Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(3): 418-423, 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730838

RESUMEN

Haloacetaldehydes (HALs), as emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water, are the third largest group by weight of identified disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. The formation of HALs is associated with the level of natural organic matter and halide in the source water, the treatment process of drinking water and the type of disinfectant. Recent studies have shown that HALs are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than regulated trihalomethanes and halo-acetic acids in drinking water. Currently, only a few countries and regions have set limit values for trichloroacetaldehyde with high detection rate in drinking water. However, there is growing evidence that unregulated HALs have a higher potential risk to human health compared to regulated HALs. This paper reviews the current research progress on the formation and transformation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of HALs in drinking water, and looks forward to the problems that should be paid attention in the future toxicological research of HALs in order to support the development of scientific drinking water standards.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes , Agua Potable , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Desinfección , Agua Potable/análisis , Humanos , Trihalometanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 121-123, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074695

RESUMEN

This article summarized the use of guanidine disinfectants in China and the use of guanidine cationic disinfectants, polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), in South Korea, which had caused severe lung damage events such as pulmonary fibrosis. The authors reviewed the studies that Chinese scientists employed ultrasonic atomization technology to simulate the actual scenario of human exposure to PHMG and proved the findings that PHMG could cause pulmonary fibrosis. These results could highlight the necessity of full attention to lung damage caused by guanidine disinfectants and its mechanism, so as to provide the important scientific basis for the protection of public health safety and the formulation of corresponding policies.


Asunto(s)
Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Guanidinas/toxicidad , Enfermedades Pulmonares/inducido químicamente , China , Humanos , Fibrosis Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , República de Corea
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(6): 645-652, 2019 Jun 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177766

RESUMEN

Dioxins, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and benzo(a)pyrene are common organic pollutants in food. They have been of concern to academics and government administrations due to high residue and persistence, easy accumulation and strong harmful effects. The National Research Council of the United States of America published Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy in 2007, which proposed a new concept of toxicity testing that toxicity testing should take full consideration of population exposure data and base on in vitro tests, human cell lines, toxicity pathways and high-throughput screening. Meanwhile, systems biology, bioinformatics and rapid assay technologies will be used to better understand toxicity pathways-the cellular response pathways that can lead to adverse health effects when sufficient perturbing induced by chemicals exposure. The new toxicity testing strategy has changed the traditional testing pattern and has brought a wide impact on the international relevant fields. The European Union, the World Health Organization, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Food and Drug Administration, and the National Center for Toxicological Research have organized relevant discussions and exploratory studies to address the new toxicity testing concept and how to evaluate and utilize the results of traditional toxicity test researches. Compared to the discussion, 'whether to do it', ten years ago, the question, 'how to do it', has become the concern of the current discussion. Therefore, how to respond to the concept of toxicity testing and how to effectively utilize and excavate traditional toxicity test data have been the focus of multi-disciplines and interdisciplinary academia such as toxicology, food hygiene and environmental science. Therefore, this article provides an overview of the exposure levels of dioxin, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and benzo[a]pyrene, which are typical persistent organic pollutants in food in China and the current research status of toxic pathways based on whole animal experiments. The exposure level, toxic effect and toxicity mechanism of three contaminants are analyzed and summarized in order to provide basis for future results based on the 21st century toxicity test compared with traditional tests and data mining analysis of these two kinds of data. Meanwhile, it also lays the foundation for the establishment of a toxicity testing framework based on exposure characteristics, toxic pathways, and biomarkers.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminación de Alimentos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animales , China , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Humanos , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos/toxicidad , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidad , Investigación , Pruebas de Toxicidad
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 52(10): 1082-1088, 2018 Oct 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392333

RESUMEN

The safety assessment of nanomaterials in food is essential for safeguarding supervision and maintaining public health. However, there are still no safety assessment procedures for nanomaterials established in national-level in China and no specific toxicology and safety assessment procedures about nanomaterials for food, too. These factors lead to restriction on food safety protection and supervision. Current methods of evaluating the safety of nanomaterials mainly rely on traditional toxicological assessment that are extrapolated based on animal experiment from high doses to low doses and from animals to humans. These uncertainties restrict the accuracy of safety assessment for nanomaterials and also limit the development of scientific and effective evaluation procedures and regulatory measures. Currently, the key issues need to be solved including exposure assessment and evaluation methods of nanomaterials in food and the established methods of the toxicity test for nanomaterials that are consistent with the objectives of toxicity test in the 21st century vision and strategy. In this article, we reviewed current administrative regulatory, situations, and existing issues of food nanomaterials either in China or some developed countries in order to provide a scientific basis in establishing safety assessment procedures for nanomaterials in food in the future.


Asunto(s)
Inocuidad de los Alimentos/métodos , Nanoestructuras , Animales , China , Humanos , Nanoestructuras/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo , Pruebas de Toxicidad/métodos
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 51(7): 621-627, 2017 Jul 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28693087

RESUMEN

Objective: New quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method was used to predict N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) carcinogenicity. This could provide evidences for health risk assessment of the chemicals. Methods: Total 74 chemical substances of NOCs were included as target chemicals for this validation study by using QSAR Toolbox based on category approach and read-across. The included 74 NOCs were categorized and subcategorized respectively using "Organic functional groups, Norbert Haider " profiler and "DNA binding by OASIS V.1.1" profiler. Carcinogenicity of rat were used as target of prediction, the carcinogenicity results: of analogues in chemical categories were cross-read to obtain the carcinogenic predictive results of the target chemicals. Results 74 NOCs included 26 nonclic N-nitrosamines, 24 cyclic N-nitrosamines and 24 N-nitrosamides The sensitivity, specificity and concordance of the category approach and read-across for predicting carcinogenicity of 74 NOCs were 75% (48/64), 70%(7/10) and 74% (55/74) respectively. The concordance for noncyclic N-nitrosamines, cyclic N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosamides were 88% (23/26), 71% (17/24) and 63% (15/24) respectively. Conclusion: QSAR based on category approach and read-across is good for prediction of NOCs carcinogenicity, and can be used for high-throughput qualitative prediction of NOCs carcinogenicity.


Asunto(s)
Carcinógenos/toxicidad , Compuestos Nitrosos/toxicidad , Relación Estructura-Actividad Cuantitativa , Animales , Pruebas de Carcinogenicidad , Nitrosaminas , Ratas , Medición de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
7.
Sci Rep ; 6: 32722, 2016 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601086

RESUMEN

Evidence about the clinical effects of entecavir (ETV) for patients with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis remain controversial. Therefore, we perform this meta-analysis to assess the treatment outcomes of ETV in participants with hepatitis B decompensated cirrhosis. Relevant studies were identified by searching databases until the March 2016. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). GRADEprofiler3.6 was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. A total of 26 studies (involving 2040 patients) were included. The quality of the evidence was classified from very low to high by the GRADED approach for all included RCTs. Meta-analysis showed that patients were more likely to experience HBV-DNA loss (RR:1.85, 95%CIs: 1.41 to 2.43, P < 0.0001 at 48 weeks), have normalized alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) (P = 0.003 at 24 weeks, P = 0.02 at 48 weeks), and have a low mortality rate at 24 weeks (P = 0.003) when treated with ETV. There was no significant different between ETV and the control groups at the total mortality (P = 0.06) and HBeAg seroconversion (P = 0.14). In conclusion, ETV could be the first line therapy for patients with HBV related decompensated cirrhosis, because ETV could reduce the early mortality and move HBV DNA load down.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatitis B/tratamiento farmacológico , Cirrosis Hepática/tratamiento farmacológico , China , ADN Viral/genética , Guanina/uso terapéutico , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...