Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 72
Filtrar
1.
Mycoses ; 67(5): e13745, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767273

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on mixed mould infection with COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the prevalence of co-existent CAPA in CAPM (mixed mould infection) and whether mixed mould infection is associated with early mortality (≤7 days of diagnosis). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data collected from 25 centres across India on COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. We included only CAPM and excluded subjects with disseminated or rhino-orbital mucormycosis. We defined co-existent CAPA if a respiratory specimen showed septate hyphae on smear, histopathology or culture grew Aspergillus spp. We also compare the demography, predisposing factors, severity of COVID-19, and management of CAPM patients with and without CAPA. Using a case-control design, we assess whether mixed mould infection (primary exposure) were associated with early mortality in CAPM. RESULTS: We included 105 patients with CAPM. The prevalence of mixed mould infection was 20% (21/105). Patients with mixed mould infection experienced early mortality (9/21 [42.9%] vs. 15/84 [17.9%]; p = 0.02) and poorer survival at 6 weeks (7/21 [33.3] vs. 46/77 [59.7%]; p = 0.03) than CAPM alone. On imaging, consolidation was more commonly encountered with mixed mould infections than CAPM. Co-existent CAPA (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 19.1 [2.62-139.1]) was independently associated with early mortality in CAPM after adjusting for hypoxemia during COVID-19 and other factors. CONCLUSION: Coinfection of CAPA and CAPM was not uncommon in our CAPM patients and portends a worse prognosis. Prospective studies from different countries are required to know the impact of mixed mould infection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/mortalidad , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Coinfección/mortalidad , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/microbiología , India/epidemiología , Adulto , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/mortalidad , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/mortalidad , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Pulmonares Fúngicas/epidemiología
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 79(4): 897-902, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416697

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk over time among people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: We used data from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) and the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). Five-year ASCVD risk was calculated using the D:A:D equation. Individuals were eligible for inclusion if they were aged ≥18 years, had started ART, had no previous history of ASCVD and had complete ASCVD risk factor data available within the first 5 years of ART initiation. RESULTS: A total of 3368 adults contributed data, 3221 were from TAHOD and 147 were from AHOD. The median age at ART initiation was 36 [IQR 31-43] years for TAHOD participants, and 42 [IQR 35-50] years for AHOD participants. Most TAHOD (70.4%) and AHOD (91.8%) participants were male. Overall, ASCVD risk increased from 0.84% (95% CI 0.81%-0.87%) at ART initiation to 1.34% (95% CI 1.29%-1.39%) after 5 years on ART. After adjusting for traditional and HIV-associated ASCVD risk factors, ASCVD risk increased at a similar rate among sub-populations defined by HIV exposure (heterosexuals, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs), race/ethnicity (Caucasian and Asian) and nadir CD4 at ART initiation (<200 and ≥200 cells/mm3). CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the growing burden of ASCVD risk among PLHIV and the need to develop interventions that are effective across a broad range of HIV sub-populations.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Aterosclerosis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Femenino , VIH , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Homosexualidad Masculina , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología
4.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 40(4): 204-215, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38063004

RESUMEN

We assessed the effectiveness and safety of switching to generic dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) among People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PWH) in Western India. In this single-center, retrospective observational study, PWH, who switched to DTG/3TC, were followed for virologic, immunologic, and clinical effectiveness, and safety, including weight changes, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Multivariate linear mixed-effects models were used to predict average change in weight adjusted for age, sex, duration of previous antiretroviral (ARV) regimens, and baseline weight. From May 2017 to July 2022, out of 434 PWH switched to DTG/3TC, 304 with at least 1 follow-up visit were included. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 54 (IQR 49-61) years and 70.1% were male. Prevalence of baseline comorbidities was 57.9% (hypertension-41.5%, chronic kidney disease-40.9%, and diabetes mellitus-18.8%). Reasons for switch were affordability (47.4%), desire for simplification (41.8%), ARV toxicities (19.1%), and concern about potential toxicities (10.2%). Median (IQR) duration of follow-up on DTG/3TC was 40 (IQR 31-49) weeks. No virologic failure was observed. Rates of virologic suppression [viral load (VL) ≤20 copies/mL or target not detected (TND)] at 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 weeks were 95.2%, 95.9%, 90%, 100%, 81.3%, and 88.4%, respectively. Only 9 (3%) PWH permanently discontinued DTG/3TC. Predicted adjusted mean weight gain of +3.3 kg was observed at 96 weeks. Switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine or lamivudine (XTC)/non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and duration on DTG/3TC were significantly associated with weight gain. Apart from trend in worsening hyperglycemia (nine PWH with new onset diabetes), no clinically significant change in lipids and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was documented. Switching to DTG/3TC is an effective and safe option among virologically suppressed PWH with high comorbidity burden in India. In view of the several advantages of DTG/3TC, it may be considered for potential scale-up in the right population, both in private and public health care settings in India.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Hiperglucemia , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Masculino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Lamivudine/efectos adversos , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Oxazinas/uso terapéutico , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Aumento de Peso , Hiperglucemia/tratamiento farmacológico
5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
6.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0287909, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37379314

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality among adults living with HIV. Cascades of HCV care support monitoring of program performance, but data from Asia are limited. We assessed regional HCV coinfection and cascade outcomes among adults living with HIV in care from 2010-2020. METHODS: Patients ≥18 years old with confirmed HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 11 clinical sites in Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam were included. HCV- and HIV-related treatment and laboratory data were collected from those with a positive HCV antibody (anti-HCV) test after January 2010. An HCV cascade was evaluated, including proportions positive for anti-HCV, tested for HCV RNA or HCV core antigen (HCVcAg), initiated on HCV treatment, and achieved sustained virologic response (SVR). Factors associated with screening uptake, treatment initiation, and treatment response were analyzed using Fine and Gray's competing risk regression model. RESULTS: Of 24,421 patients, 9169 (38%) had an anti-HCV test, and 971 (11%) had a positive result. The proportion with positive anti-HCV was 12.1% in 2010-2014, 3.9% in 2015-2017, and 3.8% in 2018-2020. From 2010 to 2014, 34% with positive anti-HCV had subsequent HCV RNA or HCVcAg testing, 66% initiated HCV treatment, and 83% achieved SVR. From 2015 to 2017, 69% with positive anti-HCV had subsequent HCV RNA or HCVcAg testing, 59% initiated HCV treatment, and 88% achieved SVR. From 2018 to 2020, 80% had subsequent HCV RNA or HCVcAg testing, 61% initiated HCV treatment, and 96% achieved SVR. Having chronic HCV in later calendar years and in high-income countries were associated with increased screening, treatment initiation or achieving SVR. Older age, injecting drug use HIV exposure, lower CD4 and higher HIV RNA were associated with reduced HCV screening or treatment initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis identified persistent gaps in the HCV cascade of care, highlighting the need for focused efforts to strengthen chronic HCV screening, treatment initiation, and monitoring among adult PLHIV in the Asia region.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis C Crónica , Hepatitis C , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Hepacivirus/genética , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis C Crónica/complicaciones , Hepatitis C Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C Crónica/epidemiología , Coinfección/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Hepatitis C/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Tailandia , ARN Viral , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 92(2): 180-188, 2023 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625858

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We evaluated trends in CD4/CD8 ratio among people living with HIV (PLWH) starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with first-line integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) compared with non-INSTI-based ART, and the incidence of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization. METHODS: All PLWH enrolled in adult HIV cohorts of IeDEA Asia-Pacific who started with triple-ART with at least 1 CD4, CD8 (3-month window), and HIV-1 RNA measurement post-ART were included. CD4/CD8 ratio normalization was defined as a ratio ≥1. Longitudinal changes in CD4/CD8 ratio were analyzed by linear mixed model, the incidence of the normalization by Cox regression, and the differences in ratio recovery by group-based trajectory modeling. RESULTS: A total of 5529 PLWH were included; 80% male, median age 35 years (interquartile range [IQR], 29-43). First-line regimens were comprised of 65% NNRTI, 19% PI, and 16% INSTI. The baseline CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.19 (IQR, 0.09-0.33). PLWH starting with NNRTI- (P = 0.005) or PI-based ART (P = 0.030) had lower CD4/CD8 recovery over 5 years compared with INSTI. During 24,304 person-years of follow-up, 32% had CD4/CD8 ratio normalization. After adjusting for age, sex, baseline CD4, HIV-1 RNA, HCV, and year of ART initiation, PLWH started with INSTI had higher odds of achieving CD4/CD8 ratio normalization than NNRTI- (P < 0.001) or PI-based ART (P = 0.015). In group-based trajectory modeling analysis, INSTI was associated with greater odds of being in the higher ratio trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: INSTI use was associated with higher rates of CD4/CD8 ratio recovery and normalization in our cohort. These results emphasize the relative benefits of INSTI-based ART for immune restoration.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Relación CD4-CD8 , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/uso terapéutico , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos , ARN/uso terapéutico , Integrasas
9.
HIV Med ; 24(2): 139-152, 2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications are commonly used as a risk factor for high fasting blood glucose (FBG). We investigated the incidence and factors associated with high FBG among people living with HIV in the Asia-Pacific region, using a World Health Organization BMI classification specific to Asian populations. METHODS: This study included people living with HIV enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study from 2003 to 2019, receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and without prior tuberculosis. BMI at ART initiation was categorized using Asian BMI classifications: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23-24.9 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥25 kg/m2 ). High FBG was defined as a single post-ART FBG measurement ≥126 mg/dL. Factors associated with high FBG were analyzed using Cox regression models stratified by site. RESULTS: A total of 3939 people living with HIV (63% male) were included. In total, 50% had a BMI in the normal weight range, 23% were underweight, 13% were overweight, and 14% were obese. Median age at ART initiation was 34 years (interquartile range 29-41). Overall, 8% had a high FBG, with an incidence rate of 1.14 per 100 person-years. Factors associated with an increased hazard of high FBG included being obese (≥25 kg/m2 ) compared with normal weight (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-2.44; p < 0.001) and older age compared with those aged ≤30 years (31-40 years: HR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.08-2.01; 41-50 years: HR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.42-2.90; ≥51 years: HR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.17-4.69; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: People living with HIV with BMI >25 kg/m2 were at increased risk of high FBG. This indicates that regular assessments should be performed in those with high BMI, irrespective of the classification used.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Delgadez/complicaciones , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores de Riesgo , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Ayuno
10.
Int J Cancer ; 152(2): 249-258, 2023 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852007

RESUMEN

We are reporting (a) updated incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women who did not have colposcopic or histopathological disease at baseline and (b) disease outcomes among women treated for CIN and their follow-up HPV status; in a cohort of women living with HIV (WHIV). The median overall follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR 2.8-4.3). The incidence of any CIN and that of CIN 2 or worse disease was 16.7 and 7.0 per 1000 person-years of observation (PYO), respectively. Compared with women who were HPV negative at baseline, women who cleared HPV infection had 23.95 times increased risk of incident CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 2.40-661.07). Women with persistent HPV infection had 138.18 times increased risk of CIN 2 or worse lesions (95% CI 20.30-3300.22). Complete disease regression was observed in 65.6% of the HPV positive women with high-grade CIN and were treated with thermal ablation but HPV persistence was seen in 44.8% of those with high-grade disease. Among those who did not have any disease at baseline and were also HPV negative, about 87% (95% CI 83.79-89.48) women remained HPV negative during consecutive HPV test/s with the median interval of 3.5 years. Long-term surveillance of WHIV treated for any CIN is necessary for the prevention of cervical cancer among them. Our study provides an early indication that the currently recommended screening interval of 3 to 5 years among WHIV may be extended to at least 5 years among HPV negative women. Increasing the screening interval can be cost saving and improve scalability among WHIV to support WHO's cervical cancer elimination initiative.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Displasia del Cuello del Útero , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/patología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/efectos adversos , Papillomaviridae , Estudios de Cohortes , India/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Displasia del Cuello del Útero/diagnóstico , Displasia del Cuello del Útero/epidemiología , Displasia del Cuello del Útero/patología
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(8): e25989, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028921

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Viral load (VL) testing is still challenging to monitor treatment responses of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment programme in Asia. We assessed the association between routine VL testing and virological failure (VF) and determine factors associated with switching to second-line regimen. METHODS: Among 21 sites from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged ≥18 years initiating ART from 2003 to 2021 were included. We calculated the average number of VL tests per patient per year between the date of ART initiation and the most recent visit. If the median average number of VL tests was ≥ 0.80 per patient per year, the site was classified as a routine VL site. A site with a median < 0.80 was classified into the non-routine VL sites. VF was defined as VL ≥1000 copies/ml during first-line therapy. Factors associated with VF were analysed using generalized estimating equations with Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Of 6277 PLHIV starting ART after 2003, 3030 (48%) were from 11 routine VL testing sites and 3247 (52%) were from 10 non-routine VL testing sites. The median follow-up was 9 years (IQR 5-13). The median age was 35 (30-42) years; 68% were male and 5729 (91%) started non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. The median pre-ART CD4 count in PLHIV from routine VL sites was lower compared to non-routine VL sites (144 vs. 156 cells/mm3 , p <0.001). Overall, 1021 subsequent VF at a rate of 2.15 (95% CI 2.02-2.29) per 100 person-years (PY). VF was more frequent at non-routine VL sites (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.85 [95% CI 2.27-3.59]) compared to routine VL sites. Other factors associated with an increased rate of VF were age <50 years and CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 . A total of 817 (13%) patients switched to second-line regimen at a rate of 1.44 (95% CI 1.35-1.54) per 100 PY. PLHIV at routine VL monitoring sites were at higher risk of switching than those at non-routine VL sites (adjusted sub-hazard ratio 1.78 95% CI [1.17-2.71]). CONCLUSIONS: PLHIV from non-routine VL sites had a higher incidence of persistent VF and a low switching regimen rate, reflecting possible under-utilized VL testing.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Carga Viral
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(11): 5451-5464, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869413

RESUMEN

Liver disease is a growing burden among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource-limited settings. As an indicator of liver disease, risk factors of high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cirrhosis were assessed among PLHIV in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). Patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with a pre-cART ALT measurement and at least one follow-up ALT measurement were included. Factors associated with high ALT (ALT levels > 5 times its upper limit of normal) were analyzed using repeated measure logistic regression over a 10-year follow-up period. Liver cirrhosis was defined as having an AST to Platelet Ratio Index score > 1.5, fibrosis-4 score > 3.25, or a clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis. Cox regression analysis stratified by site was used to analyze factors associated with cirrhosis among those in follow-up after 2015. Of 5182 patients, 101 patients (1.9%) had high ALT levels with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positive (odds ratio [OR]: 4.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.82-8.77, p < 0.001) and ever high alcohol consumption (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.00-5.46, p = 0.050) as likely factors. Among 6318 PLHIV in the liver cirrhosis analysis, 151 (2%) developed cirrhosis (incidence rate = 0.82 per 100 person-years). Those HCV-antibody positive (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.54, 95% CI: 3.75-8.18, p < 0.001) and had high alcohol consumption (HR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.23-3.45, p = 0.006) were associated with liver cirrhosis. HCV-antibody positive and high alcohol consumption are factors associated with high ALT. With raised ALT levels as a known factor associated with liver cirrhosis, greater efforts are required in managing ALT levels and reducing the risk of developing liver cirrhosis among those positive for HCV-antibody and those who consume alcohol.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis C , Hepatopatías , Alanina Transaminasa , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Hepatitis C/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/etiología , Hepatopatías/complicaciones
13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264157, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353840

RESUMEN

The use of holding regimens for people living with HIV (PLWH) without effective antiretroviral options can have effects on outcomes and future treatment options. We aimed to investigate the use of holding regimens for PLWH in Asian countries. Data from adults enrolled in routine HIV care in IeDEA Asia-Pacific cohorts were included. Individuals were considered to be on holding regimen if they had been on combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months, had two confirmed viral loads (VL) ≥1000 copies/mL, and had remained on the same medications for at least 6 months. Survival time was analyzed using Fine and Gray's competing risk regression. Factors associated with CD4 changes and VL <1000 copies/mL were analyzed using linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. A total of 425 PLWH (72.9% male; 45.2% high-income and 54.8% low-to-middle-income country) met criteria for being on a holding regimen. From high-income countries, 63.0% were on protease inhibitors (PIs); from low-to-middle-income countries, 58.4% were on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); overall, 4.5% were on integrase inhibitors. The combination of lamivudine, zidovudine, and efavirenz was the most commonly used single regimen (n = 46, 10.8%), followed by lamivudine, zidovudine, and nevirapine (n = 37, 8.7%). Forty-one PLWH (9.7%) died during follow-up (mortality rate 2.0 per 100 person-years). Age >50 years compared to age 31-40 years (sub-hazard ratio [SHR] 3.29, 95% CI 1.45-7.43, p = 0.004), and VL ≥1000 copies/ml compared to VL <1000 copies/mL (SHR, 2.14, 95% CI 1.08-4.25, p = 0.029) were associated with increased mortality, while higher CD4 counts were protective. In our Asia regional cohort, there was a diversity of holding regimens, and the patterns of PI vs. NNRTI use differed by country income levels. Considering the high mortality rate of PLWH with holding regimen, efforts to extend accessibility to additional antiretroviral options are needed in our region.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lamivudine/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico , Carga Viral , Zidovudina/uso terapéutico
14.
HIV Med ; 23(9): 959-968, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218151

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence and mortality of hepatitis is high in the Asia-Pacific region, few studies are available on the diagnosis, treatment, and cure rates for viral hepatitis among people living with HIV in this area. This study aims to report the cascade of care (CoC) for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) among people living with HIV receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database Low Intensity Transfer (TAHOD-LITE) cohort, on ART, and with follow-up data from 2010 to 2019 were included. Patients were determined as positive for HCV or HBV co-infection if they ever tested positive for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) or HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), respectively. RESULTS: In total, 39% (8612/22 340) of the adult HIV cohort had undergone HBsAg testing, with 8% (672/8612) testing positive. HBV CoC demonstrated that 71% (474/672) of those with HBsAg positive results initiated treatment, 67% (318/474) of those on treatment had HBV DNA testing to evaluate treatment progression, and 18% (58/318) of those tested reached viral suppression. Of the cohort, 37% (8231/22 340) had anti-HCV testing, of whom 10% (779/8231) tested positive. The HCV CoC showed that 68% (526/779) of those with positive anti-HCV tests had HCV RNA tests, of whom 51% (267/526) had detectable HCV RNA. Among those with detectable HCV RNA, 65% (174/267) initiated HCV treatment. Of the 40% (69/174) who initiated HCV treatment, 90% (62/69) reached sustained virological response. CONCLUSION: Our findings identified less frequent testing in the healthcare system and limited access to treatment as gaps in the CoC for viral hepatitis. More routine HCV RNA and HBV DNA testing is required for patients with positive screening tests to identify those in need of treatment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis B , Adulto , Asia/epidemiología , ADN Viral , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C , Humanos , Prevalencia , ARN
15.
HIV Med ; 23(3): 274-286, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816562

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We investigated weight changes following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its association with all-cause mortality among Asian adults living with HIV. METHODS: Participants enrolled in a regional Asian HIV-infected cohort with weight and height measurements at ART initiation were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Factors associated with weight changes and incident MetS (according to the International Diabetic Federation (IDF) definition) were analysed using linear mixed models and Cox regression, respectively. Competing-risk regression models were used to investigate the association of MetS with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Among 4931 people living with HIV (PLWH), 66% were male. At ART initiation, the median age was 34 [interquartile range (IQR) 29-41] years, and the median (IQR) weight and body mass index (BMI) were 55 (48-63) kg and 20.5 (18.4-22.9) kg/m2 , respectively. At 1, 2 and 3 years of ART, overall mean (± standard deviation) weight gain was 2.2 (±5.3), 3.0 (±6.2) and 3.7 (±6.5) kg, respectively. Participants with baseline CD4 count ≤ 200 cells/µL [weight difference (diff) = 2.2 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-2.5 kg] and baseline HIV RNA ≥ 100 000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL (diff = 0.6 kg; 95% CI 0.2-1.0 kg), and those starting with integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based ART (diff = 2.1 kg; 95% CI 0.7-3.5 kg vs. nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) had greater weight gain. After exclusion of those with abnormal baseline levels of MetS components, 295/3503 had incident MetS [1.18 (95% CI 1.05-1.32)/100 person-years (PY)]. The mortality rate was 0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.8)/100 PY. MetS was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality in the adjusted model (P = 0.236). CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain after ART initiation was significantly higher among those initiating ART with lower CD4 count, higher HIV RNA and an INSTI-based regimen after controlling for baseline BMI. Greater efforts to identify and manage MetS among PLWH are needed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome Metabólico , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico
16.
Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS ; 42(1): 31-37, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765935

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir (DTG) is widely used for the management of naïve and treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. Low-level viremia (LLV) is common in patients receiving nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- and protease inhibitor-containing regimens. However, the incidence of LLV associated with DTG-containing regimen is not well known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the virological response associated with DTG-containing regimens and explored frequencies of LLV and risk factors for the same. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients receiving generic DTG-containing regimen from February 2017 to July 2019. All adult patients (≥18 years), who completed at least the first follow-up after initiating treatment, were included in this study. LLV was defined as plasma viral load between 20 and 200 copies/ml. RESULTS: A total of 597 patients started DTG-containing regimen during the study period, of which 522 patients met the inclusion criteria. The study patients were categorized into five groups: naïve (n = 86), first-line failure (n = 32), second-line failure (n = 53), switch (n = 325), and HIV-2 (n = 26). Complete virological suppression at 6, 12, and 18 months was achieved in 78.5%, 81.1%, and 70.9% of the patients, respectively. Furthermore, 17.9%, 12.9%, and 23.3% of the patients had LLV at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Persistent LLV was found in 2.9% of the patients. Overall, DTG was well tolerated and was discontinued in only three patients due to neuropsychiatric side effects. CONCLUSION: DTG is well tolerated and effective in suppressing HIV across all antiretroviral treatment categories. The rate of persistent LLV is low in DTG-containing therapy.

17.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(3): 1037-1043, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long-COVID is emerging as a significant problem among individuals who recovered from COVID-19. Scant information is available on the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors for long-COVID among people living with HIV (PLHIV). SETTING: A tertiary level, private, HIV clinic in western India. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted to assess the prevalence of long-COVID among PLHIV. Long-COVID was defined as the presence of at least one symptom after 30 days of illness onset. A questionnaire for assessing general, cardiorespiratory, neuro-psychiatric, and gastro-intestinal symptoms was used to screen individuals with history of confirmed COVID-19. Data on demographics, HIV-related variables, comorbidities, and severity of COVID-19 were abstracted from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors for long-COVID. RESULTS: Ninety-four PLHIV were screened for long-COVID. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 51 (47-56) years and 73.4% were males. The majority (76.6%) had a history of asymptomatic-mild COVID-19 illness. The prevalence of long-COVID was 43.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.4-54.2). Moderate-severe COVID-19 illness was significantly associated with long-COVID (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.4-17.9; p = .016). Among individuals with long-COVID, cough (22.3%) and fatigue (19.1%) were the commonest symptoms. The median (IQR) duration for resolution of symptoms was 15 (7-30) days. Ten individuals (10.6%) had persistent symptoms at a median of 109 days since the onset of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Long-COVID is common among PLHIV with moderate-severe acute COVID-19 illness. There is a need for integration of long-COVID diagnosis and care services within antiretroviral therapy clinics for PLHIV with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19
18.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(8): 620-623, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913751

RESUMEN

A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in western India. Out of 86 PLHIV with COVID-19 illness, 19.7% had severe/critical illness and 6 (6.9%) individuals died. Median (interquartile range) age was 51 (47-56) years and 77.6% were male. Eighty-five PLHIV were on antiretroviral treatment with 98% having a viral load <200 copies/mL. Hypertension (HTN) (38.3%) and diabetes mellitus (17.4%) were commonest comorbidities. Fifty-eight percent PLHIV were hospitalized while 6.9% individuals needed intensive care. Presence of medical comorbidity was significantly associated with severe/critical COVID-19, whereas HTN was significantly associated with mortality. Recovery from COVID-19 was documented in 93% PLHIV. In conclusion, PLHIV in western India have similar COVID-19 clinical outcomes as compared with those reported historically among general population. Presence of medical comorbidities rather than HIV-related disease characteristics is associated with severe COVID-19 illness.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 489-497, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136750

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We validated the Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) full-risk and short-risk score models for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Asian HIV cohorts. SETTINGS: A validation study among people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged ≥18 years among the cohorts in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: PLHIV with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate > 60 mL/min/1.73 m were included for validation of the D:A:D CKD full version and short version without cardiovascular risk factors. Those with <3 estimated glomerular filtration rate measurements from baseline or previous exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals were excluded. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the probability of CKD development. The area under the receiver operating characteristics was also used to validate the risk score. RESULTS: We included 5701 participants in full model {median 8.1 [interquartile range (IQR) 4.8-10.9] years follow-up} and 9791 in short model validation [median 4.9 (IQR 2.5-7.3) years follow-up]. The crude incidence rate of CKD was 8.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.3 to 8.9] per 1000 person-years in the full model cohort and 10.5 (95% CI: 9.6 to 11.4) per 1000 person-years in the short model cohort. The progression rates for CKD at 10 years in the full model cohort were 2.7%, 8.9%, and 26.1% for low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups, and 3.5%, 11.7%, and 32.4% in the short model cohort. The area under the receiver operating characteristics for the full-risk and short-risk score was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79 to 0.83) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.81 to 0.85), respectively. CONCLUSION: The D:A:D CKD full-risk and short-risk score performed well in predicting CKD events among Asian PLHIV. These risk prediction models may be useful to assist clinicians in identifying individuals at high risk of developing CKD.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , VIH-1 , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/inducido químicamente , Adulto , Asia Sudoriental , Asia Oriental , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/patología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...