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1.
Opt Express ; 30(8): 13114-13120, 2022 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472933

RESUMEN

This work demonstrates the use of bidirectional Raman amplification to achieve an unrepeatered 234 km link using standard single mode fibers and with a capacity×distance product of 21.132 Pb/s·km. A throughput above 90 Tb/s is achieved with an 87 nm wavelength-division multiplexed signal carrying 424 PDM-64QAM signals at 24.5 GBaud across C and L bands. Transmission is supported using up to 12 Raman pumps per propagation direction, covering a wavelength range between 1410.8 nm and 1502.7 nm and with total power under 2.6 W.

2.
Opt Express ; 30(6): 10011-10018, 2022 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299407

RESUMEN

We investigate optical transmission of an ultra-wideband signal in a standard single mode fiber. Using a near continuous optical bandwidth exceeding 157 nm across the S-, C- and L-bands, we combine doped-fiber amplifiers covering S, C and L-bands with distributed Raman amplification to enable high-quality transmission of polarization division multiplexed (PDM)-256-quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals over a 54 km standard single-mode fiber. We receive 793 × 24.5 GBd signals from 1466.34 nm to 1623.57 nm and measure a data rate estimated from the generalized mutual information (GMI) of 256.4 Tb/s and an LDPC decoded throughput of 244.3 Tb/s. The measured data rates exceed the highest previously measured in a single mode fiber, showing the potential for S-band transmission to enhance achievable data rates in optical fibers.

3.
Opt Express ; 29(18): 28104-28109, 2021 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614949

RESUMEN

This work proposes an approach for the compensation of inter-core skew in homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber links. We adjust the wavelengths of the transmitted spatial channels in such a way that the skew induced by group velocity counters inter-core skew. This approach is demonstrated experimentally using a 111 Gb/s spatial super channel (4 spatial channels at 27.8 Gb/s) on a 10.1 km 19-core multi-core fiber. It is shown that inter-core skew may be compensated without the need for devices such as variable optical delay lines or electronic buffers.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4238, 2021 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244492

RESUMEN

Data rates in optical fiber networks have increased exponentially over the past decades and core-networks are expected to operate in the peta-bit-per-second regime by 2030. As current single-mode fiber-based transmission systems are reaching their capacity limits, space-division multiplexing has been investigated as a means to increase the per-fiber capacity. Of all space-division multiplexing fibers proposed to date, multi-mode fibers have the highest spatial channel density, as signals traveling in orthogonal fiber modes share the same fiber-core. By combining a high mode-count multi-mode fiber with wideband wavelength-division multiplexing, we report a peta-bit-per-second class transmission demonstration in multi-mode fibers. This was enabled by combining three key technologies: a wideband optical comb-based transmitter to generate highly spectral efficient 64-quadrature-amplitude modulated signals between 1528 nm and 1610 nm wavelength, a broadband mode-multiplexer, based on multi-plane light conversion, and a 15-mode multi-mode fiber with optimized transmission characteristics for wideband operation.

5.
Opt Express ; 28(23): 35099-35107, 2020 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182962

RESUMEN

This work compares the random time-varying crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core fibers measured using different types of light sources with linewidths ranging from 100 Hz to 2.5 MHz. We show that the frequency stability of the light source plays a significant role on the quality of short-term average crosstalk measurements with no observable impact from laser linewidth. We also compare the use of filtered amplified spontaneous emission noise and coherent light sources for crosstalk measurements. The former are shown to enable average crosstalk measurements in short time periods. In contrast, measurements using coherent light sources require long measurement periods to reach similar results.

6.
Opt Express ; 28(18): 27037-27043, 2020 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906965

RESUMEN

Transmission of highly spectral efficient 24.5 GBaud quadrature phase shift keying and 16- and 64-quadrature amplitude modulated signals in the S-band between 1492 nm and 1518 nm wavelength is demonstrated over 55 km few-mode fibers. The carrier lines for S-band transmission were generated by a single wideband optical comb source with more than 120 nm optical bandwidth. While the three-mode fiber was originally optimized for C- and L-band transmission, we show that differential mode delay and mode-dependent loss show only a minor wavelength dependence within the measured S-band channels. However, the transceiver sub-system, including S-band optical amplifiers as well as a reduced optical signal-to-noise ratio of the comb source, leads to a significant Q-factor penalty for channels towards the edges of the S-band optical amplifiers below 1495 nm and above 1515 nm wavelength.

7.
Opt Express ; 28(3): 4067-4075, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122066

RESUMEN

We propose and evaluate a method to estimate the DC bias required for AC-coupled Kramers-Kronig receivers. The proposed method is based on a spectral analysis of the reconstructed signal without requiring an evaluation of the signal quality. The proposed method is described analytically and demonstrated experimentally using 12.5 GBaud 16-ary quadrature-amplitude modulated signals in back-to-back and after 100 km transmission.

8.
Opt Express ; 27(16): 22226-22236, 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510519

RESUMEN

Master-slave carrier recovery is a digital signal processing technique that uses correlated phase noise in multi-channel receivers to eliminate redundant carrier recovery blocks. In this paper we experimentally investigate the performance of master-slave carrier recovery for multicore fiber transmission in the presence of inter-channel nonlinear interference. Using a triple parallel loop setup we jointly receive three spatial channels in a 7-core fiber for transmission distances of up to 1600 km. We find that an increased launch power causes a moderate penalty on the slave channels. Furthermore, we study the penalty from a non-zero inter-core skew.

9.
Opt Express ; 26(18): 24044-24053, 2018 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184897

RESUMEN

We propose and evaluate the use of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems to support long distance transmission using single-mode homogeneous multicore fibers. We show that on a uniform link with per-span inter-core skew compensation, the required SDM-MIMO memory length corresponds to the largest inter-core skew per span on the link. Furthermore, we show that with inter-core skew compensation, the required memory length of the SDM-MIMO is nearly constant with the transmission distance for accumulated crosstalk below -11 dB. We experimentally demonstrate the use of SDM-MIMO with a memory length of 20 ns on a long distance transmission link using 20 GBaud PDM-QPSK signals. We achieve a reach of 9780 km, which corresponds to a 9% improvement over the case without SDM-MIMO. We also show that the use of SDM-MIMO is applicable to the transmission of signals with higher modulation order, achieving transmission reach improvements of 14% for 20 GBaud PDM-16QAM and PDM-64QAM signals.

10.
Opt Express ; 25(14): 16017-16027, 2017 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789111

RESUMEN

Adaptive direct-detection (DD) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed to guarantee signal quality over time in weakly-coupled homogenous multicore fiber (MCFs) links impaired by stochastic intercore crosstalk (ICXT). For the first time, the received electrical power of the ICXT and the performance of the adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link are experimentally monitored quasi-simultaneously over a 210 hour period. Experimental results show that the time evolution of the error vector magnitude due to the ICXT can be suitably estimated from the normalized power of the detected crosstalk. The detected crosstalk results from the beating between the carrier in the test core and ICXT originating from the carrier and modulated signal from interfering core. The results show that the operation of DD-OFDM systems employing fixed modulation can be severely impaired by the presence of ICXT that may unpredictable vary in both power and frequency. The system may suffer from deleterious impact of moderate ICXT levels over a time duration of several hours or from peak ICXT levels occurring over a number of minutes. Such power fluctuations can lead to large variations in bit error ratio (BER) for static modulation schemes. Here, we show that BER fluctuations may be minimized by the use of adaptive modulation techniques and that in particular, the adaptive OFDM is a viable solution to guarantee link quality in MCF-based systems. An experimental model of an adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link shows an average throughput of 12 Gb/s that represents a reduction of only 9% compared to the maximum throughput measured without ICXT and an improvement of 23% relative to throughput obtained with static modulation.

11.
Opt Express ; 25(10): 12020-12028, 2017 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28788756

RESUMEN

Inter-core crosstalk is a potential limitation on the achievable data-rates in optical fiber transmission systems using multi-core fibers. Crosstalk arises from unwanted coupling between cores of a homogenous multi-core fiber and it's average power has been observed to vary over time by 10s of decibels, potentially requiring an additional performance margin to achieve acceptable outage probability. Most investigations of crosstalk have so far only considered continuous wave laser light or amplified spontaneous emission as sources of crosstalk. In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the time-dependence of inter-core crosstalk in a homogeneous multi-core fiber when considering signals with various modulation formats and symbol rates. We find that crosstalk power fluctuations depend on the symbol rate, modulation and skew between cores. For carrier-free signals, such as quadrature amplitude modulation, the crosstalk power is nearly constant for expected conditions of multi-core transmission systems. However, carrier-supported signals, such as OOK, always induce time-varying crosstalk powers.

12.
Opt Express ; 24(4): 3702-12, 2016 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26907026

RESUMEN

An important challenge for implementing optical signal processing functions such as wavelength conversion or wavelength data exchange (WDE) is to avoid the introduction of linear and nonlinear phase noise in the subsystem. This is particularly important for phase noise sensitive, high-order quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical data exchange scheme through cascaded 2nd-order nonlinearities in periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides using coherent pumping. The proposed coherent pumping scheme enables noise from the coherent pumps to be cancelled out in the swapped data after WDE, even with broad linewidth distributed feedback (DFB) pump lasers. Hence, this scheme allows phase noise tolerant processing functions, enabling the low-cost implementation of WDE for high-order QAM signals. We experimentally demonstrate WDEs between 10-Gbaud 4QAM (4QAM) signal and 12.5-Gbaud 4QAM (16QAM) signal with 3.5-MHz linewidth DFB pump lasers and 50-GHz channel spacing. Error-free operation is observed for the swapped QAM signals with coherent DFB pumping whilst use of free-running DFB pumps leads to visible error floors and unrecoverable phase errors. The phase noise cancellation in the coherent pump scheme is further confirmed by study of the recovered carrier phase of the converted signals. In addition to pump phase noise, the influence of crosstalk caused by the finite extinction ratio in WDE is also experimentally investigated for the swapped QAM signals.

13.
Opt Express ; 23(11): 14569-82, 2015 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26072817

RESUMEN

We experimentally investigate single-parity check (SPC) coded spatial superchannels based on polarization-multiplexed 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-16QAM) for multicore fiber transmission systems, using a 7-core fiber. We investigate SPC over 1, 2, 4, 5 or 7 cores in a back-to-back configuration and compare the sensitivity to uncoded PM-16QAM, showing that at symbol rates of 20 Gbaud and at a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10-3, the SPC superchannels exhibit sensitivity improvements of 2.7 dB, 2.0 dB, 1.7 dB, 1.3 dB, and 1.1 dB, respectively. We perform both single channel and wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) transmission experiments with 22 GHz channel spacing and 20 Gbaud channel symbol rate for SPC over 1, 3 and 7 cores and compare the results to PM-16QAM with the same spacing and symbol rate. We show that in WDM signals, SPC over hl1 core can achieve more than double the transmission distance compared to PM-16QAM at the cost of 0.91 bit/s/Hz/core in spectral efficiency (SE). When sharing the parity-bit over 7 cores, the loss in SE becomes only 0.13 bit/s/Hz/core while the increase in transmission reach over PM-16QAM is 44 %.

14.
Opt Lett ; 40(2): 288-91, 2015 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25679866

RESUMEN

In this Letter, we investigate the influence of the phase and power of pump and signal waves on the gain of a four-mode phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA) built with a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), using a copier + PSA scheme to generate phase- and frequency-correlated idler waves. Using such an amplifier, low-noise amplification of a 10 Gsymbol/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal, with net gain of ∼20 dB and less than 1 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalty at a bit error ratio (BER) of 10(-3), was achieved. We also verified an additional net gain of 11.6 dB when switching from phase-insensitive to phase-sensitive operation, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions of 12 dB.

15.
Opt Express ; 22(18): 21185-91, 2014 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25321499

RESUMEN

We investigate a high-capacity, space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission system using self-homodyne detection (SHD) in multi-core fiber (MCF). We first investigate SHD phase noise cancellation with both kHz and MHz range linewidths for both quadrature-phase shift-keyed (QPSK) and 16 quadrature-amplitude modulation (16QAM) signals, finding that phase noise cancellation in SHD enabled transmission with MHz linewidth lasers that resulted in error floors when using intradyne detection. We then demonstrate a high throughput SHD transmission system using low-cost, MHz linewidth distributed feedback lasers. We transmit a CW pilot-tone on a single core of a 10.1 km MCF span with the remaining 18 cores used to transmit 125 wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) QPSK and polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM)-QPSK signals with 50 GHz channel spacing at 25 GBd. For PDM transmission and assuming a 7% forward-error correction overhead this is equivalent 210 Tb/s transmission with a SE of 33.4 b/s/Hz. High-capacity transmission is achieved despite high inter-core crosstalk, broad transmitter linewidth and narrow channel spacing, showing that combining SHD with MCF enables high throughput, low-cost transmission in next-generation optical networks.

16.
Opt Express ; 22(5): 5067-75, 2014 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24663846

RESUMEN

Optical wavelength conversion (OWC) is expected to be a desirable function in future optical transparent networks. Since high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is more sensitive to the phase noise, in the OWC of high-order QAM signals, it is crucial to suppress the extra noise introduced in the OWC subsystem, especially for the scenario with multiple cascaded OWCs. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a pump-linewidth-tolerant OWC scheme suitable for high-order QAM signals using coherent two-tone pumps. Using 3.5-MHz-linewidth distributed feedback (DFB) lasers as pump sources, our scheme enables wavelength conversion of both 16QAM and 64QAM signals with negligible power penalty, in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) waveguide based OWC. We also demonstrate the performance of pump phase noise cancellation, showing that such coherent two-tone pump schemes can eliminate the need for ultra-narrow linewidth pump lasers and enable practical implementation of low-cost OWC in future dynamic optical networks.

17.
Opt Express ; 22(1): 90-5, 2014 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24514969

RESUMEN

We report the development of a space division multiplexed (SDM) transmission system consisting of a 19-core fiber and 19-core Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). A new 19-core fiber with an improved core arrangement was employed to achieve a low aggregated inter-core crosstalk of -42 dB at 1550 nm over 30 km. The EDFA uses shared free-space optics for pump beam combining and isolation, thus is SDM transparent and has some potential for cost reduction. 19.6 dB to 23.3 dB gain and 6.0 dB to 7.0 dB noise figure were obtained for each SDM channel at 1550 nm. System feasibility for SDM transmission over 1200 km was demonstrated with 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals.

18.
Opt Express ; 21(19): 22063-9, 2013 Sep 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24104098

RESUMEN

We investigate phase-sensitive amplification (PSA) and phase regeneration of a binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signal using a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The PPLN is operated bi-directionally in order to simultaneously achieve phase correlated signals and phase-sensitive (PS) operation. We use injection-locking for carrier phase recovery and a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber stretcher to correct path length deviations in the in-line phase regenerator. We observe a trade-off between high PS gain provided by high pumping power and stability of the device.

19.
Opt Express ; 21(2): 1561-6, 2013 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23389139

RESUMEN

We investigate the performance of a self-homodyne coherent detection (SHCD) system using a 19 core multi-core fiber (MCF) and 16 wavelength-division-multiplexed channels. We show that SHCD, with the pilot-tone transmitted on a single MCF core and information carrying signals on the remaining cores, is compatible with space-division-multiplexed transmission, potentially relaxing laser linewidth and digital signal processing requirements due to phase noise cancellation. However, inter-core crosstalk can have an impact on performance and core selection.


Asunto(s)
Redes de Comunicación de Computadores/instrumentación , Tecnología de Fibra Óptica/instrumentación , Modelos Teóricos , Telecomunicaciones/instrumentación , Simulación por Computador , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo
20.
Opt Express ; 21(26): 32589-98, 2013 Dec 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24514852

RESUMEN

We experimentally investigate the performance of burst-mode EDFA in an optical packet and circuit integrated system. In such networks, packets and light paths can be dynamically assigned to the same fibers, resulting in gain transients in EDFAs throughout the network that can limit network performance. Here, we compare the performance of a 'burst-mode' EDFA (BM-EDFA), employing transient suppression techniques and optical feedback, with conventional EDFAs, and those using automatic gain control and previous BM-EDFA implementations. We first measure gain transients and other impairments in a simplified set-up before making frame error-rate measurements in a network demonstration.

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