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1.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128148, 2020 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038776

RESUMEN

The brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides show various biological activities, but their hypoglycemic activity and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, three fractions of sulfated polysaccharides Up-3, Up-4, and Up-5 were prepared by microwave-assisted extraction from U. pinnatifida. In vitro assays demonstrated that Up-3 and Up-4 had strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and Up-3, Up-4, and Up-5 could improve the glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells without affecting their viability. In vivo studies indicated Up-3 and Up-4 markedly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels. Up-U (a mixture of Up-3, Up-4, and Up-5), reduced fasting blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance and alleviated insulin resistance in HFD/STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice. Histopathological observation and hepatic glycogen measurement showed that Up-U alleviated the damage of the pancreas islet cell, reduced hepatic steatosis, and promoted hepatic glycogen synthesis. These findings suggest that Up-U could alleviate postprandial and HFD/STZ-induced hyperglycemia and was a potential agent for diabetes treatment.

2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(5): 1883-1890, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932892

RESUMEN

C-Glycosides, a special type of glycoside, are frequently distributed in many kinds of medicinal plants, such as puerarin and mangiferin, showing various and significant bioactivities. C-Glycosides are usually characterized by the C-C bond that forms between the anomeric carbon of sugar moieties and the carbon atom of aglycon, which is usually resistant against acidic hydrolysis and enzymatic treatments. Interestingly, C-glycosides could be cleaved by several intestinal bacteria, but whether the enzymatic cleavage of C-C glycosidic bond is reduction or hydrolysis has been controversial; furthermore, whether existence of a "C-glycosidase" directly catalyzing the cleavage is not clear. Here we review research advances about the discovery and mechanism of intestinal bacteria in enzymatic cleavage of C-C glycosidic bond with an emphasis on the identification of enzymes manipulation the deglycosylation. Finally, we give a brief conclusion about the mechanism of C-glycoside deglycosylation and perspectives for future study in this field.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/enzimología , Bacterias/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Glicósido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Glicósidos/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiología , Animales , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Biotransformación , Glicósido Hidrolasas/genética , Glicósidos/química , Glicosilación , Humanos , Estructura Molecular
3.
Small ; 14(35): e1802045, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084537

RESUMEN

In this research, bulk graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is exfoliated and transferred to the carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNSs), which are then coupled with MIL-88B(Fe) to form the hybrid. From the results of the powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, it is found that the doping of CNNSs on the surface of MIL-88(Fe) could maintain the basic structure of MIL-88B(Fe), and the smaller dimension of CNNSs might influence the crystallization process of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) compared to bulk g-C3 N4 . Besides, the effects of the CNNSs incorporation on photocatalysis are also investigated. Through the photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical measurements, and photocatalytic experiments, the hybrid containing 6% CNNSs is certified to possess the highest catalytic activity to degrade methylene blue and reduce Cr(VI) under visible light. The improvement of the photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the matched energy level which favors the formation of the heterojunctions. Besides, it promotes the charge migration such that the contact between MOFs and CNNSs is more intimate, which can be inferred from the electronic microscopy images. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism is put forward by the relative calculation and the employment of the scavengers to trap the active species.

4.
Oncotarget ; 8(32): 53465-53481, 2017 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881824

RESUMEN

We used high-throughput RNA sequencing to analyze differential gene and lncRNA expression patterns in the lower thoracic spinal cord during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. We observed that of 32662 mRNAs, 4296 out were differentially expressed in the T8-12 segments of the spinal cord upon I/R-induced AKI. Among these, 62 were upregulated and 34 were downregulated in response to I/R (FDR < 0.05, |log2FC| > 1). Further, 52 differentially expressed lncRNAs (35 upregulated and 17 downregulated) were identified among 3849 lncRNA transcripts. The differentially expressed mRNAs were annotated as "biological process," "cellular components" and "molecular functions" through gene ontology enrichment analysis. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that cell cycle and renin-angiotensin pathways were upregulated in response to I/R, while protein digestion and absorption, hedgehog, neurotrophin, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling were downregulated. The RNA-seq data was validated by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses of select mRNAs and lncRNAs. We observed that Bax, Caspase-3 and phospho-AKT were upregulated and Bcl-2 was downregulated in the spinal cord in response to renal injury. We also found negative correlations between three lncRNAs (TCONS_00042175, TCONS_00058568 and TCONS_00047728) and the degree of renal injury. These findings provide evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in the lower thoracic spinal cord following I/R-induced AKI in rats and suggest potential clinical applicability.

5.
Oncotarget ; 7(52): 86547-86560, 2016 Dec 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888806

RESUMEN

Cell fate determination factor dachshund1 (DACH1) is a chromosome-associated protein that regulates cellular differentiation throughout development. Recent genome-wide association studies have show that missense mutation in DACH1 leads to hereditary renal hypodysplasia. Renal DACH1 expression can be used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We firstly characterized the function of DACH1 in normal and diseased renal tissue using immunohistochemistry to assess DACH1 in human renal biopsy specimens from 40 immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) patients, 20 idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) patients, and 15 minimal change disease (MCD) patients. We found that DACH1 expression was decreased in the nephropathy group relative to healthy controls. DACH1 staining in the glomerulus correlated positively with eGFR (r = 0.41, p < 0.001) but negatively with serum creatinine (r = -0.37, p < 0.01). In vitro, DACH1 overexpression in human podocytes or HK2 cells decreased expression of cyclin D1, but increased expression of p21 and p53, which suggested that DACH1 overexpression in human podocytes or HK2 cells increased the G1/S phase or G2/M cell arrest. Together, These findings indicate that DACH1 expression is decreased in glomerulopathy imply a potential role for DACH1 in the this development of human chornic glomerulopathy. These data suggest that DACH1 is a potential a marker of disease progression and severity for glomerular diseases.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas del Ojo/fisiología , Glomerulonefritis por IGA/patología , Glomerulonefritis Membranosa/patología , Nefrosis Lipoidea/patología , Factores de Transcripción/fisiología , Adulto , Apoptosis , Inhibidor p21 de las Quinasas Dependientes de la Ciclina/análisis , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Proteínas del Ojo/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Riñón/química , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Transcripción/análisis , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/análisis
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