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Front Immunol ; 11: 1493, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849508


In HIV-infected individuals, a paradoxical clinical deterioration may occur in preexisting leprosy when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated reversal reaction (RR) develops. Leprosy-HIV co-infected patients during HAART may present a more severe form of the disease (RR/HIV), but the immune mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of leprosy-HIV co-infection remain unknown. Although the adaptive immune responses have been extensively studied in leprosy-HIV co-infected individuals, recent studies have described that innate immune cells may drive the overall immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. Monocytes are critical to the innate immune system and play an important role in several inflammatory conditions associated with chronic infections. In leprosy, different tissue macrophage phenotypes have been associated with the different clinical forms of the disease, but it is not clear how HIV infection modulates the phenotype of innate immune cells (monocytes or macrophages) during leprosy. In the present study, we investigated the phenotype of monocytes and macrophages in leprosy-HIV co-infected individuals, with or without RR. We did not observe differences between the monocyte profiles in the studied groups; however, analysis of gene expression within the skin lesion cells revealed that the RR/HIV group presents a higher expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MRS1), CD209 molecule (CD209), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), arginase 2 (ARG2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) when compared with the RR group. Our data suggest that different phenotypes of tissue macrophages found in the skin from RR and RR/HIV patients could differentially contribute to the progression of leprosy.

Immunohorizons ; 4(2): 47-56, 2020 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034084


Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an inflammatory complication in leprosy. Yet, the involvement of ENL neutrophils in the inflammatory response against Mycobacterium leprae remains poorly explored. Our primary aim was to investigate the utility of the surface expression of neutrophil IL-10R1 as an ENL biomarker and, secondarily, to evaluate whether leprosy or healthy M. leprae-stimulated neutrophils produce cytokines and are able to respond to IL-10. We, in this study, describe a subpopulation of circulating neutrophils of ENL patients that exclusively expressed IL-10R1, providing evidence that IL-10R1+ neutrophils are present in ENL lesions. It was also found that ENL neutrophils, but not those of nonreactional leprosy controls, were able to secret detectable levels of TNF ex vivo and the addition of IL-10 blocked TNF release. It was likewise observed that M. leprae-stimulated, healthy neutrophils expressed IL-10R1 in vitro, and ENL-linked cytokines were released by M. leprae-cultured neutrophils in vitro. Moreover, consistent with the presence of a fully functional IL-10R, the addition of IL-10 prevented the release of M. leprae-induced cytokines. Most importantly, dead M. leprae revealed its superior capacity to induce CCL4 and IL-8 in primary neutrophils over live Mycobacterium, suggesting that M. leprae may hamper the inflammatory machinery as an immune escape mechanism.

Eritema Nudoso/inmunología , Subunidad alfa del Receptor de Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacología , Lepra Lepromatosa/inmunología , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Piel/inmunología , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eritema Nudoso/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Lepra Lepromatosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Infiltración Neutrófila/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/microbiología , Talidomida/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
J Infect Dis ; 216(12): 1635-1643, 2017 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272525


Background: Leprosy, the leading infectious cause of disability worldwide, remains a major public health challenge in the most severely affected countries despite the sharp decline in new cases in recent years. The search for biomarkers is essential to achieve a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease. Methods: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) analyses of sera from 87 leprosy patients with or without reactions were conducted via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In situ identification of PTX3 in skin lesion was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence assays. Results: We found that PTX3 serum levels were higher in multibacillary patients when evaluated before the onset of acute erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) and persistently elevated during reaction. Thalidomide treatment reduced PTX3 in the serum 7 days after starting treatment. In situ analyses have also demonstrated enhancement of PTX3 in ENL lesions and showed that treatment with thalidomide reduced its expression and the prominent neutrophilic infiltrate, a hallmark of the disease. Conclusions: In summary, our study provides in vivo evidence that PTX3 is enhanced during ENL but not in reversal reaction and provides a new molecular target in ENL pathogenesis.

Biomarcadores/análisis , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Eritema Nudoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nudoso/patología , Lepra Lepromatosa/diagnóstico , Lepra Lepromatosa/patología , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Proteína C-Reactiva/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Leprostáticos/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética , Piel/patología , Talidomida/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven
s.l; Elsevier; 2017. 10 p. tab, graf.
No convencional en Inglés | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1052567


Our previous study has demonstrated that IL-10 may modulate both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and CD163 expression in lepromatous leprosy (LL) cells, favoring Mycobacterium leprae persistence through induction of regulatory pathways and iron storage. Here, we observed that in LL lesion cells there is an increase in the expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism such as hemoglobin (Hb), haptoglobin, heme oxygenase 1 and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) when compared to tuberculoid leprosy (BT) cells. We also found increased iron deposits and diminished expression of the iron exporter ferroportin 1 in LL lesion cells. Hemin, but not FeSO stimulation, was able to enhance M. leprae viability by a mechanism that involves IDO. Analysis of cell phenotype in lesions demonstrated a predominance of M2 markers in LL when compared with BT lesion cells. A positive correlation between CD163 and PPARG with the bacillary index (BI) was observed. In contrast, TNF, STAT1 and CSF2 presented a negative correlation with the BI. In summary, this study demonstrates that iron may regulate IDO expression by a mechanism that involves IL-10, which may contribute for the predominance of M2-like phenotype in LL lesions that favors the phagocytosis and maintenance of M. leprae in host cells.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Immunoblotting , Lepra Lepromatosa/metabolismo , Lepra Lepromatosa/microbiología , Técnicas para Inmunoenzimas , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa/fisiología , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenasa/metabolismo , Hierro/fisiología , Hierro/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiología , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(8): e0004955, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27556927


Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1) Lepromatous leprosy, (2) Borderline leprosy, (3) Reversal reaction, (4) ENL, and (5) ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates-a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64, presumably contributing to the immunopathogenesis of the disease.

Eritema Nudoso/inmunología , Leprostáticos/uso terapéutico , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/inmunología , Receptores de IgG/genética , Talidomida/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Biopsia , Eritema Nudoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nudoso/tratamiento farmacológico , Eritema Nudoso/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra Dimorfa/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Dimorfa/inmunología , Lepra Dimorfa/microbiología , Lepra Lepromatosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Lepra Lepromatosa/inmunología , Lepra Lepromatosa/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Receptores de IgG/inmunología , Piel/microbiología , Piel/patología , Adulto Joven
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 75(3): 272-83, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888306


Mycobacterium leprae (ML) infection causes nerve damage that often leads to permanent loss of cutaneous sensitivity and limb deformities, but understanding of the pathogenesis of leprous neuropathy that would lead to more effective treatments is incomplete. We studied reactional leprosy patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 8) acute neuritis. Nerve conduction studies over the course of the reactional episode showed the findings of demyelination in all patients with neuritis. Evaluation of patient sera revealed no correlation of the presence of antibodies against gangliosides and the clinical demyelination. In nerve biopsies of 3 patients with neuritis, we identified tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptors, and TNF-converting enzyme in Schwann cells (SCs) using immunofluorescence. To elucidate immunopathogenetic mechanisms, we performed experiments using a human SC line. ML induced transmembrane TNF and TNF receptor 1 expression in the SCs; TNF also induced interleukin (IL)- 6 and IL-8 production by the SCs; and ML induced IL-23 secretion, indicating involvement of this previously unrecognized factor in leprosy nerve damage. These data suggest that ML may contribute to TNF-mediated inflammation and focal demyelination by rendering SCs more sensitive to TNF within the nerves of patients with leprous neuropathy.

Citocinas/metabolismo , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/complicaciones , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/metabolismo , Lepra/complicaciones , Neuritis/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Línea Celular Transformada , Citocinas/genética , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes/patología , Estimulación Eléctrica , Femenino , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Expresión Génica/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiología , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/metabolismo , Conducción Nerviosa/fisiología , Examen Neurológico , Tiempo de Reacción , Células de Schwann/efectos de los fármacos , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/farmacología , Adulto Joven