behavioural intentions and nicotine-related beliefs. RESULTS: CR messages with and without an addiction warning did not differ. The NFS condition produced higher odds of correctly understanding the risk of nicotine and stronger beliefs that switching to e-cigarettes could reduce health risks (response efficacy) than other treatments. Compared with control, all messages made it more likely for people to report e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes and increased response efficacy and switch intentions to e-cigarettes. Only NFS condition increased correct beliefs about the risk of nicotine and self-efficacy about switching to e-cigarettes. CONCLUSION: Including an addiction warning on CR messages did not reduce intentions to switch to e-cigarettes. Communicating accurate risk of nicotine together with CR messages and addiction warning increased smokers' self-efficacy beliefs about switching completely to e-cigarettes, making it a potentially promising antitobacco communication strategy.

17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S108-S116, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867652

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed lowering the amount of nicotine in combusted cigarettes to minimally addictive levels. If used, to encourage cessation and maximize the benefits of this action, the FDA needs to determine the most effective way to communicate to the public the practical impact of this nicotine tobacco product standard. METHODS: Data were collected in 2018 from a nationally representative, online probability sample of 1198 adult smokers (aged ≥18 years old) in the United States. Smokers were randomly assigned one of five versions of the question regarding what they would most likely do if nicotine in cigarettes was reduced (nicotine levels were reduced by 95%; the government reduced nicotine levels by 95%; cigarettes were no longer addictive; cigarettes no longer relieved cravings; cigarettes were changed so that you would be able to quit more easily). Effects of framing on anticipated tobacco use intentions and perceived risk of very low nicotine cigarettes (VLNCs) were evaluated with multinomial logistic regressions. RESULTS: Framing the nicotine tobacco product standard as cigarettes no longer relieved cravings resulted in the highest proportion of smokers reporting they intend to quit in response to this standard (43.9%), lowest proportions reporting anticipated intentions to continue using combusted tobacco products (45.3%), and lowest proportion believing that VLNCs are less harmful than regular cigarettes (26%). CONCLUSIONS: Different frames of nicotine reduction in cigarettes differentially affected smokers' anticipated tobacco use intentions and perceived risk of VLNCs. Presenting reduction as making cigarettes unable to relieve cravings might be particularly effective at motivating cessation.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Nicotina , Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansia , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Riesgo , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878111

RESUMEN

We examined how a nicotine fact sheet influenced smokers' beliefs about nicotine and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), a potentially less harmful alternative to conventional cigarettes. In an exploratory online experiment, 756 US adult current and recent former smokers (quit in the past 2 years) were randomized to view a nicotine fact sheet or control messages (bottled water ads). Effects of the nicotine fact sheet on perceived nicotine addictiveness, nicotine risk, comparative risk of e-cigarettes, and dual use intentions were analyzed using log-Poisson regression with robust error. Linear regression analyzed effects on perceived absolute risk and switching and information seeking intentions about e-cigarettes. Compared to control, the nicotine fact sheet doubled the probability of disagreeing that nicotine is the main cause of smoking-related disease (26.2% vs. 12.7%, RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.51, 2.82, p < 0.001). However, nearly three quarters of participants viewing the nicotine fact sheet still thought that nicotine is the main cause of smoking-related disease. The nicotine fact sheet increased smokers' intentions to seek information about e-cigarettes (b = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.74, p = 0.003). We did not find evidence suggesting unintended consequences of the nicotine fact sheet on smokers' e-cigarettes risk perceptions or use intentions (e.g., increased dual use intentions or reduced absolute e-cigarette risk perception).


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Promoción de la Salud , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Nicotina , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Riesgo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Joven
19.
Addict Res Theory ; 27(5): 383-393, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511769

RESUMEN

Background: The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) responses have not been evaluated from verbal reactions to cigarette warning labels. We identified the EPPM responses in reactions to cigarette warning labels and evaluated their predictors and relationship with warning perceptions. Methods: U.S. adult current smokers, transitioning smokers (quit in the past two years or currently quitting) and never smokers (n=1,838) saw nine of 81 cigarette warning labels. Participants freely wrote their thoughts after viewing the first label and reported perceived informativeness, negative emotions, and denial for this label. Responses were coded for the presence of the EPPM response categories. Multivariable logistic regression models described adaptive and maladaptive respondent characteristics, and linear regression models assessed the relationship between the response categories and label perceptions. Results: Participants' responses contained adaptive (65.4%), maladaptive (16.5%), no response (14.7%), and mixed responses (both adaptive and maladaptive; 3.4%). Current smokers had decreased odds of adaptive response compared to never and transitioning smokers. Compared to text warnings, pictorial warnings were associated with increased odds of adaptive and decreased odds of maladaptive responses. Adaptive response was associated with increased odds of intentions to quit smoking. Adaptive respondents reported the highest levels of informativeness and negative emotions among the four response categories. Conclusions: The finding demonstrating predominantly adaptive (and few maladaptive) responses to warning labels supports the continued use of fear appeals in warning label design. The greater adaptive and lower maladaptive responses to pictorial warnings could serve as additional evidence for FDA to implement pictorial warning labels.

20.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(2): 406-419, 2019 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808479

RESUMEN

Objectives: In this study, we examined visual attention of a warning label on a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and its effects on visual attention to SSB product descriptors and perceptions of SSB using eye tracking technology. Methods: We had 180 young adults view an image of a generic soda can with or without a text warning on a computer monitor. Results: Participants spent less time looking at marketing elements on the can in the "Warning" condition compared to the "No warning" (control) condition. Compared to the control, participants in the "Warning" condition viewed the sugar-sweetened beverage as less healthy (1.78 warning vs 2.21 control, p < .01) and believed that drinking SSBs contributed to diabetes (5.70 warning vs 5.27 control, p < .01). Visual attention to warning label was associated with correct recall of the warning and opting out of purchasing the can. Conclusions: Textual warning on SSB reduced visual attention to marketing elements on the can. Although there were few statistically significant differences between the conditions on most measures of product appeal or risk perception, warnings increased some perceived risks of SSBs indicating that warning labels on SSBs might be a promising strategy in informing consumers, particularly young adults, about risks of added sugars.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Promoción de la Salud , Lectura , Bebidas Azucaradas , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Medidas del Movimiento Ocular , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
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