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1.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609422

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is biased in the setting of obesity and other conditions. Alternative kidney filtration markers may be useful in adults with diabetes, but few studies examined the associations with risk of clinical outcomes. METHODS: In the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, we evaluated whether baseline levels and change in eGFR based on creatinine (Cr), cystatin c (Cys), ß2 -microglobulin (B2M), eGFRCr-Cys , and the average of three estimates (eGFRCr-Cys-B2M ) assessed in 7217 participants at baseline and a random sample of 640 participants at the 1 year visit are associated with clinical outcomes. We examined associations with major macrovascular and microvascular events together and separately, and all-cause mortality using Cox regression models, adjusting for established risk factors. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 5 years, 1313 major macrovascular (n = 748) and microvascular events (n = 637), and 743 deaths occurred. Lower levels of eGFR based on all filtration markers individually and combined were associated with 1.4 to 3.0 times higher risk of major macrovascular and microvascular events (combined and separately) and all-cause mortality. Per 30% decline in eGFRCys , eGFR Cr-Cys , and eGFRCr-Cys-B2M were associated with a > 2-fold higher risk of all clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with type 2 diabetes, baseline levels of eGFR based on alternative filtration markers and per 30% decline in eGFRCys , eGFR Cr-Cys , and eGFRCr-Cys-B2M were associated with clinical outcomes. Measurement of alternative filtration markers, particularly B2M in adults with type 2 diabetes may be warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476250

RESUMEN

AIM: To examine possible sex differences in the excess risk of myocardial infarction (MI) consequent to a range of conventional risk factors in a large-scale international cohort of patients with diabetes, and to quantify these potential differences both on the relative and absolute scales. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven thousand and sixty-five participants (42% women) with type 2 diabetes in the ADVANCE trial and its post-trial follow-up study, ADVANCE-ON, were included. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between risk factors and MI (fatal and non-fatal) by sex, and the women-to-men ratio of HRs (RHR). RESULTS: Over a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, 719 patients experienced MI. Smoking status, smoking intensity, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), HbA1c, total and LDL cholesterol, duration of diabetes, triglycerides, body mass index (BMI) and lower HDL cholesterol were associated with an increased risk of MI in both sexes. Furthermore, some variables were associated with a greater relative risk of MI in women than men: RHRs were 1.75 (95% CI: 1.05-2.91) for current smoking, 1.53 (1.00-2.32) for former smoking, 1.18 (1.02-1.37) for SBP, and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.003-1.26) for duration of diabetes. Although incidence rates of MI were higher in men (9.3 per 1000 person-years) compared with women (5.8 per 1000 person-years), rate differences associated with risk factors were greater in women than men, except for HDL cholesterol and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, smoking, higher SBP and longer duration of diabetes had a greater relative and absolute effect in women than men, highlighting the importance of routine sex-specific approaches and early interventions in women with diabetes.

3.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 1183-1188, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371809

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To raise awareness of blood pressure, measured by number of countries involved, number of people screened, and number of people who have untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. METHODS: An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged at least 18 years was carried out in May 2017. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard May measurement month protocol. Eighteen countries in Latin America and the Caribbean participated in the campaign, providing us with a wide sample for characterization. RESULTS: During May measurement month 2017 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 105 246 individuals were screened. Participants who had cardiovascular disease, 2245 (2.3%) had a prior myocardial infarction, and 1711 (1.6%) a previous stroke, additionally 6760 (6.4%) individuals were diabetic, 7014 (6.7%) current smokers and 9262 (8.8%) reported alcohol intake once or more per week. Mean SBP was 122.7 mmHg and DBP was 75.6 mmHg. After imputation, 42 328 participants (40,4%) were found to be hypertensive. CONCLUSION: The high numbers of participants detected with hypertension and the relatively large proportion of participants on antihypertensive treatment but with uncontrolled hypertension reinforces the importance of this annual event in our continent, to raise awareness of the prevention of cardiovascular events.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1546-1552, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366578

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov reg. no. NCT01179048) demonstrated a reduced risk of cardiovascular (CV) events for patients with type 2 diabetes who received the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist liraglutide versus placebo. The mechanisms behind this CV benefit remain unclear. We aimed to identify potential mediators for the CV benefit observed with liraglutide in the LEADER trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed exploratory analyses to identify potential mediators of the effect of liraglutide on major adverse CV events (MACE; composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) from the following candidates: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), confirmed hypoglycemia, sulfonylurea use, insulin use, systolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol. These candidates were selected as CV risk factors on which liraglutide had an effect in LEADER such that a reduction in CV risk might result. We used two methods based on a Cox proportional hazards model and the new Vansteelandt method designed to use all available information from the mediator and to control for confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses using the Cox methods and Vansteelandt method indicated potential mediation by HbA1c (up to 41% and 83% mediation, respectively) and UACR (up to 29% and 33% mediation, respectively) on the effect of liraglutide on MACE. Mediation effects were small for other candidates. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses identify HbA1c and, to a lesser extent, UACR as potential mediators of the CV effects of liraglutide. Whether either is a marker of an unmeasured factor or a true mediator remains a key question that invites further investigation.

5.
Hypertension ; 76(2): 333-341, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419505

RESUMEN

Elevated blood pressure remains the single biggest risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease and mortality. May Measurement Month is an annual global screening campaign aiming to improve awareness of blood pressure at the individual and population level. Adults (≥18 years) recruited through opportunistic sampling were screened at sites in 92 countries during May 2019. Ideally, 3 blood pressure readings were measured for each participant, and data on lifestyle factors and comorbidities were collected. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg (mean of the second and third readings) or taking antihypertensive medication. When necessary, multiple imputation was used to estimate participants' mean blood pressure. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between blood pressure and participant characteristics. Of 1 508 130 screenees 482 273 (32.0%) had never had a blood pressure measurement before and 513 337 (34.0%) had hypertension, of whom 58.7% were aware, and 54.7% were on antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 57.8% were controlled to <140/90 mm Hg, and 28.9% to <130/80 mm Hg. Of all those with hypertension, 31.7% were controlled to <140/90 mm Hg, and 350 825 (23.3%) participants had untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. Of those taking antihypertensive medication, half were taking only a single drug, and 25% reported using aspirin inappropriately. This survey is the largest ever synchronized and standardized contemporary compilation of global blood pressure data. This campaign is needed as a temporary substitute for systematic blood pressure screening in many countries worldwide.

6.
Diabetologia ; 63(8): 1637-1647, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385604

RESUMEN

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This biomarker study aimed to quantify the association of essential and other plasma fatty acid biomarkers with macrovascular disease, microvascular disease and death in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A case-cohort study (N = 3576), including 654 macrovascular events, 341 microvascular events and 631 deaths during 5 years of (median) follow-up, was undertaken as a secondary analysis of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study (full details of the study design and primary endpoints of the ADVANCE trial and its case-cohort have been published previously). This current study considers new data: fatty acids measured from baseline plasma samples by proton NMR analysis. The fatty acids measured were n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), n-6, linoleic acid, and polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. HRs were modelled per SD higher (percentage) fatty acid. C statistics and continuous net reclassification improvement were used to test the added value of fatty acids compared with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, an inverse association was observed for n-3 fatty acids and DHA with the risk of macrovascular events (HR [95% CI]: 0.87 [0.80, 0.95] and 0.88 [0.81, 0.96], respectively, per 1 SD higher percentage), and for n-3 fatty acids with the risk of death (HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.84, 0.99] per 1 SD higher percentage). Such associations were also evident when investigating absolute levels of fatty acids. There were no statistically significant associations between any fatty acids and microvascular disease after adjustment. However, there was limited improvement in the predictive ability of models when any fatty acid was added. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Plasma n-3 fatty acids and DHA were found to be inversely associated with macrovascular disease, while n-3 fatty acids were also inversely associated with death. These results support the cardioprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids and DHA and further merit testing the role of high-dose supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in individuals with type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00145925. Graphical abstract.

7.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 982-1004, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371787

RESUMEN

DOCUMENT REVIEWERS: Hind Beheiry (Sudan), Irina Chazova (Russia), Albertino Damasceno (Mozambique), Anna Dominiczak (UK), Anastase Dzudie (Cameroon), Stephen Harrap (Australia), Hiroshi Itoh (Japan), Tazeen Jafar (Singapore), Marc Jaffe (USA), Patricio Jaramillo-Lopez (Colombia), Kazuomi Kario (Japan), Giuseppe Mancia (Italy), Ana Mocumbi (Mozambique), Sanjeevi N.Narasingan (India), Elijah Ogola (Kenya), Srinath Reddy (India), Ernesto Schiffrin (Canada), Ann Soenarta (Indonesia), Rhian Touyz (UK), Yudah Turana (Indonesia), Michael Weber (USA), Paul Whelton (USA), Xin Hua Zhang, (Australia), Yuqing Zhang (China).

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250536

RESUMEN

AIMS: To undertake a post-hoc analysis, utilizing a hypoglycaemia risk score based on DEVOTE trial data, to investigate if a high risk of severe hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, and whether reduced rates of severe hypoglycaemia in patients identified as having the highest risk affected the risk of cardiovascular outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DEVOTE population was divided into quartiles according to patients' individual hypoglycaemia risk scores. For each quartile, the observed incidence and rate of severe hypoglycaemia, major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and all-cause mortality were determined to investigate whether those with the highest risk of hypoglycaemia were also at the greatest risk of MACE and all-cause mortality. In addition, treatment differences within each risk quartile [insulin degludec (degludec) vs. insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100)] in terms of severe hypoglycaemia, MACE and all-cause mortality were investigated. RESULTS: Patients with the highest risk scores had the highest rates of severe hypoglycaemia, MACE and all-cause mortality. Treatment ratios between degludec and glargine U100 in the highest risk quartile were 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 (0.39; 0.80) (severe hypoglycaemia), 95% CI 0.76 (0.58; 0.99) (MACE) and 95% CI 0.77 (0.55; 1.07) (all-cause mortality). CONCLUSIONS: The risk score demonstrated that a high risk of severe hypoglycaemia was associated with a high incidence of MACE and all-cause mortality and that, in this high-risk group, those treated with degludec had a lower incidence of MACE. These observations support the hypothesis that hypoglycaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular events.

11.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
12.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(4): 465-473, 2020 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132141

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide demonstrated cardiovascular and kidney benefits in the LEADER trial, particularly in participants with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This post hoc analysis evaluated the safety of liraglutide treatment in patients with CKD in LEADER. Overall, 9340 patients were randomized to liraglutide or placebo, both in addition to standard of care. Of those, 2158 patients had CKD versus 7182 without CKD (defined as eGFR <60 versus ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively); 966 patients had macroalbuminuria and 2456 had microalbuminuria (urine albumin-creatinine ratio >300 mg/g and ≥30 to ≤300 mg/g, respectively). At baseline, the mean eGFR in patients with CKD was 46±11 ml/min per 1.73 m2 versus 91±22 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in those without CKD. Time to first event within event groups was analyzed using Cox regression with treatment group, baseline eGFR group, or baseline albuminuria group as fixed factors. RESULTS: Overall, serious adverse events were more frequently recorded in patients with CKD compared with those without CKD (59% versus 50%; interaction P=0.11); however, they occurred to the same extent in those on liraglutide versus placebo. Similarly, no interaction of adverse events with randomized therapy was observed in patients with micro- or macro- versus normoalbuminuria (interaction P=0.11). Risk of severe hypoglycemia was significantly reduced with liraglutide versus placebo in patients with CKD or with micro- or macroalbuminuria (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.43 to 0.91] and 0.57 [95% CI, 0.40 to 0.82], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In LEADER, the use of liraglutide in those with CKD was safe, with no difference between patients with and without CKD. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01179048 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01179048).

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(10): 1128-1141, 2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164886

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More data regarding effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are required. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular events and mortality in LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) participants, by HF history. METHODS: In the multinational, double-blind, randomized LEADER trial, 9,340 patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk were assigned 1:1 to liraglutide (1.8 mg daily or maximum tolerated dose up to 1.8 mg daily) or placebo plus standard care, and followed for 3.5 to 5 years. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV HF was an exclusion criterion. The primary composite major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Post hoc Cox regression analyses of outcomes by baseline HF history were conducted. RESULTS: At baseline, 18% of patients had a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF (liraglutide: n = 835 of 4,668; placebo: n = 832 of 4,672). Effects of liraglutide versus placebo on major adverse cardiovascular events were consistent in patients with (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65 to 1.02]) and without (HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.53). In both subgroups, fewer deaths were observed with liraglutide (HR: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.70 to 1.14] with HF; HR: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.70 to 0.97] without HF; p interaction = 0.63) versus placebo. No increased risk of HF hospitalization was observed with liraglutide, regardless of HF history (HR: 0.98 [95% CI: 0.75 to 1.28] with HF; HR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.61 to 1.00] without HF; p interaction = 0.22). Effects of liraglutide on the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death were consistent in patients with (HR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.74 to 1.15]) and without (HR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.65 to 0.91]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, liraglutide should be considered suitable for patients with T2D with or without a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF. (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results [LEADER]; NCT01179048).

14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(6): 1293-1299, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193249

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study whether the effects of intensive glycemic control on major vascular outcomes (a composite of major macrovascular and major microvascular events), all-cause mortality, and severe hypoglycemia events differ among participants with different levels of 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at baseline. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied the effects of more intensive glycemic control in 11,071 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), without missing values, in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial, using Cox models. RESULTS: During 5 years' follow-up, intensive glycemic control reduced major vascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90 [95% CI 0.83-0.98]), with the major driver being a reduction in the development of macroalbuminuria. There was no evidence of differences in the effect, regardless of baseline ASCVD risk or HbA1c level (P for interaction = 0.29 and 0.94, respectively). Similarly, the beneficial effects of intensive glycemic control on all-cause mortality were not significantly different across baseline ASCVD risk (P = 0.15) or HbA1c levels (P = 0.87). The risks of severe hypoglycemic events were higher in the intensive glycemic control group compared with the standard glycemic control group (HR 1.85 [1.41-2.42]), with no significant heterogeneity across subgroups defined by ASCVD risk or HbA1c at baseline (P = 0.09 and 0.18, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The major benefits for patients with T2D in ADVANCE did not substantially differ across levels of baseline ASCVD risk and HbA1c.

16.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(2): 302-312, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959324

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Most Indians are vegetarian or eat very little meat, which could imply high potassium intake. Because a high-potassium diet could counterbalance the adverse health effects of high-sodium intake, this study aimed to describe potassium relative to sodium intake and investigate the relationship between blood pressure and potassium intake relative to sodium intake in rural and urban India. METHODS: Investigators collected 24-hour urines from 1,445 participants in a subset of 2 population-based surveys in North India in 2012-2013. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect information on demography, behaviors (tobacco, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet [food frequency and 24-hour recall]), and medical history. After evaluating expected versus measured creatinine excretion, the authors calculated median urine potassium excretion and sodium/potassium ratio, according to sex and urban or rural residence, and estimated least square means for the urine measures by participant demographics and comorbidities, after accounting for caloric intake. Two-year blood pressure follow-up data were available in the urban study, and ANCOVA regression was used to determine the association with urine measures. All the statistical analyses of the data were done in January 2019. RESULTS: Acceptable 24-hour urine collections were available in 1,397 participants (rural, n=730). Median urine potassium excretions were 1,492 (IQR=1,012-2,063) and 975 (615-1,497) mg/day; sodium/potassium ratios met the recommended target of <1 in 2.9% rural and 6.6% urban participants. Rural participants did not have higher potassium or lower (better) sodium/potassium ratios when diagnosed with hypertension or other cardiovascular conditions. Higher potassium excretion was associated with lower blood pressure during follow-up among the urban participants (mean systolic blood pressure, 129 vs 133 mm Hg in highest vs lowest potassium excretion tertiles; p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Low potassium intake in India warrants dietary policies promoting intake of potassium-rich foods to improve heart health. This approach may be more acceptable than programs focused on sodium reduction alone.

17.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(1): 53-70, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667706

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and insulin with the risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular (CV) risk are not known. This secondary, pooled analysis of data from the DEVOTE trial examined whether baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) categories were associated with a higher risk of these outcomes. METHODS: DEVOTE was a treat-to-target, double-blind trial involving 7637 patients with T2D at high CV risk who were randomized to once-daily treatment with either insulin degludec (degludec) or insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100). Patients with estimated GFR data at baseline (n = 7522) were analyzed following stratification into four GFR categories. RESULTS: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality increased with worsening baseline GFR category (P < 0.05), with a trend towards higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. Patients with prior CVD, CKD (estimated GFR < 60 mL/min/m2), or both were at higher risk of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality. Only CKD was associated with a higher rate of severe hypoglycemia, and the risk of MACE was higher in patients with CVD than in those with CKD (P  = 0.0003). There were no significant interactions between randomized treatment and GFR category. CONCLUSION: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality were higher with lower baseline GFR and with prior CVD, CKD, or both. The relative effects of degludec versus glargine U100 on outcomes were consistent across baseline GFR categories, suggesting that the lower rate of severe hypoglycemia associated with degludec use versus glargine U100 use was independent of baseline GFR category. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.

18.
J Hypertens ; 38(4): 579-587, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834123

RESUMEN

: Suboptimal adherence to antihypertensive medication is a major contributor to poor blood pressure control. Several methods, direct or indirect, are available for measuring adherence, including the recently developed biochemical screening, although there is no gold-standard method routinely used in clinical practice to accurately assess the different facets of adherence. Adherence to treatment is a complex phenomenon and several of the barriers to adherence will need to be addressed at the healthcare system level; however, when looking at adherence from a more practical side and from the practitioner's perspective, the patient-practitioner relationship is a key element both in detecting adherence and in attempting to choose interventions tailored to the patient's profile. The use of single-pill combinations enabling simplification of treatment regimen, the implementation of a collaborative team-based approach and the development of electronic health tools also hold promise for improving adherence, and thus impacting cardiovascular outcomes and healthcare costs.

19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

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ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

20.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

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