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1.
Public Health Rep ; 132(3): 304-308, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395142

RESUMEN

Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non-American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Indios Norteamericanos , Fumar/epidemiología , Impuestos/economía , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adulto , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 65(24): 623-6, 2016 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27337212

RESUMEN

Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products causes stroke, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease in adults (1,2). Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth (1,2). Secondhand smoke exposure contributes to approximately 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults and 400 deaths in infants each year (2). This report updates a previous CDC report that evaluated state smoke-free laws in effect from 2000-2010 (3), and estimates the proportion of the population protected by comprehensive smoke-free laws. The number of states, including the District of Columbia (DC), with comprehensive smoke-free laws (statutes that prohibit smoking in indoor areas of worksites, restaurants, and bars) increased from zero in 2000 to 26 in 2010 and 27 in 2015. The percentage of the U.S. population that is protected increased from 2.72% in 2000 to 47.8% in 2010 and 49.6% in 2015. Regional disparities remain in the proportions of state populations covered by state or local comprehensive smoke-free policies, as no state in the southeast has a state comprehensive law. In addition, nine of the 24 states that lack state comprehensive smoke-free laws also lack any local comprehensive smoke-free laws. Opportunities exist to accelerate the adoption of smoke-free laws in states that lack local comprehensive smoke-free laws, including those in the south, to protect nonsmokers from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure.


Asunto(s)
Restaurantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política para Fumadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Gobierno Estatal , Lugar de Trabajo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Prev Med ; 50(1): 1-8, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26277652

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Policies legalizing marijuana for medical and recreational use have been increasing in the U.S. Considering the potential impact of these policies, important knowledge gaps exist, including information about the prevalence of various modes of marijuana use (e.g., smoked in joints, bowls, bongs; consumed in edibles or drinks) and about medical versus recreational use. Accordingly, this study assessed (1) prevalence and correlates of modes of current and ever marijuana use and (2) prevalence of medicinal and recreational marijuana use in U.S. adults. METHODS: Data came from Summer Styles (n=4,269), a nationally representative consumer panel survey of adults aged ≥18 years, collected in 2014. The survey asked about past 30-day (current) and ever mode of marijuana use and current reason for use (medicinal, recreational, both). Weighted prevalence estimates were computed and correlates were assessed in 2014 using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 7.2% of respondents reported current marijuana use; 34.5% reported ever use. Among current users, 10.5% reported medicinal-only use, 53.4% reported recreational-only use, and 36.1% reported both. Use of bowl or pipe (49.5%) and joint (49.2%) predominated among current marijuana users, with lesser use of bong, water pipe, or hookah (21.7%); blunts (20.3%); edibles/drinks (16.1%); and vaporizers (7.6%); 92.1% of the sample reported combusted-only marijuana use. CONCLUSION: Combusted modes of marijuana use are most prevalent among U.S. adults, with a majority using marijuana for recreation. In light of changing policies and patterns of use, improved marijuana surveillance is critical for public health planning.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Ingestión de Alimentos , Estado de Salud , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Marihuana Medicinal , Recreación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Marihuana Medicinal/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 49(4): 583-8, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163165

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to disrupt tobacco sales to minors through age of sale restrictions can contribute to reductions in youth tobacco use. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes toward raising the minimum tobacco age of sale to 21 years among U.S. adults. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Summer Styles, an Internet survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years (N=4,219), were analyzed in 2014. Respondents were asked: Do you favor or oppose raising the legal minimum age to purchase all tobacco products from 18 to 21? Responses included: strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, and strongly oppose. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic regression; covariates included sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, region, and cigarette smoking status. RESULTS: Among all adults, 50.4% strongly and 24.6% somewhat favored raising the age to 21 years; 77.5% of never smokers, 74.6% of former smokers, and 69.9% of current smokers strongly or somewhat favored it. Adjusted odds of strongly or somewhat favoring raising the age were higher among adults aged 25-44 (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.3, 2.5), 45-64 (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.7, 3.2), and ≥65 (OR=3.1, 95% CI=2.2, 4.5) years, and lower among former (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6, 0.9) and current (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5, 0.8) smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Three quarters of adults favor raising the minimum tobacco age of sale to 21 years, including seven in ten smokers. Raising the minimum age of sale, along with proven tobacco control strategies, could prevent youth tobacco use.


Asunto(s)
Regulación Gubernamental , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(20): 541-6, 2015 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020136

RESUMEN

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Impuestos , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(49): 1145-50, 2014 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25503916

RESUMEN

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other devices such as electronic hookahs, electronic cigars, and vape pens, are battery-powered devices capable of delivering aerosolized nicotine and additives to the user. Experimentation with and current use of e-cigarettes has risen sharply among youths and adults in the United States. Youth access to and use of ENDS is of particular concern given the potential adverse effects of nicotine on adolescent brain development. Additionally, ENDS use in public indoor areas might passively expose bystanders (e.g., children, pregnant women, and other nontobacco users) to nicotine and other potentially harmful constituents. ENDS use could have the potential to renormalize tobacco use and complicate enforcement of smoke-free policies. State governments can regulate the sales of ENDS and their use in indoor areas where nonusers might be involuntarily exposed to secondhand aerosol. To learn the current status of state laws regulating the sales and use of ENDS, CDC assessed state laws that prohibit ENDS sales to minors and laws that include ENDS use in conventional smoking prohibitions in indoor areas of private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Findings indicate that as of November 30, 2014, 40 states prohibited ENDS sales to minors, but only three states prohibited ENDS use in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Of the 40 states that prohibited ENDS sales to minors, 21 did not prohibit ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. Three states had no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS sales to minors and no statewide laws prohibiting ENDS use or conventional smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars. According to the Surgeon General, ENDS have the potential for public health harm or public health benefit. The possibility of public health benefit from ENDS could arise only if 1) current smokers use these devices to switch completely from combustible tobacco products and 2) the availability and use of combustible tobacco products are rapidly reduced. Therefore, when addressing potential public health harms associated with ENDS, it is important to simultaneously uphold and accelerate strategies found by the Surgeon General to prevent and reduce combustible tobacco use, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high-impact media campaigns, barrier-free cessation treatment and services, and comprehensive statewide tobacco control programs.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Electrónica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Menores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Restaurantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política para Fumadores , Gobierno Estatal , Estados Unidos , Lugar de Trabajo/legislación & jurisprudencia
7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 15(9): 1623-7, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23449421

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the U.S. market in recent years. However, little is known about the health impact of the product or the extent of its use. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults during 2010-2011. METHODS: Data were obtained from the HealthStyles survey, a national consumer-based survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years old. In 2010, data collection for the HealthStyles survey was both mail-based (n = 4,184) and web-based (n = 2,505), and in 2011, web-based (n = 4,050) only. Estimates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes were calculated overall and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, household income, region, and smoking status. RESULTS: In 2010, overall awareness of e-cigarettes was 38.5% (mail survey) and 40.9% (web survey); in 2011, awareness was 57.9% (web survey). Ever-use of e-cigarettes among all respondents was 2.1% in the 2010 mail survey, 3.3% in the 2010 web survey, and 6.2% in the 2011 web survey. Ever-use of e-cigarettes was significantly higher among current smokers compared with both former and never-smokers, irrespective of survey method or year. During 2010-2011, ever-use increased among both sexes, those aged 45-54 years, non-Hispanic Whites, those living in the South, and current and former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes increased among U.S. adults from 2010 to 2011. In 2011, approximately 1 in 5 current smokers reported having ever-used e-cigarettes. Continued surveillance of e-cigarettes is needed for public health planning.


Asunto(s)
Electrónica/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
8.
Tob Control ; 22(1): 19-23, 2013 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22034071

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), also referred to as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the US market in 2007. Despite concerns regarding the long-term health impact of this product, there is little known about awareness and use of ENDS among adults in the USA. METHODS: A consumer-based mail-in survey (ConsumerStyles) was completed by 10,587 adults (≥ 18 years) in 2009 and 10,328 adults in 2010. Data from these surveys were used to monitor awareness, ever use and past month use of ENDS from 2009 to 2010 and to assess demographic characteristics and tobacco use of ENDS users. RESULTS: In this US sample, awareness of ENDS doubled from 16.4% in 2009 to 32.2% in 2010 and ever use more than quadrupled from 2009 (0.6%) to 2010 (2.7%). Ever use of ENDS was most common among women and those with lower education, although these were not the groups who had heard of ENDS most often. Current smokers and tobacco users were most likely to try ENDS. However, current smokers who had tried ENDS did not say they planned to quit smoking more often than smokers who had never tried them. CONCLUSIONS: Given the large increase in awareness and ever use of ENDS during this 1-year period and the unknown impact of ENDS use on cigarette smoking behaviours and long-term health, continued monitoring of these products is needed.


Asunto(s)
Concienciación , Equipos y Suministros Eléctricos , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Recolección de Datos , Escolaridad , Electrónica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
9.
Health Promot Pract ; 13(5): 642-7, 2012 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22461684

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the impact of media outreach on news media coverage of tobacco control. METHODS: Media outreach data were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health (CDC/OSH) from 2003 to 2006; one to six types of outreach activities for 50 scientific publications were performed during 35 discrete time periods. The authors analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively 205 newspaper articles generated based on the CDC/OSH scientific publications. RESULTS: Media coverage of specific CDC/OSH-related tobacco themes was highest for disparities (100%) and tobacco statistics (98%). More outreach activities increased the likelihood of moderate pickup of the number of themes in newspaper articles (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.5-2.8), but there appeared to be a ceiling effect. Certain types of outreach were more strongly associated with front page and headline coverage. CONCLUSIONS: The extent and type of outreach were associated with increased newspaper coverage but the relationship is not necessarily straightforward. Additional research is needed to better understand relationships between scientific findings, outreach, and news media coverage of tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
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