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3.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532942

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Camelus/virología , Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Virus del SRAS/aislamiento & purificación , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/veterinaria , Animales , Animales Domésticos/virología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de los Primates/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Primates/virología , Primates/virología , ARN Viral/sangre , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Enfermedades de los Roedores/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Roedores/virología , Roedores/virología , Virus del SRAS/genética , Virus del SRAS/inmunología , Pruebas Serológicas , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Zoonosis
4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101755, 2020 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479816

RESUMEN

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in early December 2019 in China and became a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to more than 200 countries or territories. Bats are considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. The severe form of the infection is associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients have thus higher levels of many proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The blood laboratory profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and RNAaemia, along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortality, unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and there is, to date, no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid diagnostics have been developed, and significant efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapy, internationally, health care authorities are recommending the adoption of effective community mitigation measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis, and immunopathology, along with recent research developments.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484154

RESUMEN

We report four asymptomatic patients from Nepal with an incidental finding of a dead intraocular helminth parasite on ophthalmological routine examination. Because the patients were asymptomatic and the intraocular helminth parasites dead without noted pathology present, it was decided to abstain from surgical removal and pursue a watch-and-wait strategy. The clinical follow-up of the four patients over two years was uneventful and showed no complications. We conclude that dead intraocular helminth parasites in asymptomatic patients without apparent pathology do not require surgical removal.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 378, 2020 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460724

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brain abscesses are the rare and most severe form of actinomycosis, which usually manifests as abscesses of the occipital or parietal lobe due to direct expansion from an adjacent area, the oral cavity. In the medical literature, there are only a few reported cases of brain abscess caused by Actinomyces meyeri. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient who experienced an insidious headache and left-sided weakness and was diagnosed with an Actinomyces meyeri brain abscess. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Nepalese man came to our institute with the primary complaint of insidious onset of headache and left-sided weakness. His physical examination was remarkable for the left-sided weakness with power 2/5 on both upper and lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia and positive Babinski sign, with intact sensory function. Cardiac examination revealed systolic murmur with regular S1 and S2, and lung examination was normal. The patient had poor dental hygiene. Biochemistry and haematology panel were normal. Urinalysis, chest X-ray and electrocardiogram revealed no abnormality. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral regurgitation. However, there was no evidence of valvular vegetation. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed, which showed a bi-lobed rim enhancing lesion with a conglomeration of two adjoining round lesions in the right parietal parasagittal region. Perilesional oedema resulting in mass effect over the right lateral ventricle and mid-right uncal herniation with midline shift was noted. Craniotomy was performed, and the lesion was excised. Gram staining of the extracted sample revealed gram variable filamentous rods. Creamy white, moist, confluent colonies were observed after performing anaerobic culture in chocolate agar. On the gram staining, they showed gram-positive filamentous rods. Actinomyces meyeri was identified based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technology. Based on the susceptibilities, he was successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, Actinomyces should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain abscess in patients with poor dental hygiene, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to better results.

7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e19115, 2020 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391801

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected more than 200 countries and has infected more than 2,800,000 people as of April 24, 2020. It was first identified in Wuhan City in China in December 2019. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the top 15 countries with spatial mapping of the confirmed cases. A comparison was done between the identified top 15 countries for confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries, and an advanced autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used for predicting the COVID-19 disease spread trajectories for the next 2 months. METHODS: The comparison of recent cumulative and predicted cases was done for the top 15 countries with confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries from COVID-19. The spatial map is useful to identify the intensity of COVID-19 infections in the top 15 countries and the continents. The recent reported data for confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries for the last 3 months was represented and compared between the top 15 infected countries. The advanced ARIMA model was used for predicting future data based on time series data. The ARIMA model provides a weight to past values and error values to correct the model prediction, so it is better than other basic regression and exponential methods. The comparison of recent cumulative and predicted cases was done for the top 15 countries with confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries from COVID-19. RESULTS: The top 15 countries with a high number of confirmed cases were stratified to include the data in a mathematical model. The identified top 15 countries with cumulative cases, deaths, and recoveries from COVID-19 were compared. The United States, the United Kingdom, Turkey, China, and Russia saw a relatively fast spread of the disease. There was a fast recovery ratio in China, Switzerland, Germany, Iran, and Brazil, and a slow recovery ratio in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Russia, and Italy. There was a high death rate ratio in Italy and the United Kingdom and a lower death rate ratio in Russia, Turkey, China, and the United States. The ARIMA model was used to predict estimated confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries for the top 15 countries from April 24 to July 7, 2020. Its value is represented with 95%, 80%, and 70% confidence interval values. The validation of the ARIMA model was done using the Akaike information criterion value; its values were about 20, 14, and 16 for cumulative confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries of COVID-19, respectively, which represents acceptable results. CONCLUSIONS: The observed predicted values showed that the confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries will double in all the observed countries except China, Switzerland, and Germany. It was also observed that the death and recovery rates were rose faster when compared to confirmed cases over the next 2 months. The associated mortality rate will be much higher in the United States, Spain, and Italy followed by France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The forecast analysis of the COVID-19 dynamics showed a different angle for the whole world, and it looks scarier than imagined, but recovery numbers start looking promising by July 7, 2020.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Predicción , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos
10.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 174-184, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275259

RESUMEN

The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 that started in Wuhan, China, has now spread to several other countries and is in its exponential phase of spread. Although less pathogenic than SARS-CoV, it has taken several lives and taken down the economies of many countries. Before this outbreak, the most recent coronavirus outbreaks were the SARS-CoV and the MERS-CoV outbreaks that happened in China and Saudi Arabia, respectively. Since the SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same family as of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, they share several similarities. So, this review aims at understanding the new scenario of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and compares the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and the genetics of these coronaviruses. Studies reveal that SARS-CoV-2 is very similar in structure and pathogenicity with SARS-CoV, but the most important structural protein, i.e., the spike protein (S), is slightly different in these viruses. The presence of a furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 facilitates the S protein priming and might increase the efficiency of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to other beta coronaviruses. So, furin inhibitors can be targeted as potential drug therapies for SARS-CoV.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Pandemias , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/aislamiento & purificación , Virus del SRAS/genética , Virus del SRAS/aislamiento & purificación
11.
Microb Pathog ; 143: 104131, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169490

RESUMEN

Cervical cancer is a growing and serious problem world-wide in women, but more acute in developing countries especially in Indian subcontinent. The main causative agent for the disease is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The history of the cervical cancer goes back to eighteenth century as the HPV infection is reported since 1800s. Presently, the genetic structure of HPV is well defined. Several screening tests including cytology and visual based screening and high risk HPV testing are available. Also available are various clinical and commercial diagnostic tests. However due to the lack of awareness and population-based screening programs, the morbidity and mortality rate is alarmingly high. There are new emerging biomarkers including E6/E7 mRNA, p16ink4a, markers of aberrant S-phase induction, chromosomal abnormalities and miRNAs along with advanced genotyping methods. These markers have clinical significance and are helpful in disease prevention and management. Further, recent advancement in the field of metagenomics has increased the prospects of identifying newer microbes, viruses hitherto reported thus far in the context of HPV infection. Analysis of HPV cases using modern tools including genotyping using more powerful biomarkers is envisaged to enhance the prospects of early diagnosis, better prognosis, more reliable treatment and eventual management of the disease.

13.
Infez Med ; 28(1): 70-77, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172263

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to gauge the reasons for accepting or declining influenza vaccine in healthcare staff in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. In all, 633 respondents who provided gender, nationality and profession were included. Reasons for vaccine uptake or refusal were assessed according to profession and educational level. Uptake of vaccine was lower in the period from 2010 to 2014 (3-13.3%) compared to pre-2010 figures (20.7%), rising to 44.1% in 2015. Comparing data for 'never having been vaccinated' to 'being vaccinated in 2015', there was no significant difference in distribution between nurses (9.27% v 38.8%), physicians (13.9% v 56.0%) and laboratory technicians (15.9% v 33.5%) (p= 0.08). The top reason for vaccination was protection of self and family, while the top reason for refusal was not considering the vaccine to be necessary. Education level had no significant effect on the likelihood of being vaccinated. Improvement of healthcare worker vaccination levels in Saudi Arabia might be achieved by addressing staff concerns on vaccine safety and efficacy, emphasizing the potential dangers of influenza and capitalizing on the staff's focus on protecting themselves and their families.

14.
Am J Infect Control ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122671

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is an important health care-associated infection with variable incidence and prevalence across the globe. There are limited data from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). In this study, we present the epidemiology and incidence of CDAD in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study included all stool samples from 2001 to 2018 that were tested for C. difficile. C. difficile toxins were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 2001-2012 and the diagnosis was based on PCR testing (2013-2018). RESULTS: There was a total of 577 distinctive episodes of CDAD representing 5.2% of 10,995 tested stool samples with an annual positivity rate of 0.9%-11.8%. Of all CDAD cases, there were 230 (39.9%) community associated-CDAD, 105 (18.2%) community onset-health care facility associated disease, and 242 (42%) health care facility onset health care facility-associated disease (HCFO-HCFAD). There was a trend of increasing percentage of community onset-health care facility associated disease cases from 17% in 2001 to 20% in 2018 of all cases, and a trend towards less cases of community associated-CDAD from 85% to 50% over time. However, the percentages of HCFO-HCFAD percentages remained relatively stable. The rate of HCFO-HCFAD per 1,000 patient-days increased from 0.009 to 0.22 from 2001 to 2018, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of CDAD was 5.15% among all tested samples and that there is a large proportion of community associated-CDAD. The findings parallel the data from developed countries and deserve further studies in the risk factors for community-associated CDAD.

15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101623, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179124

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5-92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8-74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9-80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0-30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7-51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1-9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2-21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Tos/virología , Fiebre/virología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/patología , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/virología
17.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101575, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036011

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases accurately are still limited. We reviewed coronavirus infections reported by ProMED and assessed the reliability of the data retrieved compared to published reports. We evaluated the effectiveness of ProMED as a source of epidemiological data on coronavirus. METHODS: Using the keyword "coronavirus" in the ProMED search engine, we reviewed all the information from the reports and collected data using a structured form, including year, country, gender, occupation, the number of infected individuals, and the number of fatal cases. RESULTS: We identified 109 entries reported between February 29, 2000 and January 22, 2020. A total of 966 cases were reported, with death reported in 188 cases, suggesting an overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 19.5%. Of 70 cases for which the gender was reported, 47 (67.1%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from China, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia, with reports from other countries, including imported cases in Europe and North America. CONCLUSIONS: Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided useful information about coronaviruses especially during outbreaks.

18.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(5): 737-745, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008927

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is a major concern especially in light of lack of new antimicrobial agents. Here, we present antibiotic resistance pattern of gram-negative bacteria (GNB) over six years (2013-2018) in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included a report of the cumulative antibiogram of GNB. Interpretation of the antibacterial susceptibility tests was based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and VITEK® 2 system. RESULTS: There was a total of 32,890 GNB isolates and the most common were: Escherichia coli (69.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility of P. aeruginosa and E. coli did not change overtime, however, susceptibility to ceftazidime decreased from 92% to 85% in P. aeuroginosa. Yearly antimicrobial susceptibility did not change significantly overtime for K. pneumoniae. ESBL isolates among K. peumoniae and E. coli was about 26% and 20%, respectively (p=0.0068). For ESBL E. coli, the least effective antibiotics were ciprofloxacin (26%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (34%). For ESBL K. pneumoniae, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and nitrofurantoin had poor activity. For K. pneumoniae, both ciprofloxacin (90%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (86%) had better coverage than for E. coli. K. pneumoniae showed less susceptibility to nitrofurantoin than E. coli (20% vs. 92%). CONCLUSION: Antibiotic resistance among P. aeruginosa and E. coli did not change overtime (2013-2018) and the rate of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae was high. Thus, continued surveillance is needed.

19.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(5): 827-829, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037200

RESUMEN

Rapid tests to diagnose tuberculosis relies on molecular detection of the M. tuberculosis. GeneXpert MTB/RIF test identifies M. tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. We present a case of simultaneous coinfection with M. tuberculosis and M. avium. M. tuberculosis was detected in the sputum by PCR GeneXpert method. Unrecognized coexistence of M. tuberculosis and M. avium modified the results of drug susceptibility tests making the primary identification of M. tuberculosis as multi-drug resistant strain. We performed in vitro experiments to investigate the effect of the coexistence of M. avium with M. tuberculosis on the results of GeneXpert method, and drug susceptibility test.

20.
Infez Med ; 28(1): 3-5, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009128

RESUMEN

Pathogen transmission from a vertebrate animal to a human, also known as zoonotic spillover, represents a global public health burden, which while associated with multiple outbreaks, still remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Coronaviruses, like influenza viruses, circulate in nature in various animal species. Alpha-coronaviruses and beta-coronaviruses can infect mammals and gamma-coronaviruses and delta-coronaviruses tend to infect birds, but some of them can also be transmitted to mammals. Although still preliminary, current data suggest that bats are the most probable initial source of the current 2019 novel CoV (2019nCoV) outbreak, that begun on December 2019 in Wuhan, China, apparently spreading from a "wet market" to multiple cities and provinces in China. This epidemic of 2019nCoV, already reaching more than 6,000 cases to-day (end of January 2020) (>90% in China), will not be the last one linked to zoonotic spillover events.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Quirópteros , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral , Zoonosis , Animales , China/epidemiología , Quirópteros/virología , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Epidemias , Humanos , Mamíferos/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
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